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COLBURN'S 



UNITED SERVICE 



MAGAZINE, 






fiafeal aw* jfltilitatrg afoutrnal* 



1859. PART III. 



LONDON : 

HTJB8T AND BLACKETT, PUBLISHERS, 

(SUCCESSORS TO HENRY COLBURN,) 
18, GREAT* MARLBOROUGH STREET. 



•OLD BY ALL BOOVKLI.IM. 



;..;; I 



CONTENTS 



THIRD PART FOR 1859. 



Our National Defences.— Fortifications, or oir Army in the Field . 
Royal Naval Reserve .... 

General Bormann on the Shrapnel and Boxer Shells and Fuze . 
A German View of the Italian War. .... 

Comparative View of Sir John Burgoyne's Opinions, and of the 

Reports of Lieutenant-Genenu Macintosh on the Defence of 

Turkey ...... 

Firearms . 

The Peace Movement ... 

Peeps from the Loopholes of Retreat. By Retired Major Marks 

man ......* .63,240 

Campaign of 1848 in Lombardy .... 

Franco-Sardinian Alliances .... 

Desertion. — The True Method for Effectually Checking it. 
Legislation for India ..... 

Our Home Defences. With a few Words on our Militia, Yeo 

manry, and Volunteers .... 

Enquiries Touching the Ethnology of certain Tribes of Africans 

Interior to the Bight of Biafra. By Consul Thomas J. 

Hutchinson, F.R.G.S. . . 

Our Land Forces. England. — Second Line of Defence 
The Admiralty and Sir Howard Douglas's Screw Propeller, with 

diagram . ... 

Harbours of Refuge 
The Arts of Camp Life, (with Illustration). 

Alexander, K.C.L.S., 14th Regiment 
The British Navy During the Russian War. By Theseus, 

late R.N 

Captain Blakely and the Armstrong Gun . 

The War Office Committee and the Trevelyan Scheme 

Admiral Hope in the Peiho River . 

The Seikhs for China .... 

Manning the Navy ..... 

The Relative Strength of France and Germany 

Colonization of India .... 



182 
By Colonel Sir J. E 



1 

15 

23 

27, 207 



42 
51 
54 

382, 578 

71, 231 

86 

94 

102 



109 



115 
159 

177 
344, 596 

198 

218 

226 
248 
268 
271 
335 
336 
3f& 



VH1 



CONTENTS. 



'Hie Laxt Chinese War. From the Attack, Capture, and Occupa- 
tion of Canton, 1857, 1858-9, by the Allied Forces of 
England and France, to the Departure of the Plenipoten- 
tiaries . . . . . 371, 547 

The Foreign Troops of France ..... 389 

A Glance at our Chinese Policy ..... 397 

From Camp to Quarters ; or Life in an Indian Cantonment after 

Field Service ...... 401 

The Defences of Turkey ...... 413 

Russian Description of the River Amoor .... 416 

The First Anniversary of Balaklava. .... 428 

Some Account of Cannibalism and other atrocities in Western 

Africa. By Consul Thomas J. Hutchinson, F.B.G.S., &c. 439 

Defence of Great Yarmouth ..... 446 

Monument to the late Lord Francis Gordon. . . . 445 

The Militia Commission, the Ballot, and our Volunteer Corps . 483 

Reserve of lloyal Naval Volunteers .... 495 

The Army Medical Department ..... 507 

The Relative Strength of France and Germany . . . 521 
General Sir Howard Douglas on Fortification and National 

Defence ....... 527 

The Proper Strength of the British Navy. By Theseus, late R.N. 536 
The Defence of lurkey. — Sir John Burgoyne and General Mac- 
intosh ....... 547 

Ships and Gales, and the Simultaneous Observations of Wind and 

Weather 568 

Oflicial Account of the Siege of Sebastopol . . . 475 

The Launch of the Victoria ..... 585 

Campaign of 1 849 in Piedmont ..... 587 
Editor's Portfolio ; ob Naval and Military Register 1 19, 274s 446, 60S 



Critical Notices 
Notice to Correspondents 
General Correspondence 
Naval and Military Intelligence 
Distribution of the Bombay Army 
dlstrihution of the madras army 
distribution of the bengal army 
Stations of the British Army. 

— ■ Embodied Militia 

■ Royal Navy in Commission 

Indian Navy in Commission 

■ Bengal Naval Brigade 

Promotions and Appointments 
Militia Garette 



123, 277, 450, 607 

. 124, 608 

. 125, 279 

127,282,452,609 

135, 306, 462, 616 

136, 307, 463, 617 

618 

138, 309, 465, 621 

139,310,466,623 

140,311,467,623 

143,314,470,626 

143,314,479 

145,316,472,627 



148, 150, 151, 153, 157, 318, 320, 322, 323, 475, 478, 
479, 480, 481 
Deaths, ........ 158 

Brkvkt . 148, 150, 153, 155, 156, 157, 318, 319, 322, 323, 475, 477, 480 
Marriage ........ 482 




tURN'S 

UNITED SERVICE MAG 



zim 



UK NATIONAL DEFENCES,— FORTIFICATIONS, OH AN 
ARMY IN TILE FIELD. 

l>\ ; question of our national defences, after all that has boon said 

about them, has foi |i part been discussed in two 

and, generally th but little regard to the 

or the greatness of the resources of the country, rf in a 

lisi- the estimate of our national character. According 

tl,i* opinions of oue party, by far the most noisy, if not the most 

mmerooa and the most influential, it would seem as if we were 

{ the mercy of our enemies, or nearly bo, and that it ta only 

. to will and to do on the part of those we think likely io 

:essful in attempting an invasion. "While with 

i alt'airs, but who are rather 

is in ntost instances in Heir way of arguing, there is scarcely 

ble madness or folly equal to the idea of supposing it 

thai a foreign arniv could, under any circumstances, gst into 

at any rate, of its being allowed to exist for forty-eight 

there. There i hat contemptible excess 

.[■eater excess of very 

hi the other— stupid because there is no sufficient 

i to justify it. The alarmists have hud it 

\\ ;il! their own way for some time past, They have 

■ I the trumpet nf the national d bo foudly, they have 

' the prceariousnesa of our position to such gloomy col 

md have indicated our weak points with so much eeieiur 

tie 1 : tail, that the wonder is the enemy, who has had so 

tro red by having every probable mode of attack dis- 

>f him, and the assurance over and over again of our defencc- 

tsness, does not come on at once. The treachery of his disposition 

ed, he has been taunted and insulted with all the 

rirulence and perseverance the press ta capable of, the only thing we 

for him is that he is far more ready for war than we are. 

'■ ■ delaying about? Surely, if all, or even a ndr 

proportion of what ia said has any foundation in truth, there can 

be a more favourable moment for bis carrying out the 

him credit for iuteadiug than that which is now 

Our relative weakness and hia relative strength can never 

imli ban the;, Why on earth then 

means to do it ever, mid is the rinv.iH' r he is described to be, 

ill declare war and invade us forthwith? He might i 

i 1 reater advantage a year or two ago, when 'ire 
uid ilw Indian mutiny on our hands, hm having missed that oppOf< 
No. 370. B£rr., 1850. ii 



2 OUE XAH02TAL DEFENCES. [SEPT., 

tunity it would be far better for him, if he means it at all, to try it 
at once than to wait until we arc more prepared for him. Time is 
everything to us, it can be nothing, according to all accounts, to him. 
He is said to be ready, and the only readiness about us is to admit 
that we are just the reverse. We go into all the public places we 
can and declare it. It must be a matter of surprise also, if the fears 
of the alarmists are so great as they are expressed to be, that this 
party should be so content, as they apparently are, to see bo much 
relating to our defences done in so bungling and extravagant a 
manner as is so frequently the case, not only with regard to the 
army, but as regards the far more important service of the navy also. 
Powerful and influential as some of these people are, they might, 
surely, if they were to stir themselves, effect some improvement in 
this respect. Impressed as they seem to be, almost to despondency, 
with the bad state of the national defences, why don't they agitato 
to get rid of some of the incompetent hands that have to do with 
them. Above all, why don't they help to get for the country a 
fairer approach to the worth of the money laid out than is now the 
ease 'i They ought for their own sakes, and the fears that haunt 
them, to establish a more equitable ratio in the progress of the 
national security, and the annually increasing estimates which are 
voted for the purpose. The latter are double and quadruple to what 
we have had them in previous years, if we go back a little, but some- 
how or other the cry is still for more, and tho worst of it is that even 
as the estimates mount up, the ships, and the men, and the fortifica- 
tions, all the tilings we are so anxiously craving for, seem to be quite 
as deficient for all intents and purposes as ever they were. Thero are 
indeed strong and reasonable doubts, amongst many well-informed per- 
sons, whether what we are obtaining now in some of these respects is 
as good or as suitable as what we used to get for less money formerly. 
There is more than enough to justify these doubts with regard to 
the men, whether sailors or soldiers, and as to the fortifications, 
especially the coast batteries, if they como under that term, which 
Intter we have been constructing at the rate of from one thousand to 
two thousand pounds a gun, the less said about them the better. They 
have been graphically and accurately described, at least in one in- 
stance, as a " disgrace to the science of engineering." 

As commissions are so much the fashion that nothing can be done 
without them, a commission to inquire into the value of the batteries 
and defences we have been erecting for some years past, if the re- 
sponsibility of their glaring defects could by any possibility bo 
visited on any one, might be productive of a great ileal of useful eco- 
nomy in future. There is one consideration connected with tho 
armaments which are called for which has hardly attracted the 
notice which it deserves, aud that is what we intend to do with 
them, suppose no enemy attacks us, when we have got Uiein all 
ready ? When even Lord Lyndhuri-t and Nir Charles Xapier enu 
sleep with a feeling of security, and when we are realh quite up to 
the mark, and able not only to hold our own but, perhaps, as a 
majority of us may think, to do something more, aud when we find 
ourselves expending some 30 or 10 millions annually with a system 
we can't let down without throwing it out of sear altogether, what is 



node 
thin 



it nil m eema to i ben ! A ro we, when fully armed and prepared, no 
longer dreading invasion, but feeling ourselves a match for any one 
under auy circumstances, are wo to be satisfied with the purely de- 
we hear so much about now ? "Will the country be so 
very Chmtianlike and forgiving as to forget the threatening state of 
\ hifh will have driven it into such expensive security, and be 
tent to remain there ? Are we, with the income tax and a crowd 
•■ taxes, keeping us in a lively state of irritation, likely to be 
k, when OLiee we have arrived at a state of readiness for what- 
ever may happen (that ia to Bay if we are ever likely to arrive at it under 
as to reat satisfied with a mere passive result, 
■ inue year after year a heavy expenditure for the purpose, 
of maintaining it ? May we not wish to put an end to such a dis- 
•ide and unsatisfactory atatc of things by turning to active 
» our disposal ? Is there anything treasonable 
nal character or opposed to our history iu the pa3t in cn- 
ueh a supposition ? It ia not in the nature of m 
to be prepared for war and to keep the peace for any long 
tinuance. We boast ourselves to be a practical people, but there 
would be very little that is practical in maintaining and paying for 
nuamente without making some use of them other than that 
nag them merely ns a means to save us from being molested. 
not> under such circumatances, be inclined to be a little 
The inducement to be so would be greater at all events 
are armed at all points than when we have some gaping 
1W9 in our armour, as at the present moment. It must be plain 
to the commonest understanding that what ia now passing in the 
rivalry of national armaments between this country and its nearest 
ir, can have no other result if it goes on unchecked much 
r I 'nt in a war. We must endeavour, therefore, to put a stop to 
inducing the Emperor of the French to give up hia well-ordered 
nil to take up a bad one like our own, or adopt a better ono 
aunelrc 8 i f we can ; or, failing this, we must look sooner or later for an 
ial of strength between the two countries, and set our- 
selves to the task of preparing for it with all the earnestness which 
the greatness and importance of such a struggle require. The time 
must come when the people of one or both countries will be sick of 
peace at a war price. Their antagonism to each other will go on in- 
creasing, for it will be fed by the most irritating attacks of the press 
on bi , and fei -lings and jealousies, the seeds of which are 

uplanted.will show themselves with a mn«mr which will only 
ore intense the longer the cause of them is kept open. 
Better to prep jbt it out at once, the sooner the better, than 

r years at each other with that result after all. We 
ause we think our neighbour* more ready 
bill lei 1 1n- balance in this respect become, an we 
"I deal in Mm' favour- let the invasion fever be 
i powerful fleet and something more than 
shore, and run \w« assure mirm-hes that a good deal 
evocation to hostilities will tuA be whi- 
rl than we have, so faint leust. bad to covpUin 
- r n 2 



OUJl NATIONAL UEiK>LL;v 



i ^i: ii.. 



Our em mic* may nuatrust ds then, just as we mistrust them u«w, 
and it is plain that the race, aa the badness of our system and the 
goodnesa of our neighbour's forces us to conduct it, must sooner or 
later bring ra to blow*. Wc have not been very polite or forbearing 
oven when we have been discussing the matter with the odd*, a 
many of ua believe, against ua, how will it be with us when we ure 
differently situated, and bare e* fauey we have the odds in our 
favour? Will our disposition to ibuee and • itTensiveneHs become 
less as our insecurity diminishes? It is the great defect of our 
Hystem that we can never be safe with it with moderate establish, 
meats, for it is not one that can be placed on a war footing without 
a considerable time to prepare, and that is just what a judicious 
enemy will never allow us to have. AW mutit always be in the in 
expensive state of rcadineas, or we can never be ready at all. It I* 
impossible to pursue a more objoi ttitmabls course also than that of 
discussing through the press, and in the most public manner, every- 
thing that relates to our military establishments and the dil 
vve may have to contend with regarding then, There is *iill less 
sense in letting our military policy appear to bo in the least dt> 
IHinlriit, however it may actually be so, on she character of 
any foreign potentate, or even upon the armaments which 
may ohoaee to keep up. We have a ri^ht to have a jndgmetr! 
our own in such matters, imd it would M in advantage it" we kept 

our own counsel more than we do about them. Kutv i knows 

bow these things are Influenced, and lls« Foi I •■■ 

loudly pn if. ItwouMbeoa well to leave them entirely 

in the hands of tb> meat. It ia Boar celj poeatble to be! 

that there would be any party in power reel less or stupid i none h i ■ 
neglect a subject of such vital importance ae the security of" 
country, nor is i i i ,r, ifthuelefl to their own pq 

sponsibility and ii' things would be don 

blundering anil extravagant a manner aa fcboj are now. It ia the 

i-.il result of the way in which we act and the system we nu 
tarn that the danger of war should be perpetual. At one time u 
proceeds from the low scale to which everything a allowed to drop, 
and which we are naturally alnrmed at when we iind it out. By and 
bye it may proceed from the very opposite cause. We arc ahvnv* 
in extremes. We must either be iu a position which tends to i 
us arrogant, or in one of such abject weakness as to invite attack. 
"What a miserable contrast in our organisation do we nut p r c e cn t at 
the present moment to the power we think likely to assail us. It is 
almost pitliible to contemplate it. The latter is virtually unable, 
however desirous she might be, to come down In the level which 
might relieve us of our feara. Her system is so admirable, according 
to those acquainted with it, that if she threw half her Heet (the 
strength of which alone affects us in the least) out of commission 
to-morrow, it would be nothing to justify our following a propor- 
tionate example. She could call it again into existence in a month, 
Whereas we could not arm even n single ship in six times the pea 
What is the use of striving to contend with such a system as « 
ag;e is. One might just as well set a baby 

If Franco or th 






5pb National mottoes, 



bent upon attacking us, and if it h the well-considered opinion of 
our rub'i tlie ruse, we must apply all our energies in 

some way or other to meet the organisation, formidable m it is, 
whk OB the part of our expected enemy by something of 

*he mAb kind, equally as effective on our side. It is a palpable 
.rditv to talk of fortifications here, there, and everywhere, or of 
so niiinv lino-of- battle ships to he built, unless we can iu some ready 
manner know where to lay our hands on the men to man them. 
Half our danger is that we may be attacked suddenly and when we 
are ofi" our guard. 

It is not in the inert material that we are at all deficient, we have 
enough and to spore of it, but it is the system which will give us 
men, men of t lie Eight stamp, far more freely and readdy than we can 
obtain tliein, and without whom all other meaUH are unavailable 
and useless, that is our real want. If wo can only establish a system, 
•i be no insurmountable difficulty to doing so, by which 
we ran obtain men, everything else will be forthcoming abundantly 
enough. Until we can devise and adopt some plan which will give 
us sailors and soldiers in more adequate proportion to the need we 
at any time have for them, and so organised and disciplined 
that they can he turned to aeoount at the shortest notice, it is put- 
fche cart before the horse to discuss other measure?, no matter 
* thoy may be, for putting our national defences on a proper 
We moat endeavour, moreover, to lead the country at large 
if {lie common impression that the army and navy are but 
I'orary ini In he dispensed with some day or other, aa 

^at inn advances. They miiat be looked upon aa those which it 
ible at all times to maintain in tho utmost possible 
■ of efficiency, and for which many sacrifices must be made. 
■ can approach, or, rather, until we can stand on something 
equal terms with other a in their military institutions, 

cannot reasonably expect to be as strong or as secure as we 
ought to he, or to make the progress we are desirous of attaining, 
igencies may threaten aa. The class of the 
lulation on whom we have so long been entirely dependent for 
a, have not only advanced so much in the enjoyment of comforts 
cfa diminish the inducement to enlist, but they begin to under- 
: I thfir own value better than they did. Every day tho bidding 
their services goes higher, while every increase thus made only 
- orer the difficulty for a time, to augment it on some future 
me other form. There are not many ablc*bodied 
be rannot earn on an average at least their 
a week, or they can emigrate and seek their 
fortune wherever their fancy leada them, It is idle to expect these 
nun forward in aumcient numbers for the army, when their 

al pay is bo much Leu than they receive elsewhere, although tho 
difference may he made up a good deal in other ways, and where 
1 to an irksome discipline, with the certainty, be- 
sides, of being banished from home and friends for the best part of 
then wretched and unhealthy climates, knowing, moreover, 

aa they taust do by this time, that the soldier'B calling, even apart 
from the proper risks of his profession, is more fatal than any other 



ors TTATTONAL &WPKSTTE8 



[Sept., 



to the longevity of human lift?. It inapt he evident that the more 
reckless and worthless part of the community ean alone be 
got on such terms, and even these won t sell themselves now 
as cheaply, or come forward as freely, as they once did. The 
badness of the bargain is too evident even for such as these 
to he attracted by it. They only accept the bounty and thou 
desert. These are not times in which voluntary enlistn 
meet the wants of the serrieo in men, or anything like it. I 
everything else that has been a long time in wear, it is begriming to 
wear out. If It maintains under certain encouragement the strength 
or the army in India, and the colonies, with the "hare reiki'* required, 
it is the utmost we can possibly expect from it, and mure, perhaps, 
than it will long continue to afford cm. To look to it for OUT home 
defences as well, is to rest upon a broken reed j it can never 
supply both, Jind to attempt to make it do so we imist bid with the 
one hand against the other. Tin/ fenny required to meet or prevent 
an invasion must be obtained on very different principles n 1' 

:re nrdiiuvriU accustomed to. We cannot hope to be prep:i 
tD contend successfully, and at any short notice, against the pos- 
sibility of such a calamity w ithout making some unpleusc ■'(•*e». 
Free institution* an- not to be contemned, but if the country is 
brought under foreign domination by a too sentimental or over- 
strained regard for them, what are" they worth? The first step ti- 
the formation of any useful or efficient military system, defensive or 
otherwise, mu^t depend on our taking n different view ot this matter 
to what we have been in the habit of doing. H 1||1|v;l he placed 
before the mind of every man in the country in some way i 
that his fir,st duty is to defend it, and that in the perfbnoaBO 
duty he is not in the least entitled to the enjoyment of a will of his 
own. There is no possible way in which the thing eaa be done n 
an efficient manner but by the conscription or the ballot (ihey are 

'juynious terms), applied with the most rigid impartiality 
class andeallingm the United Kingdom. Such a measure would soon 

become bearable and popular enough if it was instituted as it ght to 

be, with the most perfect fairness to every one. We Way rest assured 
that nothing but this will aid us materially or satisfactorily, and so 

; as we are determined to evade it there will only be these make- 
shift measures left to us, of which we are seeing the foolish and 
extravagant consequences every day. When it i* a 
question whether we can assemble 30,000 men for the defence 
England, with nothing to look to bnt the slow process of voluntary 
enlistment for men, we have a crowd of pamphlets, essays in mnga- 
zincs, and articles in the newspaper press, described in altiv 
instance as able productions, in which fortifications are advocated 
upon the most extensive and es tt scale, as if fertSfioat 

without men to man them <■■ •. The basin of a Mntttd 

military defence of the country, with those who advocate these nume- 
rous works, would oecim to be little else but bricks and mortar. It 
is true th ..■ ought to hai mid it no! 

to know exactly how we are to get thcui before die 
about fortifications to put them into f If these writers would advo* 
cate the ballot for the formation of an army to act within the 






Or II KATIO'AI, hEl I 







limits of the United Kingdom, and leave all mention of fortifi cat ions 
would be doing far more service. The defence pf ttie 
inld be more cheaply and infinitely batter cared for by a 
roue and well-appointed army in the field, taken Epwb cwry 
■ilatinn. if by any turn of fortune our fleet failed ua, 
by any other means ; nor is it either becoming or necessary to 
m« that Mm fait way of employing it would be behind stone 
WBUB. Under any circumstances we ;u*e not in a state now to trouble 
ourselves much oh theBubjoct of fortification.?, and the time is distant 
indeed when we need bestow the slightest regard upon the liuge 
works recommended for the defence of London and nth.'r places, tin 1 
eofafertictiojB ofw^iich would swallow up alrooat aa many men 
enemy could send over. There is surely no sensible person, i\ it 
nervM and wit,-* about him, who would desire to 
such a i this ; we hive already hail more to d limit 

the works at Alderiiey and other placea are an 
unpleasant proof ot We must never admit for a moment that thin 
yean be the scene of prolonged hoetilitiea, but if we set te 
rk const met in j, fortresses we nt oaeedoso oat <m. in- 

Whatever we do we must take our accouni to 
, and it will not be much if we aft only ti 
nd adopt these measures, to give us, as promptly . 

tmtrics, disciplined and organised men when we 
< onsidering the advantages of our j 

f» get them tbnn any other people. 1 1' uilh 
ition and resources, and tvo always 

tit for, wi* eannot submit to the ballot to » 

indeed a gloomy one. It is hard to sec how we 
\r difficulties. We ean certainly never look 
d to the luxury of a peace establishment with any degree 
Sot to have it we must be in the sauii londitiott thai 

haa occasioned all out panics of the la&t few years. The recommen- 
dations to build up fortifications as any remedy against the ev^la we 
re labouring under, is one which, we earnestly hope, will never be 
tteud< ! to. It is not in such counsels that our safety is to be found, 
ter to seek it in the organisation of e reasonable 
! he population, drawn annually by the ballot and trained as 
litis is now trained. We would drop this latter design 
is a kind of licence for certain abuses, and a certain amoi 

divide these men into first, second, and third war 

wording as they are more or less advanced in instruction. 

ifl incompatible, strange to say, with our free institutions to 

I his nature, all wc ean hope for is that the day may 

en we shall have to put up with something infinitely 

i of what i* forced upon us by the present state 

have a defence committee at the Horse Guards, and a 

the defences lal f there 

i of too many cooks we arc progressing' 

lung in a precious mesa by-nntf-bye, The 

iad the right men iu the right places 

aire, might have been promptly decided without 






8 orn xatioxai, uetexcf.s. ["Sept., 

any commission at all ; those proposed and those we have already 
would absorb at the least 150,000 men. andbe imperfectly mannedafter 
all. With the utmost appreciation of the value ofwhat we have at stake 
are we fallen so low in our own estimation that we cannot feel even 
tolerably easy in our minds until Ave have strong placeB for this 
army of Englishmen to fly to, contending against an enemy on their 
own ground, and for everything that is dear to them. To imply such 
a thing is to admit that we are half defeated even before the strife 
has begun. "We are not arguing for any silly confidence, or under 
any stupid impression that one Englishman is equal to two or more 
foreigners ; what we submit is, that whenever we can get 150,000 
men in England, reasonably well trained and organized, the very 
worst possible use we can make of them will be to put them into 
fortifications. If they are untrained and unorganized they will be 
of very little use anywhere. Let us only have 150,000 men, as we 
may with the most perfect ease, and but a very moderate amount of 
inconvenience to the country, and there will be no reason to mist runt 
our prospects, though we have not an engineering Btone wall or ditch 
in all England to shelter us. Thrown into a somewhat undignified 
state of alarm by our fears, we are apt to imagine an invasion a far 
more easy aflairthan a little calm reflection ought to convince us is 
the case. An invading force, under the best of circumstances, must 
■have many difficulties to contend against; it would be foolish to 
exaggerate them, but we question whether it is not quite as great 
folly to make too light of them. Until we can estimate them at 
their true value very little can be done in a satisfactory manner in 
deciding upon the amount of force we ought to have. Js the chan- 
nel to be perfectly free for an enemy to come and go just as they 
please, and as the" route from France" and England was to the Crimea 
in the Russian war ? This is the utmost extreme of the case we have to 
provide against. It is the very best for them and the very worst for 
us. Can we possibly hope to contend against it by voluntary enlist- 
ment, or by any amount of volunteers hastily collected, without 
organization and without discipline ? No commonly prudent person 
would like to try it. If our navy is not utterly annihilated, or closely 
blockaded in all its ports, Ave hold that the conveyance of 200,000 
men, Avith all, or even a fair proportion, in the first instance, of their 
artillery, stores, and material, could not be attempted without some 
serious casualties. Supposing the original strength to be at 200,000, 
we doubt, alloAving almost everything in their favour, if more than 
120.000 would ever make a day's march from their ships. An inva- 
sion Avould probably never be attempted with a less number than 
this, and it is hardly reasonable to think of making a provision for 
anything much exceeding it. 150,000 men, or 200.000 men on our 
part at the utmost, would make everything amply secure. If the dan- 
ger is at all imminent, we ought at once to put that number into train- 
ing and as they become instructed, if we remain at peace, dismiss them 
to their homes, until we work down gradually to a peace establish- 
ment. If the calling out of bo many men at once would be apt to 
invoke us in the war we wish to avoid, and which we are just now 
Bo little prepared for, we ought to disband the present efficient regi- 






orn xvri.is w. dxhesow, 



its of militia, and embody ot I iers in their ulacei,. proceeding, in 
t lii.^ way until we have a w*r eBtAbliBtnient of trained men in the 
aouxitry, on whom we could In y our hands in a moment when they 
were required, and wbo would cost little op nothing iu their disem- 
bodied state; that i& to say, if anything with us can be made not to 
more money than it ought to do. 
Reverting aj;:iiu lo the question of fortifications, the utmost extent 
to , which we would go in such works is the security from anything 
"ike a " roup de main" of our principal and more exposed docky;i' 
JnJass ao invasion is shown to be utterly visionary and impossible 
this 13 n point which should uot be neglected. Essential as it is, 
however, it would be difficult to urge it at the present moment m 
the face of the want of men, and Hie absence of any effective means 
if obtaining them. 
If all tliat has been openly stated as to the extreme weakness of 
home defence is true, and there is very little reason 
wi- fear fur doubting it, the fortifications we have already would far 
in absorb every soldier we are possessed of, What folly 
not be then, under such a state of things as this, to have 
nr ears the necessity for spending millions in the con- 
ntraction of more works, To be told, nawe are, in a work recently 
published by a distinguished officer, that wc ought to fortify Wool- 
vi icfa, Chatham, Sheerness, DoTer, Portsmouth, and Plymouth, 
uitb moderate defences, but by a series of " detached works, at 
ibouL one mile distant from each other, of masonry ; and each 
'k of B»eo strength ia to require a, regular attack, supported by 
he;tvv ordnance for its reduction/ 1 A more preposterously abaurd 
>n was never made, anything more exaggerated as to what 
require could hardly be conceived by the most timid imagination, 
-rown it all, no less than --10,000 men, local militia, and volun- 
down as the necessary garrison 5 and, besides, there are 
to be 50,000 regular troops and 50,000 embodied militia — one's 
breath in almost lakeu away in enumerating them all, and this ia to 
be considered the permanent force, "even in times of complete 
375 100 men nro Bet down altogether for the United 
gd< in, independent of the pensioners, Eoyal Marines who bap- 
bore, dockyard corps, and 12,000 Irish constabulary, 
told off for the defence of London, and 120,000 
Hi' live other places, the force for the field being 100,000 
11I how many the invaders are supposed to be, 
iu> mention is made of their exceeding 100,000 ; one would 
bem tn be half a million at the least by the preparation de- 
■d necessary even for tin* mere expectation of their coming, the 
heir effecting a landing being, according to the same 
ninety to ten, though bow these odds are calculated we can- 
ine further extracts will show the disparaging tone 1<> 
h the subject is handled. Taking our force as 
a quote from the same author, he says ; — " If the eneui\*s 
1 ■' ras anything under 100.000, the d0,000 regular troops and 

00 embodied militia assembled around Loudon, or between Lon- 

1 uu the point of disembarkation, should be launched against the in- 



10 oira HATioiri.1 defences. [Sept., 

vading force with all the rapidity that could be obtained by the assist- 
ance of railways, and other meaus of conveyance, leaving it to the skill 
of the commander of that force to use it against the enemy in the 
way in which he thought most expedient. But should the invading 
force amount to upwards of 100,000 men, the opposing force should 
be advanced with caution, and only to such known position of 
strength as gave it a decided advantage." With 240,000 men and 
fortifications besides, these arc the kind of tactics recommended by 
a general officer against a 100,000 invaders, more or less. If the 
enemy should happen to be 90,000 strong we are to go headlong 
at him with our 100,000. If he happens to exceed us in numerical 
strength, no matter how trifling the disparity may be, our 100,000 
are to pursue a Fabian course, they are to make for some position 
of known strength, and there wait the attack. We venture to wiy, 
that in deciding on an action on our own ground, especially with bo 
much at stake as we should have, there should be no headlong pro- 
ceeding of any kind ; whether tho enemy was 100,000 strong or only 
60,000, no proper precaution should be neglected. He should bcas- 
sailed with the utmost energy and determination, and with the 
utmost care also. There is no maxim in war requiring more to be 
remembered than that of never despising your enemy. As to leaving 
it to the skill of the commander of the force to use it against the 
*nemy in the way ho thought most expedient, wo should like to 
know who could possibly think of interfering with him at such a 
moment. It would be rather difficult, however, to appreciate the 
skill of a commander, who could act as recommended, who could 
shut up 240,000 men, even though imperfectly organized and 1 rained, 
and keep only 100,000 men in the field, in dealing with an invading 
army or just tho latter strength and no more. Surely the 2 10,000 
men massed together and handled with any skilfulnesB ought to make 
victory tolerably sure. If that is denied, we fear the fortifications 
would be of very little use to us. The worst of it is, according to 
the alarmist view of the case, things always go against us. We never 
see the back of the enemy from the time he lands until the time 
he chooses to go away loaded with pillage. Even after the two sup- 
positions we have just mentioned have been made — whether the 
enemy is stronger than we are, and we approach him with caution, 
for it would be a "vast error" it is said, under certain circum- 
stances, to expose an inferior force to the first great effort of a 
superior enemy, or whether he is inferior to us, and we get 
into contact with him as fast as steam or anything else can 
convey us, the result is the same — we find him after all still ad- 
vancing, nothing can stop him until he comes within sight of those 
detached forts, one mile apart, in the vicinity of London, built of 
masonry, and requiring regular attacks supported by heavy ordnance 
for their reduction. Then and not till then he pulls up. Tho 
100,000 regulars and militia are nothing to him in the field, he is 
made to march over them, or through, it is not stated which, but 
the 120,000 of indifferent material manning the works about London 
bring him to bay at once. It is not clear what he docs, embarrassed 
M he must be by so much masonry, and such artful engineering, 






OtTE NATIONAL BEFEKCES, 



11 



rhether lie continue* day after day. ami month after month, 

knock his head against it until then; is fiually nothing of him left, 

ind the gw i il triumphant in tin: TO it» glorioua 

whether be goes back at once by the way he came, 

Eoking up such scraps of consolation as some of our large proviB- 

;md the wealth of the country generally, may afford him, 

t not told to us. All we know is, that the fortified dockyards arc 

;en r and that London is not sacked. Everything else may be 

hands of the enemy, but these are safe. So that after all the 

insurance which is estimated for all our wealth only secures 

portion of it. *Wc wish to be safe from invasion, but the utmost 

re can do it eee-my, erea when the whole country is bristling with 

sed men and we have built all the fortifications recommended fur 

s. ia to keep I i of England iniact, and our naval stores 

rem being burnt. "We cannot believe that so insensate- a scheme 

huge fortifications will ever he entertained. It 

anything hut assuring or pleasant, however, to see the 

inrar it has received from the public. The position are 

adeavour to arrive at ia that of possessing a good 
if latent strength. The less display we make in ordinary times the 
Sfcter. The actual existence of large armaments tend to promote 
i-. If we wish to preserve peace by being prepared for war, 
is the golden rule after all, the way to di> it is to establish 
liiHi in time will a rl m H nf 200.000 or 300,000 men, 
already accustomed to training and discipline, being promptly em- 
bodied, and who, coming at once under a stringent military code, on 
the declaration of hostilities would giro na the most ample security. 
Is quite in v iin to look for anything that will do this in a purely 
tntary system. We may strain a,ftcr it how we may by the 
demoralizing system of excessive bounties, but the failure ia certain. 
A certain amount of coercion, if we may use the term, must be put 
in force. Men who would never become soldiers of their own tree 
will will serve cheerfully ond contentedly enough when once they 
find they can't help it, and that fortune has made them what they 
1 d never have thought of becoming otherwise. We may ilatter onr- 
pOb the different principles on which onr army is kept up as 
>;t;ircd with continental nations ; but the difference is not much 
to be proud of if it allows of audi panics as wo are continually 
foiling into. The system we have, and which we seem bo anxious 
to keep a pity, can never lead to a satisfactory result, \vV 

tried it long and often enough, and we ought to know its fruits. 
If we really intend to have things Improved we swat come down 
i the stilts on which we are continually walking in comparing 
ourselves with other pi il proceed in the same practical way 

ftiuii, or , like ii, is net to be 

h to Englishmen, their i ven fur their own 

hearths and homes is to be done by a class, by the poor and needy 
who can be tempted by bounties, or the reckless whu arc ready to 
sell i -; let the means of a few days' drun' ad i'issi- 

w hat we are si del v dependent u] meana. of 

national defence. People may wcll'be in a fright when the; 



11 



WTtOSAL DKrBN'i'F.s. 



[Sept.. 



to think uf it, and know how different it is with those we expect to 
assail ue. It is nscle-H !u dtHL-iiBH the imp roveinent of our army so 
long as it is Maintained on (lie purely sordid principle winch we 
!\ liv the name of voluntary enlistment, The men we gist must, 
iini'i either enlist or starve, or they have taken tu a Hiiill 

worse alternative, and adapt the British uniform by way of chai 

i-ibly aa a hope of escape from punishment for their misdeeds. 
tt is well known that few men of respectable characters and doing 
at all well in oivil life ever join, the army. The profession u on!) 
taken up && a last resource. "Willi the great mass of it, 
recruited aa ii is, who but the dregs of the population will 
think of joining it? Instead of rising in the scale the recruits *e 
obtain are every day becoming worse and worse, As our necee* 
nitica press upon as the standard of physical qualities goo lower ami 
r, and as to previous habits, eunduct, or character in a recruit, 
no questions are ever asked! It is extraordinary the light in 
which we allow ourselves to view these natters, taking prido 
for things as a free people which we ought in reality to he ashamed 
nf. We deceive ourselves, and imagine what tin -t.-t of the 

ease do not justify. AW praise up voluntary enlistment, aid flourish 
it in the face of foreign countries as something infinitely beyond 
them ; but it i«, in fact, nothing better than trading for soldiers on 
the necessities of thoaewbo can't well help themielvee. If we visaed 
to exhihit our inconsistency in i jest light, we oould not do 

it more effectually than in the way wo act on this subject. AWpro- 
fesa a great deal about the army, but \sc rigidly couline ourselves, 
and boast of our doing BO> aa if it was a virtue, to recruiting it exclu- 
sively by means which, although there may be exceptions uud« r |( , 
can only admit the lowest of the lower classes. If we would only 
turn our backs upon cant and hypocrisy, and sic Some of our insti- 
tutions as they really are, and aa this one of voluntary enlistment is, 
we might form a truer estimate of our condition, and heal 
about adopting the proper remedy. AW were accustomed to the ballot 
in I. >niior years, or rather pur fathers were, and ; uld only ad 

it now, under a strictly impartial enforcement of it, with a freedom 
in purchase substitutes, there is uo limit scarcely to the num- 
ber of men we might, with a judicious system, train and organise. 
We venture to say that doing this would not press one half bo 
heavily on the country as the taxation which is now kept up, and 
which must go on increasing for tho maintenance of that which, pay 
what we mav for it, can never satisfactorily girc us what we wast, 
J I' we would only adopt the ballot, the whole population of the 
Country, if we chose it. might be called out by relays, and an ai 
second to none in numbers and efficiency, would be at hand at all 
limes whenever we required it. AVe have no right to estimate the 
I arge armies of continental powers, obtained by conscription, as 
bit better than what we could obtain on our own plan, if we set about 
it. If there are constitutional difficulties in the way of doing our 
defences aa they ought to be done, and aa they can alone be done 
efficiently, or if we prefer a good deal of nonBenBe about free English- 
men, who needn't defend their country if they don't choose it, to the 






Olfi yAl'XOXAL DEFEJft/ES, 



to 






al security, there is vci'y little use in discussing the matter 

further ; we have made out choice, and there is nothing left lor those 

who don't like it but to screw up their nerves to bear it in the best 

they can. The ballot would effectually prevent desertion, for it 

would be the interest of every man to see that deserters were appre- 

led, It would be of much more consequence to the community 

al large than to the government to have them caught, With sui-h 

an institution, worked as It might be, and with a strong and highly 

effie of Held artillery, we might laugh at the alliance 01 all 

the despotic powers in the world. We would be Bafe at all points, 

for cveu though the command of the ehannel was lost to us, an in- 

ng army would think twice before it came over to meet the array 

we could launch against tt. There is no reason in the world why, with 

judit Hires out be subject, we should not have lcvieseqnal to any 

infantrv in the world, and if they were sufficiently numerous andsup- 

iperior force of artillery — the latter always maintained— 

to that of the enemy, surely the ehanecs of the lottery — for war islittlc 

else at the best— would be an vastly in our favour as any reasonable 

m '•'mill desire. Light field batteries, judiciously disposed po as 

to be abl< to concentrate rapidly on any assailed point, espcciallv with 

bhe A rmrtrong gun 3 would be the very best and most economical fnnr 

which to place a considerable portion of our reliance. A good 

Reieut force of this arm is the very best basis we can possibly 

i land defence. There is no originality claimed in urging it ; 

en mentioned over and over agaiu ; nevertheless, there is no 

rviee of which 'Mir military authorities are so generally 

I certainly none that is more habitually treated with 

lv, imd when not neglected altogether, with a meddling in- 

capa<it v ruinous to everything connected with it. Its senior officers, 

might be turned to the most valuable account, are 

her, and a taint, which at once affects 

seal and efficiency of the whole service, is communicated to it, 

null all "esprit ifr eorpg," moreover, those who attain 

to the rank of general are immediately stripped of the uniforms they 

bsre worn all their lives previously, mid which mark them as 

tilJery officers. There is, extraordinary as it may appear, no 

lend o Nicer of artillery who can be distinguished as such by his 

uniform, or in any other way, in the British army. An onlcr was 

fulminated from the Horse Guards, in id measured terms, on the 

Jrd of June, 1*57, because two general officers, believing they 

i the change of dress that took place about that time, 

appeared at a levee in blue tunica. They were told that there was 

• no deviation allowed in the dress of general officers of artillery 

front that established for general officers of the army at large," 

Those who make light of such matters know nothing of the fcelmga 

• if soldiers, or of that professional pride which animates zeal and 

I efficiency, Out of thirty-five officers of artillery in the 

rank of general there are only two At this moment in any active 

cut, cue entirely unconnected with the arm, and the other 

which docs no! give him much opportunity to advance 

ime thiu^ could not be said of the artillery 



14 OUtt RATIONAL IHBFEXCE8. [SBPT., 

service of any other country in the world, and we leave it to any 
unprejudiced person to judge what the result of it must be. It may 
drag through while the promotion is rapid for the junior ranks, but 
it is more than probable it will bring serious discredit on the ser- 
vice, and perhaps be the cause of no trifling disaster to the public 
interest some day or other. It is a question which we think it would 
puzzle tho Horse Guards to answer satisfactorily. If the 30,000 
officers and men, speaking in round numbers, of the lioyal Artillery, 
scattered all over the world, with the immense quantity of material 
of great intricacy of detail, in connection with them, can be looked 
after and cared for by a staff of but two regimental lieutenant- 
colonels and a eaptaiu, what necessity can there be for a number of 
the highest grades of general officers for the more Bimple details on 
the staff of tho rest of the army ? Captain Leicester Vernon has given 
notice of a motion relative to the staff of our army for next session. 
If it can be shown that our artillery can bo maintained in its efficiency, 
no general officer whatever being employed in connection with it, 
there is unquestionably room for \cry considerable reduction in the 
staff of the army, and the thirteen millions voted iu our estimates for 
military purposes willadmitof some better application than that which 
devotes only three and a-half millions of it to the pay of the soldier. 
There is something extraordinary, considering the anxiety displayed 
about our national defences, and the vast importance of artillery iu 
connexion with them, in tho way in which that arm is treated. Tho 
experience of its highest officers is set aside iu the moat systematic 
manner. It is governed more like a mercantile establishment than 
a military body. Fen and ink and a certain routine knowledge of 
detail are the highest qualities in connection with it. While the staff 
in absolutely a burlesque upon a staff in its meagreness, not a single 
appointment is left in connection with the service, in which the prin- 
ciple is recognised of its requiring to be governed by any practical 
professional knowledge. The command iu Ireland had been 
reduced to that of a colonel, and when the appointment of an 
Inspector-General of Artillery could no longer be resisted 
without risking an attack likely to prove fatal to that useless and 
unnecessary office in the guards, the infantry and tho cavalry, 
instead of selecting from amongst the rank of general officers, of 
whom there were several quite competent, it was bestowed on a 
regimental-colonel sixty-seven or sixty-eight years of age, and of 
whom it may be said, without wishing to speak disparagingly of him 
in the least, that there is scarcely one of those above him, over 
whom he has been preferred, who docs not possess equal if not 
superior talent and ability, professional and otherwise, or who, if 
tested on the score of bodily activity, would be found his inferior. 
As if to mako the appointment depressing to juniors as well as fo 
seniors, this officer is a colonel of horse artillery ; and, although he 
has had a new rank made for him, that of a " temporary general," 
(there is no end to novelties now-a-days) he retains the remunerative 
office of his inferior grader "We do not blame the party indicated 
in the least, nor his aid-de camp cither, who is also a pluralist. A 
good deal depends on these things. There are some who will. 






B0TAL tfAVAL HB3EUVK. 



15 



ape, condemn th> bing them, but those tri 

times win miters ; and the day m:ty <■■ 

.-.tire will ■ had listened to plain 

.'!!■: to be 

iriil>.r! and jobbed away in it* efficiency, for the - aese wko 

if they thought it would pleae to 
\Vo would earnestly recommend tit 

counsel and advice of Sir Robert Uardiuer, 
and kandhig and experience in nrtillorv 

tcrs, They will find the i of it not only iu certain 

1 in economy, and in ease and comfort to bbensefc 
patisfied by this time that they are only getting del 
ami deeper into tht- mire of confusion. Although it has boo 
of late years to cry up the greater employment 

tific matters relating to artillery, it can truly 

i England ever stood higher than the material 

lartmonfa for the construction of which watt 

verned by artillery officers. It was n pattern which 

• jdad to study and to follow. The organisation 

■ was the same, nnd is that, although we nave got rid 

of in many of the most essential points eiiste in tlio French 

tilery, nnd which they took from us. They find somehow or nth 

: principle thatthesiimo man will do for a gunner and driver in 

d batteries, and, it is to be doubted, if they rarist en the 

! n brigade of of 18 or 5i guns ia the . or 

that it cart bo treated like, n regimeul of infantry. The (ate Ocdouel 

id Captain Boxer, now it the head of the laboratory, 

ml inventions would hare gained him the vi-rv 

ction in any other country, show what artillery offii 

under the most thankless system. We submit thai ii 

would promote thai which the country is seeking after, if 

»i ie minor details were more rigidly and impartially 

1 to. 



NAVAL EESERVE. 

i the British Government have resolved to grapple with 

lionnl qiu stiou of n Royal Naval Re i rve, of making, in 
Lute for the universally admitted evil, impressment. The 
serve must be apparent, even to the least 
rnber of the community. This year the Royal X 
i dire the services of 100,000 men; oeit jear the i 

lie reduced to 50,000; and vte# versa, T the 

inximuin extent would nol onlj involve a i 

t of other countries. On I 
us to rely upon the minimum rve, 

in emergency 
use, and to guard against the c. ... 
h n war would give rise to. 



10 U01MI. NAVAL ltEiEltTL. >i.l'i 

Su long as the mercantile navy was exduaivelyMnauned by .!•• 
seamen, und privileges were accorded to British shipowners, which 
seemed to afford a. set- off for the* obligation they wire Under to 
train apprentices, and find sailors in time of need, ft* eaae was 
different. Free trade policy, however, demolished the* 
and the liability to furnish men for the navy, as a nahinil si 
also fell. But, prior to the abrogation of the navigation laws, 
plans for establishing a Naval Reserve were act on fts It. 

Sir Francis Baring took a favourable view of * I • - • «piea- 

lion, and in 1H52 obt :i i >■ sufficient to form 5,000 men ; bitt , 

at this rynnctttre, a eomtefttce for manning the oai . ppointtd 

by the Admiralty, to which the plan was referred. The committee, 
however, had, as the\ fl, hit upon an expedient, which * 

to operate as :i panacea for nil Hie evils ni' (lie service. Tbia expe- 
dient was the continuous service system ; the residuum obtained 
from ulitch, in die shape of short service, or ten year pension men, 
would, tin- committee i ttder any other reserve uncalled 

for. Itiaiusl possible that this might Ikivc proved a correct de- 
cision on their pari jbut, onfortunateK", the continuous service plan 
did led succeed with seamen generally, and the small roof it bad 
o wms t«>rn ujiln Sir Charles Wood m i857j in bis endeavours to 
reduce il, . • a peace establtshmi 

In the meanwhile, the number of British seamen in the merchant 
service continued to de ;oi war had had the effect 

of drawing foreign seamen into the merchant Bhips, to supply the 
void ied by the withdrawn! of Ihi who entered the 

navy. Although the number did hot exceed 18,000, it had I 
e fleet of disp] rmaiiently so many of the best sailors^ and 

consequently of dl rishirjj I lie prospect ining a fttH supply 

iiu-n for the navy, from mi sny future 

The Maiming Commission in I k the: question u] 

much spirit, NumefOU'S wil ::iiitiiicd, and a variety 

points with re di.7ctis5.ed. The Ucgistntr-Geni 

seamen was examrnei I length, and expressed an opinion thai 

ii would ! o form a reserve of 80,000 men 

coasting and short foreign' voyage trade. Hi^ proj to paj 

these men at the rale of r. deduct] 1)0 applh 

pension fufcd, frojfi 'which ."at the age of 50 or 55,1 ro mai 

should be entitled to a pension of £13 or .i"J0 »-ye;o- 
to his widow. It wis supposed that these men would be able tr 
give up a sufficient portion of their time in the course of tl 
tor the purpose of training, and so become icicnt mci 

calculated to man shins of the royal navy in time of l 

Tlie arguments of the registrar appeared tocarrj much ■ 
one of the Bdyal Commissioners, Mr. Cardwell, no doubt 
to some extent by them, submitted a scheme upon which the n 
mendatiom of the commission appeared ultimately been 

based. Returns of the number of men engaged in the Baltic, North 
American, and Mediterranean v ■ <\ from i 

ding masters), and from thi 
thait lluri; thousand mighl readih be old 



1856/ 



U01AL NAVAL iu;*£bvi;. 



17 



tain conditio ui. These men, it was believed, might be induced to 
join the reserve by the concession of the following privileges : — 

fl. A badge or title of honour, u belonging to the Queen's 
2, in annual payment, or retaining fee, 
X, Pension at the aye of «X). 
k. Payment for time spent in practice, 
5 Participation in the benefits of Greenwich lluapital. 
It was anticipated that a number of men under the denomination of 
Aquatics might also be induced by these terms to joiu this reserve. 
L'pon this basis the present Government appeal- to have built 
their superstructure. A bill, prepared by parties very iueorapetent 
to the difficult task, was recently submitted to Parliament, but it 
was so vague and imperfect that it was found necessary to pass an Act 
which should empower the Admiralty to raise 3G,0OQ men as a re* 
serve, and to frame the regulations tor carrying it into force. The 
Act, in point of fact, is very nearly a carte bfancke, which the Ad- 
miralty, by and with the ad\ ice of the shipping authorities of the 
Hoard of Trade, may till in as needful. It gives power to raise the 
men, fixes the periods of service, determines the extent of training, 

Paud the mode of calling out the reserve by Act of Parliament or 
K>>yal Proclamation. The retaining fee is left blank, thereby ena- 
bling the Admiralty to make it five or ten pounds, or any intermt- 
te sum, according to circumstances. So also with respect to tin 
amount of pension, and the age at which it is to be payable, which 
points will be determinable by the regulations to be adopted. 

ii, in brief, is an outline of the scheme for supplying one of the 
greatest wants now known. If it were necessary to double the army 
the machinery is so good with respect to recruiting, bounties, pen- 
sioner ecirps, and militia, that the difficulty would be inconsiderable ; 
ami a soldier, it must he remembered, is made much more quickly 
i a Bailor. The gay dresses, music, and excitement accompanying 
n are sure to bring forward a good supply of rceruits ; but all 
auxiliaries are wanting in the navy. On the contrary, strange 
are bandied about from father to son, and froui brother to 
brother, about a sea life. The effect produced is not unaccompanied 
by a presentiment of danger, and a feeling of distaste. Ana then 
every low class paper tells horrible stories about " the cat." These 
stories are particularly rife in mercantile sea ports, where it is the 
interest of crimps and watermen to combine in running down the 
navy. All these drawbacks must be overcome before the navy guius 
a proper hold upon the masses. 

f here w:is a time when cupidity was aroused by the chink and 

profusion of gold. But fried watches and devoured bank 

tea are no longer beard of, and the uian-of>war sailor returns borne 

at i Lit intervals, with none of that total about him which 

1 blue jacket envied. True, there are medals galore; 

of silver, hanging to discoloured ribbons, may be seen 

-liii: v often upon a thread-bare jacket ; and when it is known 

re all the warrior has obtained for his hard battles— 

generally not underrated — thev excite no feeling of emulation in the 

V. S, Mag., No. 370, Sin "1859, o 




16 



HOTAL HA-VAL BZSEETE* 



fSEKT., 



beholder. An account showing the receipt and expenditure of naval 
pruie, bounty, salvage, and other monies, between the 1st of A[ 
1857, and 81st March, 1858, printed by order of the House of Com- 
mons, in July, 1858, nnd comprising a statement of captures madt 
under the Kusaiau prize act, maltes some very damaging disclose 
It shows that between June, 1854, when the first Russian prize ws 
captured by the Tribune, to the 30th November, 185.', when hostili- 
ties virtually terminated, tin; total amount of captures dmsiblt 
among the crews of the Baltic, and Black Sea, ami Pacific squadrons 
— divisible among some thirty or J arty thoi rseni — was onlv 

at the rate of about a pound a-bead. Tiie Has disbursed to the ad 
niirals, captains, officers, and crews, amounted, in the whole con 
of the win*, to no more than J£35,338 18s. 3d., and when it is bofttO 
iu mind that the lion's share of prize money does not fall to the lot 
of the foremast man, this fact shows that if n calculation im m 
of the sums actually distributed among the sailors who risked life, 
health, nnd limb, nnd did incredible mischief to their outward man, 
" fur tMliittg*" would be its highest averse 

The few prizes captured were principally in the Baltic, the men 
employed in the Black .Sea and many in the Sea of A?.ofT did not get 
a Birpeuce. 

In previous minor wars, as that in Syria and China, something 
in the way of bonus, where no prize-money was obtained, was gnu 
by Parliament; but in the case of the Hu»sianwar, not a penny was 
grunted, although the men had been nerving for little more than 
half the wages which were obtainable in the merchant wrvice. To 
make the matter worse, at the i j nd of the war whip were paid off 
rapidly, and men were turned adrift by thousands to starve in the 
streets. 

Later Btill, t lure liaa been a very sharp war in China: Canton, 
the strongest city in China, baa been captured, and numerous fleet* 
of war and piratical junks destroyed The- forts which guarded the 
ranee to the Pekiu river have been gallantly forced, lots of fine 
fellows have been Knocked down and placed horn dr rotnbot by fever 
and casualties, and many laid low by Chinese bullet*; and with 
what beneficial result to the gailoraP There is a sum under the 
bead of "booty money '* to be paid to thone who captured Canton. 
but. alas 1 for all the rest, they nave not a cowry in «i' 

Before the Admiralty can succeed in establishing a reserve, it is 
very necessary that the active service should be made as popular a* 
circumstances will admit of. 

A man-of-war, as a general rule, can inner ha\e charms for the 
working man. The honour and glory annexed to the service are 
reserved for the superior elates, and he, therefore, looks to it merely 
aa a labour mart, from which he derives a living. The ilass from 
whom the sailor is drawn think little < ism, and much of 

lucre- If they can once be impressed will 
lkctn clearly >r\ belbiv them, thai ,'.ugi 

•i>idei-ed, ia the best paid ;ilid r.. 
sway them. We do nut v ine tkftt 

poorer classes have no patriotic feeUngu. They arc j 
extent of their means and understanding, but when pa calli 



HOtU, JJAV.1L EES£BTE, 



10 



upon tliem to serre for lower wages than they can obtain elsewhere, 
they are apt to torn a deaf ear to the invitation. If a volunteer 
reserve is to be formed, therefore, the offers made M the " seafaring 
men, and others " must be tempting. 

The men aad the women too— for married men, particularly 
sailors, are very much influenced by the soft** sex — must be made 
to comprehend the advantages accruing from joining the reserve 
before they elect to join, or tho wives give their consent to their 
ids joining. A vast deal will consequently depend upon the 
itiona which are to accompany the promulgation of the Act ; 
should there be any niggard spirit about the terms, or any sus- 
picious of a trap, or should too much be demanded in return for the 
retaining fee, the project will assuredly fall aud expire under its 
own weight. More than that, its fall will be bo detrimental to tho 
cause, that no one lor many years to come will be bold enough to 
attempt another plan of the kind. 

We will now sKSal&e into the probable working of the " BfllatTB 
Volunteer Force of Seamen Act," The first question which will 
present itself to the mind of a young seaman, say in the Medi 
rancan trade, will be, * l What is the remuneration f" If that si 
him, be will go further into the matter, and ascertain, as well as 
he can, from a perusal of the documents set before hiin, what is 
expected from him iu return. Presuming that he thinks the pay 
and prospective work worthy his consideration, he will look to the 
extent of the obligation to serve, and perhaps to the pension, &c,, in 
the distance. He may, if a thoughtful fellow, take into calculation 
wounds, hurts, infirmity, or old age ; and should he discover in the 

r visions made for bun anything cheering, and likely to be realized, 
will probably present himself to the receiving officer, and put 
down bis name. We have taken the Mediterranean trade as the 
most eligible for the purpose. The men brought up in this trade 
commonly enter as apprentices, and look forward to becoming mates, 
Uthough, perhaps, not aspiring to command*. The voyage out and 
ise rami Uuve to four months, and they are as many 
weeks in port. The vessels in which they sail belong to various 
eoontry portal at which the men have friends nud relatives, whom 
they take great pleasure in visiting on their return from seo. Sailor* 
rarely remain single from choice. Their first object, if they see the 
shadow of a chance of existing, ib marriage, andthoy are apt wooers. 
Moat of those young men, therefore, have a yet stronger tie to the 
locality, and much as the man and hie hclpmnte would like the 
additional pay, and prospective pension, yet were they annexed to a 
tkree yrriw' separal doubt much if the terms would be agree- 

able. * If the rceervo man were to be liable to serve for a limited 
period only, and not to bo taken away to another hemisphere to 
ttght, he would probably be found willing to enlist, rind the wife 
rould not dissent, 

Aod here we would beg to observe- thai the conductors of the HH. 
vbote knowledge of Parliamentary document ■must have heen ejK 
a p.. >3ir experience of merchant tndors, have laki 

.alders aneedkeslv he»v 1 V>id. 



IlOYAl NAVAL RESERVE. 



■SLIT, 



A reserve differs very materially from a permanent force. We do 
not want 30,000 men to embark lor " three " years or *' live " years, 
Esperience has demonstrated of late the extremely exhausting 
effect oi" war. The liussiau war in two years drained Russia 
and France of immense resources, bringing those countries, for 
the time, to the verge of bankruptcy; ami the late 
Italy was brought to a sudden termination, so sudden as lb 
make the belief general that both Trance and Austria, — to employ 
a Tankeeisin — were " used up," So enormous are the expenses of 
munitions of war, aud of rapid transit, and so devastating tire Lo 
accruing from hostile collision, that months now will effect what it 
took years to bring about under the old system of warfare. With 
this tact to guide the authorities, we think they would have done 
well had they limited the period of service for the reserve men to 
our year, to be increased to itvo upon any gnat emergency. 

The grand object to be achieved is to have the menus <■!' equipping 
a large fleet in a very brief Bpace of time— to be able to make a po 
ful and prompt demonstration ; and this may be effected bj 
thirty thousand available men, trained aud efficient, whether the 
term of their engagement be one year or live, "By reducing 1 I.. 
period of servitude to one year, the probability is, that not only 
would the whole number required be speedily raised, but that a second 
division, upon easier terms, might also be formed in the long voyage 
trade, from which shiptj on a foreign station might bo recruited tin an 
emergency. Hundreds of men would volunteer for service in the 
navy if tney were assured that their term of service would be tworl 
or that it would last only during a particular service ; and this con- 
sideration would induce them to look with much satisfaction upon 
the immediate, though small, benefit offered, as an equivalenl for the 
liability, and the future of a comfortable retirement in nld age 

Tie .Naval Coast Volunteer Corps must be considered d failure. 
The ten thousand men asked for, and for whom the money has been 
year after year voted, were never raised, although the recruiting sys- 
tem was admirably organized. One reason for this was the paltry 
sum named as an inducement. \ man was offered ten shillings on 
entering his niuue, and the Kfune sum annually: and fur this he was to be 
tender training twenty-eight day*, and to be held liable to serve within 
100 leagues of his own snore, when called upon. The pitiful measure 

■ with the response which most people anticipated. Tie 
those who enrolled themselves on the English coast w ere idle 
who had no settled mode of life — poach' 

of place, ifcc. In Scotland s hardy race offishemnen were induced <■ 
volunteer, but they did so very guardedly, and with the char iul 
ticn on their part to serve the shortest possible period. In 
land a most wretched crew of spalpeens, gi ogle men and hodi- 
whose rags and dirt excited the disgust „' U> 

the training ship?, formed the staple of the volunteers. Upon the 

le, about as motley a gaug as these voluni 
fouxul elsewhere ; but what could I 
annum t 

The new Act will, we trust, eschew the errors ul 
B6 our resene to be respectable acd n. . 



1869.] 



BOTAI NAT AX RESERVE, 









U that every volunteer shall, while he be Buch, bo exempt from 
service in the militia, and from serving as a peace or parish officer, 
and, upon his entering the reserve volunteer force of seamen, shall 
cease to be ft Boyal Naval Coast Volunteer, if then belonging to that 
force ; and further direeta that every volunteer shall, under such 
regulations as the Lord High Admiral, or the Commissioners for 
executing the office, may from time to time establish, be eligible fbr 
admission into the Hoyal Hospital at Greenwich, and be, thereupon, 
entitled to the same privileges and advantages as men who are* op 
may be, or have been, in her Majesty's navy. 

This latter privilege, if worked out fairly, and to the full extent 
©f which it is susceptible, will be a powerful lover. If wc under- 
stand the origin of Greenwich Hospital aright, it was to encourage 
men to betake themselves to the aea service, in order that they 
might be available for the defence of the country, in time of need. 
But before this inducement can have its due weight,, that establish- 
ment must undergo a radical change and purification. The evils 
pointed out bv Sir Charles Napier, have, we fear, only too solid a 
foundation, ilea look upon Greenwich Hospital not as a great 
national institution, the pride and glory of the land, to which feeling 
it should give rise, but a? a naval poorbouse — a shade better than 
a Uninn. The Admiralty have promised an investigation into the 
working of this establishment, and we have no reason to doubt the 
sincerity of their intentions ; but no half measures will suffice. 

In order that the " Reserve Volunteer Force of Seamen Act" 

.should have a fair chance, it should be read and expounded to a knot 

sung merchant seamen in a sailors' home, by a Greenwich pen- 

tier, whose outward man divested of a costume which excites 

ridicule, and clothed like a retired mariner, bespoke comfort and 

competence, and who could testify as the result of his own experience 

'leeenwieh Hospital had been thoroughly cleansed of its ob- 

ble characteristics, and become, in all respects, a desirable 

botne for BttOore, The coat and pocket of the man should tell their 

i tale. Imagine the effect upon the bard working " body," whom 

the young sailor we alluded to juat now had married, if she knew 

that her husband by joining the volunteer force would possibly be 

Erortdiug an asylum for herself, should shipwreck or battle deprive 
er and her children of their support ! and this we contend would 
be a legitimate application of the funds of Greenwich Hospital, 
the sailor's wite understand that the wives of the pensioners of 
mwich Hospital are no longer dependent upon the refuse of the 
iioners' tables, but that they too are, to a certain extent, cared 
tor, and Greenwich Hospital will weigh its full pound in the Govern' 
de. 
In ,-i word, nothing should be left undone to make this plan not 
alone a. but desirable. We would hare sea-faring men, 

particularly the fine young fellows now begrimed with dirt and coal 
dust in our cO&sters and colliers, divest themselves of their abhor- 
rence for cleanliness, and rally round the standard of the volunteer 
force. The skilled boatman and the sturdy bargeman should also ace 
in the proposition a something very much to their advantage,, and, 



22 



EOTIX > T AYAL KESEHTE. 



[Swf .» 



study to qualify themselves to light for their country, their hemes 
and hearths, should they be threatened. 

But not bo fas*;. Before this most desirable feeling can be brought 
about, there must boa great change wrought in the service of which they 
may at any time be required to form psirt. These men will not ren- 
der themselves liable to be seized up and flogged at the caprice of 
one man, although that one man be the Captain ; and they must be 
made to understand that, as in the army, n Captain cannot punish 
without the preliminary of a fair trial, Instances have been known of 
most arbitrary punishments, and these not many years since either. 
These things must cease. Neither must punishment be aggravated by 
being inflicted in the presence, of strangers. It might not be judS* 
us to abolish corporal punishment at once. It should probably 
be retained for grave offences ; but a court-martial should determine 
the degree of gravity. Corporal punishment, as Lord Clarence 
Paget said recently in the House, should be allowed "to die out." 
All these improved point! of discipline, duly set forth, would have 
a wondrous effect, and, in that case, the officers entrusted with the 
duty of entering men for the reserve, would have a comparatively 
easy and pleasant task. 

The monthly pay offered to the volunteer for training should not 
be less than £3. It should be remembered that he is drawn from 
some remunerative occupation ; not like the vagraut coast: voluu. 
teer, who is clad to embark for the sake of a month's feed : and 
that he sacrifices at least that amount of wages while undergoing n 
month'?) training. 

There is another puiufc worth)- of much consideration; it is 
the mode and place of training. Upon the presumption that the 
Besenv Yuhtntecrs are really sea-firing men, or sailors, there is no 
good reason why they should be sent on board a ship to acquire a 
knowledge of gunnery, &c. They have their already. If 

the reserve men were taught according to the admirable system u? 
gun drill established in the Coast Guard batteries along shore, they 
would acquire all that is really necessary without the trouble and 
of sending them on board hulks or training ships. In- 
stmction batteries might be formed at varum* parts most convenient 
to the reserve men, and at these depot* they might be made expert 
riflemen and iliiimilfMIHill and be as perfectly indoctrinated in the 
great gun exercise as they could be on board ship. The Coast 
Guard training ships would not then be overtaxed by having to 
train an additional number of reserve men, nor any confusion be 
occasioned by their being mixed up with the Coast Volunteers. 

Should the plan now advanced nil, there is only one chance left — 
-neral register of all seafaring men and fcpiahce of every dc-noim* 
nation, and a ballot for a naval militia. The country cannot be left 
in a dependent position. Impressment, b; nsent, is con- 

demned ; and nothing but an enemy's fleet in the channel could ren- 
der that must obnoxious report tolerable The establishment of an 
efficient reserve u e this painful and dangerous n< 

and also the scarcely less obnoxious plan of a general register and 
maritime inscription. 

A well formed reserve in the merchant Bmicc would be produc- 



CESEUAI. BGEXAN* OS SUELLS A.SD FUM5, id 

of other advantages; it would arrest the process ol'deuationali- 

on now going on in the British Mercantile Navy, and would form 

so strong a tie between the Royal Navy and the Merchant Marine 

generally, as to render service under the pendant no longer dististe- 

Every one, therefore, has au interest in the success of thiB 

scheme. The merchant captain, the shipowner, the yachtsman, all 

should unite in recommending it, and do their utmost to induce those 

over whom they have any control to fall into the Ooverumeut propo- 

■n. 

Among the u detaik which will have to be considered in 

for.t. egulatious, will be the question of pension < If pensions 

are only to be given when men are over fifty, and worn out, the 

aent will have to consider Ihe allowance, whatever it is, in 

tight of a retirement. If, nti the other hand, the pension— & 

Her one- R er the man has been enrolled, say fifteen years, 

which might bring Ins age to 40, he eould still be available for ser- 

•, and thus very considerably augment the reserve force. Tin* 

hwrt plan which occurs to us, therefore, is the grant of a retaining 

pension at forty to he increased to a retiring pension at lifty. The 

try would then have the advantage of holding the pension in re- 
serve for ten years, by which means, instead of 30,000, we might hare 
an available force of 50,000 effective men. 

There are many other questions to he settled yet, all of which 
have relation more or less immediately to the Reserve, We allude 
now to the establishment of nautical schools. AU who give them* 
wire* any concern about the maritime service of the country— and 
onepaysi a had compliment to the sense of Englishmen in supposing 
any to be altogether indifferent — must sec that very much requires 
to be done. We exist only as a maritime nation ; for the inBtant 
we lose our place on the ocean, we imperil our being as an Inde- 
pendent state. Our ships must, as far as possible, he manned with 
sons of the sod ; and every means should he resorted to, to encourage 
that feeling of nationality, that spirit of patriotism, which is the life 
and soul of our prosperity. \W must tram up the young, encourage 
manhood, and foster old age. Our best interests as a nation lie m 
this direction ; and our sympathies and feelings are also strongly 

ted in behalf of the tars of old England. 



\ L BORMANN" ON THE SHRAPNEL AND BOXER 
SHELLS AND FUZE, 

As article in the United Service Magazine for February, 1S54. Grow 
the pen *>f an experienced officer of the Indian Artillery, 
from Major 'General Borajann, au artillery officer of the nftlglii aim y, 

l< -camp ti> his Majesty Kmg Leopold, an elaborate reply, 

statenieDts of our gallant, contributor on the subject 

fuzes, ThL» literary projectile is intrude 1 1 to do 

iu, bur i!i.> Borinaun fuze is notorious for not effecting its 

r e li iv. r, .reived the whole charge of paper and print without 

d. The volnme, in fact, is iiotiiiag more than a 

_ honour of iu author— a pufi'^f hi* own inventions, a^ a depre- 

vf thow of every other artillerist. It is true Gmiid IivrtWWR, 






onfMAr. BOttM.VWK OX FHTKLM awt> tvte. 






lhiuks tliciv ie s..tuethii>g m the Shrapnel shell, but lie ungenerously 
emifeivoun to deprive ns of Ike credit of introducing it, by 
affirming that Deuba] shrapnel was nut ii ^ urveofcsfc A foreigner will 
ii'i. r allow intuit in an En^li-dmtaii. After nil flint English genius I 
den for civilization, and the ready homage we pay to the inteLLa i 
other countries, we tire still met by the ory — ij Can any good come out of 
Nazareth- Guanebal BonsWia is one of tho unlielievers. He cattM 
over to England with his metallic fuze in 1832, and, by direction of Ibe 
authorities, fee obtained every facility in bine Laboratory, at Woolwich, 
tor the manufacture both of his fate and shells, nt the public cost ; but, 
though the >i hrt Committee showed hint every indulgence, the result of 

Khmtre against hi* system'. In revenge, 
< i'-neral Ihmnnnn if, not only very fierce upon tho shell and fnwjof » laptabi 
Boxer, which, after similar trial?, gave results of the most decisive cha 
rafetw, but he snatches the iron wreath from the skull of General Shrapnel 
himself. We arc now told, on the authority of a Cnplain Toll, of the 
Prussian Artillery, that there somewhere exists a manuscript which 
proves that b ibeU of a similar description was dreamt of in Germany M. 
enth century. Captain Toll, who deserves lo be styled Capiuin 
Fool ; has some idea of the weakness of Ins ca>e, fur he admits thai 
first fight it maj strdce ilu j reader tbat in the contemporary juiittsd work? 
i in artillery (hi 1 - invention is not mentioned ;" and, secondly, that "lis.' 
authors of tlirse hooks, /wfh-uhirlif German, were chiefly bunglers;" 
hilt he logically infers that, " at all events, it must be granted, as long at 
the contrary is not prorrrf, thai it is to the German artillerists that the 
honour is due of having liad the first idea of the Shrapnel," fa. We pot 
it to Captain Fool, whether be is more likely to win credence for In- 4i 
covery by calling on the world to "prove the contrary.'" or by himself 
proving the fact. But, perhaps, ha will be satisfied with the solitary 
conversion of Genera] Bonoajm, who, with a charming credulity, accepts 
his unsupported statement as eonchisivc evidence. Indeed, the gallan: 
General claims, "in honour nf truth, (ir) that, the invention in question, 
wliieh the Wdrld appeam iwliimd to attribute solely to General Shrapnel, 
may be< - -id. vd —nut only in Germany, but also in other countries — ** 
dm* to German genius." Un siieh evidence, he might attribute to Ger 
mate. : vent ion and every discovery ever Riven to flic world : and. 

In bet, ha Prasetan friend does bake this ground, and declares ihut 
" German inventions, at nil timet*, have met with adoption in Grand 

r having returned into then- fatherland, from foreign conntrioa, 
under foreign names.' 1 We have a great respect for the hitellcit, as w 
have friendship tu the people of Germany: hut, with the exception of the 
printer's type— -a mighty gift~*-we know not what ore the iir<> ntiona wo 
owe to the Tent 

A man of General Borronmi's attainments should he the fir>t to adt: 
in others, even in a case where he has not himself been snci 
lii- name as «u artillerist stands high, and the projectiles be lias origi- 
nated are not so faulty hut what tbey refl a on their inventor. 
The Bortnann fitze has heen adopted by the Belgian Government, and 
modifications of it, in farms calculated to correct some of its defects, are ; 
use in the armies of umnl of the secondary German Powers. But : 
severe trial at Shoeburyness proved that it was too complicated for 
hand* of ordinary artillerymen, and open to other objections of the I 










2S 

it iai 



VtfBAT. BbUALOTC? OW SHELLS AVD Tl 25 

serious character. The gallant General is not bound to accept this dtri- 
though no artillerist who is acquainted with the result of the 
♦-xperiment* will incline to any other ; but it is neither fair nor generous, 
because he has been wonted in the trial, to try to disparage his successful 
petit or. Captain Bu iter's shell nnd fuze have been subjected to every 
ordeal that science or envy could suggest, and the more they have been 
tried has their efficiency been established. Many of the objec- 

tions urged against them by General Borinann Lave been refuted again 
.uid again, «u the evidenced" practical results in nation, and the rest 
founded en simple misstatements. Thus, tlie General affirms that, th** 
fit2e bore no part " in the glorious deeds of the Royal British Artillery in 
• he Crimea f' whereas, we have the testimony of official reports that it 
naively used, and that in its operation it left nothing to be 
At page 20, the gallant author states that "the wooden cose of 
Boxer fuze baa three longitudinal channels, a transverse one, and 
tiine little holes in two longitudinally-placed rows, and this fuze requiring, 
cover, a second case n f brass (ffT/ipouhtte), with two ieffew threads, 
metallic disks, and a, metallic cap (cbttpeau), with one screw thread, 
1 think the simpler construction, and, consequently, alao the simpler, easy 
[■ on the side of the metallic Fuze than on that of the 
B«iier fuze.'' But this is arguing from premises which are altogether 
unded ; for the Boxer fuze dues not. as wo are here misinformed, 
require *' a second case of brass, with two screw threads, two metallic 
disks," Ac, These little contrivances form part of the xhcll, not Of the 
fuze. A T '> wonder General Bormann is drawn into a maze, when, to 
borrow a homely phrase, helms gut the wrong sow by the ear. We have 
heard of people who don't know a B from a bull's foot, but we little 
expected to meet with an artilleiist — and one of no slight eminence — 
who could not distinguiflli a rmw from a shell. 

There is a want of oandour iu endeavouring to meet the objection raise.1 
to the Belgian fuze, on account of its complicated character, by affirming 
that the British artillorvnu'u have already overcome on tho field greater 
difficulties of this kind, in connection with the Boxer fuze. The truth is, 
that the soldiers ofthe Royal Artillery went to the Crimea w i t h o ut havi 

n\ instruction in the use of the Boxer fuze ; yet they not only 
■I 1 no difficulty with it, hut applied it in every case with eil 
- -lininiy to the simplicity of its constractioB, 
In his attack on the Boxer fuze, General Bormann is equally at sea as 
sort, which he puts down at from £100 to £120 per 1,000, while 
• uly £t5 10s. ; and, estimating that of the Belgian fuze 
per 1,000, he adds *' it will be readily agreed that on this point, 
10, the Belgian system in more advantageous than the new English one." 
But the trifling error of £113 10$, in his calculation gives all the advan- 
tage of this argument to the English system, with a balance of £7 10s. 
1 3 favour. 
The rritictsms on the Boxer fuze and shell, which General Bomiaim 
Cidouel Delobel, another oflirer of the Belgiau Artillery, 
at the t'vbmel is no belter informed than himself of the 
r<*l character of these inventions. The Colonel gravely says, "The 
of operations necessary at the very moment of the fire for the 
preparation of the Shrapnel, the regulation of the fuze an«l the driving 
it into the umpouiette t will require too much time, witWUBkv&u/v&vj 



36 



GIKEEAi BOIlMA>Tr OS SHELLS AXD FUZE. 



[Skit.. 



account that, if all this may be done properly ami uithout errvr OB the 
practice ground, it would not be the same on the field of battle ; for the 
complete boring of tlie regulating hole up to the column of fusing com* 
position, the introduction <d tin? tiuu iuto the ampoulette, bo that the 
r»w of ciphers correspond to the groove, and its hole or vent (lumtere), 
ond especially the driving home of the fuze into the ampouleifay are 
tiling very difficult to do rapidly and well daring the excitement i>f 
battle and amidst a thick smoke, and which will certainly occasion a 
peat number of failures in igniting and premature bursting." What 
it is to get uniuug military tavtttw? Now, here ie a tide of learning 
and a swarm of conjecture*, all, like Busy's passages, leading lo nothing. 
The ancient Egyptians invented a beautiful system of geoinetiy. wln-Ii 
based all its problems en a mistake, and ibis fa precisely what Los been 
done by Colonel Delobel, The Boxer fuze would, indeed, bo of no in 
value, than thai of General Boraiana, were it open to the objections] 
enumerated; but how will the gallant Colonel be surprised to hear tl 
nunc of them apply ! He may ne>w learn what few of our readers will 
need to be told, that the fuze may he inserted with the row of holes in 
any position, and a smart blow «>n the wheel is all that is required to fix 
it. So all his fine toucluoom fall to the ground I 

Both General Burniann and Colonel Pelobel are as much puzzled by 
Captain Boxer's diapbrogm shell, as by his fuze. They roll it ores and 
over, lip it open, and turn it inside out, and like the Irishman who found 
the dead all igu I or, and declared it was neither flesh, fowl, nor good rn I 
herring, they seem finally to decide that it is neither a atoll nor n - 
The gallant General ia so bent on demolishing the ■shell, that be read 
into fragments. No lady ever picked another to pieces in the same crn.l 
sfyl«. ■. Tl;< shell, we are told, has " a double swelling ibaudinj 

nearly in the middle of the inner space, in order to fix the diaphragm, 
and, besides this, the part uf the shell opposite the fuzediole is reinforced 
or thicker in Iron tliaa the other part of the shell, probably with a view 
to place the centre of gravity of the whole BVftem in this hemisphere. 
But this increaseof thickness, the swelling and the vault phnigm, 

are sufficient to determine the shell's breaking first at its thinm-i 
part, which surrounds the fuze, and, consequently^ causing this p 
thrown on one side, and the thicker, si longer pari, with the bullets, on 
the other." Now the peculiar construction which the General describes 
has an object quite different from what he supposes, and, as all who are 
acquainted with the shell are aware, not only secures that object* but, at 
the same time, provides ugaiast the defects he anticipates. Nor is the 
gallant author correct in a scribing any speciality to the rotary motion of 
the diaphragm shell. Its eccentricity neither accelerates nor prolongs its 
rotation ; for the wood sabot is fused in such a manner as to prevent - 
an effect, and, in fact, no greater rotary motiou is imparted to the dia« 
phragm thantoany other Shrapnel, Whatever objection made be mad- 
the diminution hi the number of the bullets in the diapliragm, it apjj 
iviiL equal force to the shell of General Bormann ; for though thu separa- 
tion of the bullets from the powder by the insertion <d the diaphragm 
necessarily causes a reduction of Iheii number, the amount i 

;ge, only 1-Glh or l-7th per. -than the original Shrapnel, 

and the ballets, instead of being lighter, as i= here stated, lo 
same sitt as those used for the Belgian shell. Colonel I 



gekma* view or inn itaiiajt wab. 



linion that the position of the bursting charge anil that of the diaphragm 
must interfere with the explosion, but this is entirely erroneous, and re- 
pnt«d trials hai'e proYed that the sheaf of bullets ii even more perfect 
in the diaphragm than in the Shrapnel. The Colonel is equally wrong in 
^opposing ili ti themodeof loading, through the ampou!ette> causes ine- 
quality of weight in shells of the same calibre, and consequent irregularity 
of lire; for the structure of tha shell leads to quite a different result, and 
there h greater regularity in the weight than was possessed by the origi- 
nal projectile. It is stated that the stopper disks may he pushed back by 
the bullets into the ainpoulette, as they arc not fixed, ami that this de- 
nmgeuient will render it impossible to adjuat the fuze j but the stopper 
disk is, on the contrary, securely screwed in, and cannot be moved by 
any amount 6f jilting. As regards the range of the shell and the cost 
of tenstntction, both of which are made the subject of objection, we 
may remark (hut it cam he prepared for any particular range by ordinary 
artillerymen, after about two bonis' instruction, in from five to ten 
minutes ; and thereat of the ampoulette and fuzes, instead of being in in 
&■. to 2b. 4Jd., idea QOt exceen 73. In conclusion, we will only add 

Ltlmt the Belgian system of shell, which this volume so disingenuously ml- 
rotate*, is the adoption of the original Shrapnel, which has been proved, 
by a very long and extensive course of experiments, to possess a roost 
fetal defect, and that this defect is entirely overcome by the diaphragm 
_ 



A GERMAN VIEW OF THE ITALIAN WAR. 



A .NAJiKATivEot the late war in Italy haa recently appeared in the 
semi-official columns of the Augsburg Gazette. In a eliort introduc- 
tion, the editor announces that the writer is aperaon in every respect 
competent to give a fair and impartial account of the campaign, 
that he has every facility afforded him, and that his data, founded on 
utoet authentic returns, may he relied upon as perfectly correct, 
subjoined is a translation of the said narrative, with the omis- 
sion of such matter aa would he tedioua to the English reader, and 
the addition of such notes hb will render the account a valuable hia* 
toxical document : — 

CHAPTER I. 

The Auwo-inn Army ci'owes the Ticino — The English liicdiatkwi — Gyuhu's plan* 
— Sfcirmisti nt Frssinetto — The Dora-Baltca line — The Austrian position— The 
Kwounaisfftucc to MonteWllo— Battle of Montcbelln. 

On the 29th April — two days, therefore, after the expiration of 
the time allowed t>y Count Bool's u hi m aNm — the Austrian army 
crossed the Ticino on three points — on the high road from Milan to 
. ara. at Abbiate^grasso, and Pavia. Thin delay of two days woe 
caused by the English proposal of mediation, and was in so far detri* 
mental to Austria, n* already on the 25th French troops were advan- 
cing towards Mont Cenis and Mont Genfivre, and on the 2Gth the 
fijt't liary corps landed at Genoa, Within eight days 

this corps could join — without, it is true, its full complement of ar- 
tillery and cavalry— the wings and centre of tlis Piedmojitese army, 



S3 



OEnMAV TTEW nr THE ITALIAN WATT. 



[Sept., 



by rail from Genoa to Novi and Casale, and from Turin to Alessan- 
dria and Casale. The Piedmontese army, consisting of from G0,C 
to 80,000 regulars, was already concentrated between Alessaudr 
and Casale, protected against an attack on the part of toe Austrian* 
by the Po, the Tanaro, and the Sesia, and having as points d* appui 
the entrenched camp of Alessandria, that fortress, the ttde Se poM 
and ramparts of Casale It was thus enabled daily to receive fresh 
reinforcements of French troops, and keep open its communications 
with Turin. It was impossible for the Austrian army to turn this 
positiou. it could not undertake any Hung from Vcrcelli agaiuat Turiu 
aa lone as the Sardinian army remained on its flank or rear. It« 
only choice was either to relinquish all idea of an advance on Turin, 
first cany Casale, and besiege Alfipsandria, after defeatin 
Sardinians, or to advance from Pavia across the Po on atm. 
drive back the French auxiliary troops arriving from Genoa, and 
attempt a decisive hlow against the Sardinians at Alessandria. If 
the Austrian army had heeu strong enough, with one half t<> 
the Sardinian army before Alexandria in cheek, and drive back the 
French detachments aa they arrived, the other half might have 
marched on Turin Jiut for this, two armies were requi-' 

This was so self-evident to the Piedmontese Generals, that i In- 
Sardinian army remained quietly encamped between Casale and 
Alessandria ; tliey took, however, the precaution of occupying tin 
Dora-Baltea line from Turin to lyrca, to protect Turin against am 
sudden attack. 

General Gyulai's conduct under these circumstances has been tin 
subject of much comment. He hail four corps ffatmee under Iuh 
orders-. Zobel, Boncdek, Lichtenstein, and Schwaracnberg in the 
LomeHjna, and the Vercelli-Yalenza- Pavia triangle, protected 
by the Sesia and the Po. At Pavia, and beyond Pavia, there v 
a fifth corps (Station's), and further on at least shortly afterwards, 
a portion of the sixth armeeeorpa (Schafigotsche) for the defence i 
partial occupation of the valley of the Trebia. Thus, iu the first 
week of the invasion, GyuJai might have brought an army uf 120,000 
mefi against the main point ot the Piedmontese right wing, and 
attempted a coup ile main against Voghera and Xovi, before the 
Franco-Sardinian army had completed its centre at Alessandria. The 
first French Generals who arrived seemed to have been aware of this, 
as they particularly exhorted the men in the ordresdii jour bold 1 . 
withstand the first attack of the enemy.* The attempt, however, was 
not made. 

Fan-like, the Austrians spread themselves in detached bodies and 
outposts froin Vercelli, Lumeilo, and Mortara, in every direction, to 
ascertain, as it -was then said, a knowledge of the enemy's positi 
This may have been necessary at first, but alter one week Gyi 
must have known, even from the Sardinian bulletins and papery and 
the public announcement of the position of the French betw 
Xovi and Casale, where the enemy was, and where he was open to 
attack, How did Gyulaiacl ? Uri the 2nd May the Austrians oi 
V*d Vercelli, On the 3rd they attempted to cross the Po at three 
• Yid c ■ Ordrc d« jour ilnU'd NotJ, 3 May t 



1859.] 



I\N - YlfcW 01' THJi ITALIAN' WAlt. 



20 



4 — at Frasinetto, Valenza, and Camhip. Jt is passilde these 
were only feints i o alarm and mislead the enemy. After a somewhat 
skirmish the attempt to cross at Frasinetto was abandoned on 
b ; at Valenza communications with the opp osite shore were es- 
tablished, the railway bridge blown up; at Cambio a bridge was 
. establishing communications with the right, 

bank on the direct road to Tortona, It appeared now as it the 
Austrians intended to make a stand oil the lower Scril ia to secure 
themselves against an attack from the south, a* they occupied Castel- 
nuovo, burnt the bridge over the Hernia, and blew up the arches of 
the railway bridge. They occupied Tortona, autl commanded the 
road to Pa via and Piacenza, A bridge thrown over the Po at 
Conialc, below the mouth of the Tanaro, assured communications 
the left bank. 
It really appeared that Gyulni intended an advance on Turin. On 
tth and (irh May the Austrians suddenly left all their southern 
positions on the other side of the Po, evacuated Tottona, Casei, 
Alz.ati'i. Voghera, and Pontecurone, advancing from Vereelli toTriuu. 
stOj i rattinara, aud Biella. On the 8th the Austrian outposts 
t [vrea, and an attack on the Dora*Baltea line was 
hourh expected. This line was but weakly defended ; as the 
Austrians advanced the Piedniontese outposts fell back, and there is 
ti>< doubt that two armee-torps would have sufficed to make a aue- 
I coup-de-main on Turin, provided it had been possible to keep 
bole fine from Pari a to Yereelli with the other three corps, una 
ud the rear against the enemy. 
It is true that the occupation of Turin was no great object; the 
Ming in masses at Xovi and Alessandria, Joining 
-v army. But still they were scarcely yet in a position 
nk three Austrian corps d'arniec, to attempt to force the 
the Po or the Sesia, or to make an attack on Pnvia, being 
unprovided with sufficient artillery and cavalry. The occupation of 
would have hud a good moral effect, even had it beeu necessary 
to evacuate it utter a few days' occupation, and to fall back again on 
It. It would have cut off the communications between Turin 
nt Cenia, and Alessandria, and would hitve delayed the 
ce of detached French and Fiedmonfcese troops. To strike this 
required daring energy. The results would nut have been 
ise great. The King of Sardinia had left, i lie gm eminent was 
take flight to Genoa, and it would have been Impossible 
1 the capital any length of time. 
On t!ie morning of the 9th May the Austrian's evacuated all their 
J positions towards Turin. Livornu. Troiizaup, Santbia, 
abandoned, then Caresana and fstroupiaiitt, a!ud the 
from Palestro, Kobbio, and Garlasco.ou Pavia,wati 
ed within tli dli-vaTsuia-Paviatriangte. The 

itioels now lined the left banks of the LV> and Seaia 
Valenza; the Austrian head-quarters fiic d south, 
i, tjeuou, and Alessandria, where the main body of the 
arrived, awaitmgouly its last instalment of artil- 



avalrf, 



' 



so 



GBttMAS TIEW OF TUB ITAXliK WAS, 



[Sept., 



Hitherto, all the movements of the Austrian* had been recon- 
naissances, forced marches, without an object, feints, alarms, and 
outpost e-k inrushes. They now took up a good defensive position be- 
hind the ikssia and the Po ; from which a blow inightbe attempted, or 
any attack of the enemy, who would have to cross the broad Po or 
the swollen waters of the tiesia, could be successfully repulsed. 

During the next ten days nothing worth mentioning occurred. 
The 8iirdo*French ai-my continued to complete its organization, took 
up its positions, inn! the Emperor fiapoleon 111. arrived at Ales- 
sandria from Genoa. The eomhiued forces consisted now of four 
French divisions, and the * Garde, 1 and five Sardinian divisions. The 
last detachment of the cavalry of the ' Garde' was advancing by 
way of .Nice, along the ltiviera di Ponente. Thus, an army of from 
160,000 to 100,000 French, and a Sardinian army of 80,000 men 
(including the free corps) stood ready for attack, opposed to four 
Austrian corps d'urmce.* 

And how were the Austrians occupied during these ten days 
which preceded the battle of MontebeJlo ? On the 11th of Miry, 
according to the Piedmontesc bulletins, aOOO Austrians advanced 
over the Stella bridge, to the right bonk of the Po towards Stradella, 
another body of iU^O men took up a position between Cnstel Uan 
Giovanni and Borgo-nuovo on the same road in the direction of 
Yoglieia ; CUO men occupied Kivergaro, in the valley of the Trebbia, 
and the Austrians entrenched themselves in six small fort* at the 
head of the Stella bridge, sending out skirmishers from Bront as far as 
Custeggio. The Piedraonteae fully expected an attack, the more ao 
ii the 19th, the Austrians completely evacuated Vercelli, tbua 
giving up their last point of attack against Turin, blowing up two 
arches oi the bridge over the Seta, The. destruction of the trench 
pontoons at Ynlcmu by the Austrian artillery also teemed to denote 
an attack southwards, as it showed an endeavour to protect the 
v and right wing. 

Vfe now come to the " forced reconnaissance" as far as Monte* 
hello on the 20th of May. This expedition baa been much censured, 
on the presumption that it really was the intention of the Austrian 
Commander to drive back the right wing of the Franco-Sardinian 
army, and to occupy Caateggia. But this was never intended. The 
number of troops engaged was far too small for such an object. 
The only object of that reconnaissance was to ascertain the strength 
of the right wing of the Fiance- Sardinian army. This reconnais- 
sance has been attributed to bad generalship, but it muBt not be 
overlooked that the main body of the Austrian army was in a defen- 
sive position, separated enemy by two rivers, and that it was 
only possible to ascertain that enemy's strength by continual and 
bold reconnaissances. The position being such that the Austrians 



to French < .r dhi 

of -U* ooii men, to which una 



ill ttab 

■a Ml] 
itvri val» . 

- 1' i tiich 



18JS9.] 



oermav teew or the italic war. 



31 






were compelled to await the initiative on the part of the enemy, not 
being in sufficient force to attack an army 01 200,000 men in a very 
strong position, there was nothing to be done except to keep well- 
inJbr.uKil of the enemy's movements, That strong reconnaissances of 
this description were not made in the other direction from Veroelli 
and the Seaia towards Casale. that is to say towards the left wing of 
the Sardo- French atmv, that was a limit which was afterwards bit- 

The battle of MonUbello made a deep impression on the French 
and Fiedinontese, and appears to have induced them to relinquish 
the idea of attacking the Pavia- I'iaeenza line. 

On the 10th May Count Stadion'a division (Pavia) wag ordered t<> 
make a Strang reconnaissance toward CaBteggio and Voghera, start- 
iug from Vaccarizza, near Pavia, to ascertain the strength and posi- 
tion of the enemy. It was undertaken by three brigaded of Pawn- 
garten's division, the brigade of General Brauu: of Urban's corps, 
regiments of Boer's brigade and the regiment Hesa, Urban 
advanced on the high road towards Unteggio, Paumgarten followed 
in the plain with Bds'a brigade toward Caaatiama, Gaol's brigade 
iust Bobecco, The Prince of Hease'H brigade formed tlie Eight 
i marched through Yerrua towards Braoduz.zo. Towards 
noon Urban took possession of Casteggio and Montebello, which 
were only occupied by Sardinian cavalry. It was only at Genes- 
trello that the Jagers of the third and fourth battalions of the regi- 
men !*' and ** Don Miguel" came upon a very superior body 
, whom they drove back and then occupied Genes- 
trellu She Sardinians and French were taken by surprise. The 
yardiuian cavalry, about (300 men of the Novara Chevaux lagers. 
held their grouud moat gallantly at nisi;, charging no less than si* 
timed during the day. but they suffered 60 much from the riflemen, 
and were finally so cut up by Haller'a hussars, that they lost nearly 
half their number. It is not to be wondered at, then, if they cuuld 
not keep thrir m'uuud to the end of the battle. Meantime French 
auxiliary troops were coming up in heavy bodice by railway from 
Voghera. General Forey, in his official report speaks, it is true, of 
only ft mi* battalion* and the rest of the division, and the Piedmon- 
t«t« cavalry (about 15,000 men), as the numbers be brought against 
Gen , gainst Montebello; but it is an admitted fact 
Biragiiey d'Hillier'B whole corps was in position at Voghera, and was 
joined also by a Piedmontese division. Masses of these troops were 
•iuually thrown from noon till six in the evening upou the battle 
, which is only one mile distant from Voghera;* so that in a 
t time, by means of the railway, five regiments of the lino, ono 
i of Chasseurs-a-pied, in addition to the Chassenrs d'Afru 
batteries of three artillery regiments, besides, the Piedmont 
foroe of not leaa than 20,000 men, were engagcd.t 
iflted, at Geaestrello, of five battulioufe awl 

mm< -li. 

to duoemifofis Mtfuxifcil bvrtie Prenyl Km)*-* 
.• lion Ca«*w», lukae Chawwi d'Afinqne, nad to ikrcc arttiUr. 




iiEHMVX VIEW OF THE ITALIAN WaH. 



["-EFT, 



one division of Haller's hussars, with two *di and four twelve- 
pounders at Montebello, Ll- aides six battalions and two and a naif 
companies, one sijuadroil of Haller's buasars, with two six and four 
twelve-pounders in the battle. This gives at the outside 12,000 to 
13,000 men engaged. 

Tbe Piedmonteae accounts before the battle apeak of 12,u0o 
Autttrians, after the battle they speak of 18,000. It would, per. 
haps, have been Witt of the Austrian general had he withdi . 
his luen earlier IVoui the houses at Geuestrello and Moutelx 
hut the surprising effect of the Austrian artillery againat tin 
leaser artillery force oJ" the French, the deadly fire of tin 
Austrian inftuitry and the daring of llaller's husswrn lit- pi hack the 
French nmases so effectually, that a retreat waa not sounded till 
half-past six in the evening, when the object of the reconnaissance 
had oecn more than obtained. General Forcy, in his report of the 
20th May, says himself: 

"■ 1 deemed it prudent not to follow up further the sua uf 

the day ; I placed my troops in position on the high ground near 
the churchyard of Montebello, and from tuenca 1 saw the Austrian 
troops evacuate Caateggio, leaving an arrier^'garde in its place 

He adds that the losses of the French were considerable 
cially in superior officers. The French loss was estimated at 700 or 
800 lulled imJ wounded, but 2,000 ib nearer the mark, for in 
hospitals at Alessandria alone there were SOU Frenchmen wounded 
at Montebello, and the Kedmontesc admit the loss of nearly half 
then? cavalry engaged. The Austrian official return gives 71^ men 
and 10 horses wounded, 2*J4 men and 20 horses killed ; miaain t; 2*'.i ; 
altogether 1,295. Ju addition to this, amongst the prison* 
taken in the houses at Montebello by the French were 150 seriously 
wounded. 

The impression made by this battle was very* favourable to the 
Austrian^. 

No pursuit was made, and the object was obtained. The Aus- 
trians had proved themselves good riflemen, and more than once 
allowed the eneraj 'b em airy to charge within thirty yards bei'orr fcl 
fired, aud then drove them hack at tho point of the bayonet, r l 
artillery brought up their guns to within one hundred yards of the 
enemy ; at last the French artillery tired at a long range. The 
Hungarian hussars maintained their reputation. 

CHAPTER II, 

Hesitation^.— Gimijultli — Gariaaop Tha Kinj,' ot Bardittiii erocsei the rWiw 
t'o&itiun .of tiit Allan] Arniic- Tlw Buttle of 1'ak-iru — The fight »i Vuu«g]io— 
Imptrfect infovuwtiun of the itnnrrimM fpj ulai- opportuair/. 

After the afFair of Montebello tlie Austrian head-ipiarters appear 
to have gone to sleep. On the day after the battle of Montebello, 
on the '21st May, the Sardinian General, (Jmldini, crossed the St 
north of Verceivi, driving back the Austrian outposts; on the 22nd, 
King Victor Emanuel in person made a reeounaissauce against the 
three villages, Fafestru, Venzaglio, and C'asaliuo, where the ad- 
Tanced posts of tb«j Austrian right wi totrenehed Una 



1859.] 



uEItMA>' VIEW OP THE ITAILLS" WAR. 



33 



regarded as a certain iudieat ion that the Sardinians premeditated 
. in this quarter. On the 23rd, < oiihahlj. villi b\O0O of 
corps, crossed the Tfeino; close to tin- Lagu Maggiore ; on 
the 24th lie occupied VareBe - ou the 20th \u> (hove back 2,000 
Austrians, and mi the 27th lie entered Como. Everywhere 
issued revolutionary proclamations, declaring traitors nil men Woo 
1iM n<»t take arms against the litstrianfl. Somewhat nlarmcd "by 
udeut measures, the Piedrrtonterie Generate imnou 
I Niel was advancing to act in concert with Garibaldi. 
The Austrian head-qnarfeera remained perfeetly quiet at G-aria*co ; 
riaa detai oeeupied rJobbie, m the valley of Hie Trebia, 

and the defiles of Stradells, winch had been evacuated by the (Traaeo- 
I'n t lie 30th May, the King of Sardinia, at the 
head'nf bis ;inn> (four divisions), crossed the Hesia near Vereclli, 
icked the entrenehmenta at Palcstm, Vtnzaglto, and 
lino. 
This tu the commencement of that memorable circumvention t>$ 
the .Austrian :irmv, which was totally overlooked nt Gyulni's head- 
ijimr! 

Wi hive now to follow fcftfe movements of an army more than 

220,000 - i presence of an enemy defended and protected, 

lie l*o and the Sesia, mi a ground of thirteen gengraphi- 

extent, on llie bow formed from Voghera to Vem Hi 

the string of which was in the hand* of the Austrian 

Ma) .ill the corps of the Franco-Sardinian army held 
on the right banks of the Po und Seals,. The 
ii II!. w;ih in Alessandria with the Imperial gu> 
d'Hillit-rs and MacMnhon, with their divisions, held 
Inuovo, ScrivSa, and Sale • Cflnrobert was al 
I'oul ia»d Valenxa. The Sardinian artny^ 

C'ucehiari's division, watched the Po near Frassin 
inns 1 uiti Duraudo,and Cialdini, kept guard on (In; Seaia near 
M' saua.Prai errolli. CasteTborgo'a divialou 

, stationed partly at LWde, partly ai fi rra-Xudva. 
the first to cross over t<j the left bank of the 
u hereupon m li and Picdmonfcese eugmeurs commenced 

two bridges acroySj n'hrkt Cahrobert'a eOrpa came up by 
i&ale, to advance ou the 20th and 30th to Prarolo (opposite 
, on the Hesia), there to prepare (he passage by three 
On the 29th the three Piedmonseso divisions, Fanti, l)u- 
and Castelborgo advanced as far as VercelK ; ou the same day 
mul guard and General Niel arrived there, whilst MacMahon's 
il'IIillitrH corps, who had the longest stretch, were ad- 
aved marches towards Novara. On the morning of the 
Inv the whole of the four divisions of the Piedmontesfl arnij 
'i only one bridge was completed; Fanti 
oat C'Orislcnzu, Durando, v'itijwiglio, Cartel hurgo 

atdiui on Palestro, 

s, the plan was that 
"uuuglio with superior force, and din l- mil 

.''-Lio,, So. 370, Se*j., 1659 St 




GEBHAX VLEW Of TUE ITALIAN ■ 



[Sei 



the Auatrians, whilst Durando should then cotiio up, pass through 
without fighting, and advance rapidly on Palestro, l<> takfr il 
storm, with Cialdini. Fauti, however, remained behind, and Due 
rando and Ciaidini had to storm the village aloue. An obatioaU 
fight ensued, with the small body of Austrians quartered in the ul- 
lage, consisting of two divisions, not quite- one Austrian l»ri 
and whose instructions wcro to defend the village, and I 
the communications with Yinzaglio, Casalino, Coufieiusi. 

The village of Paleatro is situated on the road which I 
Vernal!) to Mortara; it js built on an elevation, surrounded by r 
fields and deep canals for draining purposes, I 
the road runs through a hollow to tho extent of MK) roetri 
direction of Vercelli. Mere the Austrians had entrenched 1h> 
selves, but evidently the] were deficient in number and in artillery. 
Their outposts reached as far as the rivulet and thy Roggia-Uainara 
bridge, and here the skirmishing commenced with the Piedmont 
Bersaglieri. Tlie Piedmontese now formed into two strong column* 
on the right and left of the road, plated their nrtil 
Gamara bridge, and shelled the village. The right column, led 
Colonel Brignone, advanced boldly to the attack, but wa« 
bark, with heavy loss two or three times before it gained ■ 
in the village. At this juncture, two fresh battalions joined the 
Austrians from Iiobbio, and took possession of the ehurc i <ut, 

at thi* same moment, the 5th and 10th Sardinian regiments came up 
to support their men, After a fierce encounter, the Austria] 
driven out of the church-yard and surrounding houses, H 

rdiug to Piedmontese accounts, <10Q Austrian prisoa 
taken <d" the regiments Leopold and Wimpffen. Isola inn 

soldiers defended themselves in the last houses of thi 
Horn; the odds were txt to one against them, but the 
render till the courtyards were strew< d with corpse- The > 
officers were so surprised at thi* desperate resistance, that tl 
asked Captain Davidouawaki, who was taken prisoner, why be maw 

obstinate and hopeless a resistance agniusi such . i - 

Did he suppose the Sarao-French had instructions not to give any 
quarter ? His reply was, (hat to the Inwt momi 
expected help from Bobbin. No i been publish) 

the loss of the Piedmontese in this a Hair, 

About noon on the same day, Vinznglio was attacked ami ca 
by the three Picdmon: supported by the cavalry i 

ments, " Genoa" and " Hovel-Piedmont. ' The vi \ inzagliu 

» equally well mited for defence as Pal 

5 round, mrrouaded by ricf>£elda, and protected hj n deep 
'he bridge o\er this stream in commanded h\ the tower so 
The Auetri*r~a had tore barricaded Hi 
I'lttniiiet 1 lo tie \ ge, but were finally dri 

back. They withdrew on t'oulicijj'.a and Pahflro, when thci .i 
ie upon the Piedni the Hinl tli\ i ni jj hud i 






Ql'i I tlill ll\- ' 



I v>_,i . 



GEBMlK TIEW 0T THE riALUS 1 WAH. 



possession of Casalino and Confienza, and sent a portion of its men 

The loss of the Piedttiotiteie at Viuxa^Iio was 2001; 
arid ■■ 

Up to the 81afc M;tv. the Austrian hen 1 quarters wore Htill in the 
lavements and p'ans of the allied arrnio.-i. althongh 

nerd Kiel had crossed the Sesia, near Verc 
■rps-, and had i ''Hi. His Outposts 

.. and lie was thus already on the right flank of the 
Austrian a. A futile ntte'iipl- to retake Palestrb cm the Slat, With 

totally ignorant the Austrian^ were of 
tin* 

whole Piedmontese army (except one division) 
position to ill-- right of Palestra, had been successfully 
■'•<(<> it. king the march of the French army on the 

ik. and making the Austrian head quarters believe that 
dinians hit lacking Mortarn in front, ftrulai is s i ; l 

ived information through a Piedmontese channel tint 
■ing to cross the Scsia, near Prarolo (opposite 
lit has been thrown on the statement by 
i';>ir of the 2ls1 
plan to cross the Sesta mi three bridges to the roar 
that rs to by the Sardinian army, and then 

to join Kiel, very nearly failed, and c 
easily as it was planned. Owing to heavy rains 
misiderahly ; one bridge was Bit 
nearly suffered the same fate ; 
lit*. On the :!14 the weather cleared up, aud the two 
mi that morning near Prarolo. 
iai'fl opportunity. The Piedmontese reports <idmit 
d have thrown himself with every available man upon 
army sum CaurObert's advancing (Solumbi, and dri 
them back into the river. Gynlai had at least three ./fee 

'ed in the afternoon at Bobbin, to 

> annihilate, "-sO/lOO of the enemy. But thert was 

ttOt a 1 1 1 r i > > 1 1 • s i lie attack ought to have been instanla- 

divisions had completed their miuvh 

,i up position, 

fo t In- narrow spa* >en Palest ro and Vsfeelli, wlien the 

roming up " al ease," the Confusion would hare been 

The Pir ead Clyulai, planned a 

ne the French time. This attack was 

anticipated by Zonel's attack on Palestro on In ■ 

31st I tontcse reports apeak of tin? "inconceivable h< 

If (say those reports) the Auatmns had 
eked ui with only 70,000 or 90,000 men, we should have been 
i ma. 
hie, hut i< i j nevertheless true, that Zobel's 
■Iirades whieh made the attack mi ivere allowed I 









3G 



Ql&MAK VIEW OF THE TTALTAK Will, 



[Sim, 



The attack of the two Austrian brigade? wis made with great 
energy and skill, over very difficult ground, intersected by canal*, 
hollows, and tributaries of the Sesia. Zsabo attacked I (one 

mile German) south of Palestra, near the BaHnipna canal. But to 
get at the Piedmontese, it was necessary to <Tosa a small, narrow, 
little atone bridge at the canal lock, The artillery Advanced with 
the brigade which waded the Sesiethi. and attacked tin- Piedmont 
right in the hollow ground at Seotti. Had the attack eu 
the Piedmontese would bare been driven buck towards VerceUi, 
their communications with Canpobert rut oft*, uud, unless in great 
force, they would have lost their position against Robbio, For at 
the same time they were outflanked by Weigl'a brigade on the 
north, near the Cascinu San Pietro, although that brigade had to 
cross aeveral bridge.-* over the Gtemara and fcJcotti canals. By a 
clever maaoMWre, it wedged itself in between the first and second 
line of thePiedmontese, compelled the first line to maki> :i retrogmdfl 
movement, and poured a heavy fire into its Hank. .\t ten I 
the fighting near the Caecum San Pietro was very severe, Ciahlini 
was attacked on both flanks, and nearly lost hia poBttio 
a vigorous tittav-k been made at the same time on the Piedrnon' 
front, they might have been routed. Weigl'a brigade entered 

eta of Palestro, and for :i moment kept a footing there, But 
Zeabo'e brigade was too WBfti to follow np the success. With ■ 
canal in its rear, it was attacked by one of Caorobeftfo brigades 
in front, whilst the third regiment of Zouaves attacked it on the 
Sardinian left, just where the French had crossed near Rivotella, 
The brigade was obliged to beat a retreat before such odd*. This 
wafl no L'twy matter. It was the King of Sardinia himself wh<>, 
seeing matters were perilous, called fur the help of the third 
Zouaves. The seventh battuliou of the Austrian Jagera, aeverl 
leas, stood firm to cover the retreat, and the Zouaves, though three 
tunes at numerous, did Ekotdare, m face of the deadly aunoftfec 
riflemen, to charge, except under sorer of the fire of artilli 
It wita only when the seventh battalion of the Piedmontese riflemen 
(Bersaglieri) and the llith regiment of the line earns to their Stu >- 

Sort that they made a tremendous rush at the. Austrians, who Wi 
unrying over the narrow bridge over the deep canal at Sartiraaa. 
Many were drowned in the canal, eight ^»in-> were left behind, and 
BOUe hundred prisoners fell into the hands of the Sardinians, 

It was two o'clock in the afternoon when Weigl'a brigade found 
itself alone opposed to the French and Piedmontese. It beat a re- 
r at RoBaseo and Rubbio. The Caseins San Retro was reoocn- 
pierl by the Piedmontese; the whole front took up the name nt 
turns it had occupied in the morning. The official returns of the 
Lnstriftn iotaee in the two days of Palest m is given at 2,100 men 
killed ami wounded, including 1 general, 23 officers, and 878 men 
wounded, 321 officers and 1,278 men killed or made prisoners. The 
Piedmontese bulletins speak of considerable losses in the sanguinary 
affeu* which they style ii " brilliant leat of arms," They give th 
loss at lbs killed and wounded at Vinia^tio, and 5S9 at Pales tro on 
the 3Ut They were driven back b) two Austrian brigades, and 
d bv the Trench 




CEBMAtf TUW 01 TBI ITALIAN WAB. 



87 



At the una time a feint attack was made by the Anstrians al 
(Vtiifienza. but it unly led to an exchange of shots. 

Tin- great fault of the Austrian generals in this affair was that 
they did not bring sufficient troops into action. The worst part of 
the story haa to come. During the tight Caurobert completed the 
passage of his troops, and MacMahon left Vereelli unobserved. On 
the following day, 1st of June, the French troops continued to ad- 
vance unopposed, and on the 2nd the corps of Niel, MacMahon, 
Baraguey d'HiJlier?, and the French Guard were at Novara ; an 
avant garde had even reached the bridge at ButTalora, and waa ex- 
ploring the north : Tiemo at Turbign. 

On the 8rd the Piedmonteae army and Canrobert advanced front 
Xovfira t.» Qaltiate and Trecate, and MacMahon actually crossed the 
Ticrno with a division of the Guards. 

And what was liyulai doing during these, three days, when every 
minute was of account ? First of all he did not dare to attack the 
rear <d" the enemy, which might have been successfully done nn the 
2nd, Then fa need his retreat to Abbiategrasso by Vigevano 

from Mortara and by Bereguardo and Pavia from GarUscu. Thia 
movement was too late, a«j the road from thence to the high road to 
Milan, which the Freneh now entered unhindered, is sttme seven 
miles longer than that from Noma to BulYalora. (three miles), cr 
via Turbigo (3J miles). If, even :is late as the 2nd of June, he had 
directed the five eorpa d'arint'e under his orders (four on this side and 
one on the other side of the Tieino at Pavia), and what Scliaffgotsch 
could have spared liim, at onee on Abbiategrasso and Binaaco, the 
Austrian army might on the evening of the 3rd of -Time, at least 
120,01 ki to 160,000 strong, have fallen upon the enemy's flank, south 
iljIi road to Milan. On this very road 7,000 men under 
Cham-Gallas were on their way from Milan to Buffalora, the bridge 
Bfl mined, and even had the French commenced to cross on 
the 3rd, they could not all have crossed. Their separate detach- 
ment- might have been attacked and annihilated. Instead of which, 
wc tind GryulaTa head quarters on the 3rd still at Keeflte, on the 41 h 
Ibbiategrusso, with only two brigades, one division advanced 
to I mother in Magenta, all other troops so far from the 

probable battle-field that, if they did come up, they would be too 
late. 

CHAPTEB in. 

battle oi" Magenta— The Buffalo™ Bridge— The French atfvwe- fftw 
A Guiird ilriwd t«u-k. 

■ fin to the buttle of Magenta. It ia the opinion* of high 

military authorities that if was by no means necessary, according to 

rules, tn oppose the passage of the enemy with the ifh 

d that the proper course of action would have been to have 

' a strong flank position south <>f the road to Milan, as this 

revented the Sardo-French advance on that capital. 

i here, with six corps d'tirmee, have given battle ur 

self. Let lis compare the French, Piedmonteae, and 



#8 GEBMAtf VIEW OP TJETE IXAX.IA5 WAK. [SlM., 

Austrian reports of the combats at Turbigo, Buffalora, and Magenta 
on the 3d and 4th of June. 

On the 2nd June, at 5 o'clock in the evening, the Austrians at- 
tempted to blow up the San Martino or Buffalora bridge, on their 
retreat to the left bank. Sufficient powder was not used, and the 
explosion was bo unimportant that only two arches sank, without 
falling in, so that even artillery was enabled to cross. 

As it was Gyulai's intention to oppose the passage here, it was a 
fault on the part of Lieut. Field-Marshal Clam-Q-allas to abandon 
this position until the bridge was destroyed. Gyulai counted npou 
its destruction, and upon the enemy being driven back on this point.* 
General Espinasse, with a division of the guards, advanced from 
Trecate, took possession of the Buffalora bridge, found the Austrian 
entrenchments deserted, three mortars, two guns, and some ammuni- 
tion waggons. On the same day (2nd .Time) a second division of the 
Imperial guard crossed the river at Turbigo without opposition. 
Thus the nearest passages over the river were in the hands of the 
• French on the very same day upon which Gyulai commenced his 
retreat, and whilst lie si ill had a footing on the right bank. 

At half-past nine o'clock on Hie morning of the 3rd June MaeMa- 
hon's nrmce corps left Xovara ? at 2 p.m. it crossed the river at Tur- 
bigo, where it found a brigade of the Imperial guard already in 
possession of the village and bridge, aild then pushed on towards 
Kobechctto, to take up a position on the plateau. MacMahon de- 
scribes Eobechetto as a very advantageous position. It is a 
considerable village, two kilometers from Turbigo, and commands 
the surrounding country. Almost at the same moment an Austrian 
column was ndvaucing from Buffalora to occupy the village. This 
was Cordon's brigade, which is only mentioned once in Gyulai's 
report, as having been sent against Turbigo. Although MacMa- 
hon was sure of great superiority in numerical strength (one 
corps and one division of the guards), yet he ordered ( lenerul Lamotte- 
rouge to at tuck with three battalions, and then sent up to his aid the 
other regiments of his division. Two of these regiments, with the artil- 
lery and the voltigeurs of the guard.t supported the attack of tin; 
three battalions, so that the Austrian column, after a sharp fusilade, 
was compelled to evacuate the village. From Castano to the north 
of Turbigo the head of an Austrian division of cavalry showed itself, 
but withdrew after a few rounds of artillery. 

Here, again, to oppose the passage of which Gyulai was informed 
on the 3rd of June, the Austrians were either too weak numerically, 
or arrived too late. 

The 4th of June had been lixed upon by the Emperor Xapoleon 
III. for the definitive occupation of the left bank. Mac Mahon's 
instructions were to advance with his whole corps, and the division 
of the Voltigeurs of the garde, and followed by the whole Sardinian 
army from Turbigo on Buffalora and Magenta, whilst the 
division of Grenadiers of \\\o yardc and Canrobi-rt's corps crossed 

* Ckim-Galkig could not have known on tli" itiiu June that tin- t-'-tr </r /i-mt ut Tur- 
bigo had been turned, 
t MacMalion had at tenet thirteen battalions of it with him. 



GEmjATT view or Tirr. italia^ wab. 



m 



the Buffalo ra bridge; Nief*a eurps and that of Baraguey d'HiJUera' 

were to follow. Thus, on the north side a force of certainly 1UO,000 

'. whilst the Emperor Napnleon III. crossed unop- 

artino to the south with his < rrenadiers. 

Thr second and third division of the "Piedmoiitcae arrived tiLsu 

■ hi the 4th at 11 a,ui., dose upon the heels of MnoMnhon's 

. the It ft hank near Tarbigo, a good mile (German) distant 

ira.* Tlity were, however, stopped in their advance 

nt:t by the news that the Austrian Lieutenant-Field-Mar- 

vus at G-allarate (two miles to the north), and might 

threaten tin Sardinian flank. The Piedmoutcse sent out reconnm- 

terin . nhieh eame. upon Austrian cavalry, which withdrew in 

da Rnato Garolfb. At seven in the erec- 
tile Sardinians arrived on the battle-field of Magenta 
id look part in the last act, the storming or Ma« 
tfl. MacMahon had al least G0,000 to 70,000 me» 
30,000, the division of the gdttt« 
j, and two [Hedmontese diviaiona each 15,000 strong). 

met with some delav between Novaraaiid Buf- 
to the road being encumbered with I In? French baggage 
train #ever sun.- to arrive at the other aide df the bridge 

the 4th, where somewhat hastily the Emperor 
i 111. had joined the division of the (Tarde and Zouaves. 
t» not without some anxiety that the Emperor awaked the 
■ival of MaeMahuu at liufFalora, when about '2 j\m. 

ing and a cannonade was heard from that tjjaaxtef. 

ing had i oiHlm jicid at tJOOll at Finite di Mageuta.t Tram 

till 4 the Imperial guard was driven back bytlid 

ivards the Ticino. Thin is nol mentioned In ! ttie MtmU 

■ .< rtheless true. The official reports on both sides 

arc meagre. Gyulai did nol wifih to bring into notice the small 

MacMahon at Turbigo, and because al feh<8 

• himself rode to Magenta to give his orders. If 

ak out honestly, he would own that up to 7 

\tx the evening he was only opposed by one Austrian division 

and latir, perhaps, at IJuifalora, by a small port inn of* 

that is to say. that with 50,000 men and two 

serve, be was kept at bay all day by from 

to 20,000 A ustrkna. Meantime the grenadiers of the fmard, 

ea under the Emperor Napoleon 111., were kept back 

by Clam-Dallas' corps, 7,000 strong, and portions of the aeeond eorpa 

Lers wore so serious an aspect that the 
ioleun 111. Iiad alreadv issued the order to bring up the 
treat over t he Ticino. J 

a, the fault of the Austrian? con- 
ug obstinate battle with forces numerically inferior to 
.1 

fter the Brat skirmishes, was divided into two 

.lot ut t lie French rcjxjrt*. 

|«U1. 

Iiitti'ity (\>ni]»binsoft!n;cookHl-iip atatwnwrtli in l\\u AfQnlUm, 



40 



flTSEMAN TTEW Or THE ITAlUH WAH. 



[Sen . 



parts, north and south, separated by the railway earthworks, and tie 
road leading from tin 1 Tiomb rifl .Magenta to Milan The liul.- town 
of Magenta was, however, the Austrian centre, it a centre cm eri«t 
without wings. Prom Magenta the Austrian^ sent Libia 
northward. Unit is to way, against MaclHahoirs army, at leftst 1G,0<.X> 
atroug, and supported by two divisions of the .Sardinian army. Cur- 
don's division was at Turbigo. This division, separated more than n 
g eog raphical mile from the other, had to sustain the whole onslaught 
of an army corps and a division of tho garde ; it had tlien to nil 
hack on Buffalo™, which was the junction point of MaeMabon and 
the Emperor, so that it was attacked on both sides. 

It is a wonder that it was ant out off at first, as tin.' only help ii 
could expect WHS from Clam and Liechtenstein, who had a 
from Magenta toward Mcrealln (half an bom's march north 
gentajf, to oppose MaeJlahnn's loft whig, These troops, however 
(Clam-Liechtenstein), had at the same time to hold Magi 
main position, and to defend the whole line of mad, h 
defiles over the eanal (nar'njtin), towards the Imp hich 

bad crossed the Tessin near Wan Mart inn. and had advanced us fat n* 
ttie great canal. Refochacn's brigade (seven corps i was -^t ill in Cnr- 
bettii, about an hour's March beyond Magenta, and iboul 
geographical mile from the bridge over the grant canal. When tin* 
battle had been Waging some time, three brigades came up I 
Abbiategmsso, and attacked tin- enemy's flank. To understand 
battle it is neeessar y to keep in view the middle bridge over the e 
canal. The Austrian front was wry strong, ur it could never hsuc 
maintained ifa position till dusk, or retaken it. The French y< 
after crowing tw Tessin at San Mnrrino, had still a mile and a half 
(one-half German mile) to advance, eastwai rds Pouh 

Magenta, that is, to the little village which lies on either wide of the 
bridge, and where there are four large stone buildings, lined as sta- 
tions and custom-houses. The French troops advancing on Magenta 
had to carry those houses to roach the bridge, and as they debouched 
beyond the bridge, were open to a lire from the houses at the other 
side. Ou tho right and left of the road are rice Gelds, into 
by canals, hedges, and swampy ground, and starting from ilngenta 
there is a ridge of hillocks running north and south to Ijull'alora and 
RobeocG. At Buffalora and Bobeece are two other bridges over ttie 
great i anal, which had also to be taken by the French from 

.Magenta on the Austrian side the road from Buffalora and PontoB di 
<nta could be crossed without abridge, those plai g nn 

the other side. 

The Austrian Generals committed a groat fault here — they en- 
trusted this position at I'unte di Magenta to ton small B force. Tin* 
honses im the canal and bridge were carried bv the Vn n. h at the 
■■limit noon by the third regiment of grenadiers nnd 
Zouaves of the guards, whilst Regnaull de s t. Jean d'Angely ad- 
vanced the second grenadier regiment at once on Buflalora, 
good his communications with MaeMabon. At about 2 o'clock I 
ah, who had already heard MacJdahon'a eaunonade in the no 
pvcupied the position.* * The Zouaves and the grenadiers of the third 

♦P ■" -*port. 






1859.] 



flERMiX TtEW OP THE TTAIUK WAR. 



and i ments, supported by the chattxnm de fa garde, and the 

artillery btf the division, now attempted to advance on Magenta, but 
they were so warmly received bj txittts, bcw m considerable 

, that t]n-\ were ilnvcu bock behind the houses of Ponto di Ma- 
in, the cavalry finding shelter behiud the bridge. It was the 
whole <:!' Mellinet'B division of the garde (except the second regi- 
* under Colonel Alton, which b;id been sent to Butluloru,) that 
i* lo say, the two brigades, Cler and "Wimpften, which, with the ar- 
Mid cavalry of the gr>rdr t in vain attempted to resist the 
of Bei&chaeh's division, who, not only recaptured 
• nta, but at 4 p.m. reached Builalora. At this hour 
the Aunt nana fancied they hnd won the day, and, ae Regnault ob- 
served, t ! so far not wrong, as they had retakes the ropst 
important position of the front, and threatened the communications 
ofthe enemy, in this fight, which lusted fur two hours, the Frem-h 
red terribl 
Th*» sound of MncMahon'a artillery. however. Led them topped 
help from that quarter. MacMahonleft Turbigo at 10 a.m., ad- 
vancing nta. From C'uggiono to Buftalora, he had a march 
miles and a half id to Magenta, two miles. 
IF- led the Voltigeaw of the Garde, and hid whole corps, at least 

trong, ami he had. moreover, two divisions of Piedmont 
m reserve, who joined him at eleven, and he had already crossed 
ml at Turbigo, so that he had so local impediments to 
apprehend, and an enemy much inferior in number to cope with. 
He divided bin corps into two heavy columns, so as to advance 
both muds again Bt Buff al or a and Magenta, and enjoyed the. iin- 
men that the two roads were never further apart than 

a Qd n mile or half a mile, so that he was enabled to maintain 

muniefttiotuj between his two columns, until he reached the 
.le- field, 
Laui -'a and Camou's divisions took the west road by 

Butfalora ; Kspiuasse'* division the east road by 

calli Magenta, both on the Austrian right flank. 

The first division reached Jiuil'alora without difficulty; the two 
unit* which liaid been advanced to Caaate hod imme- 
i fall back before the tvro divisions. A little before 2 o'clock 
the two first divisions came upon LilhVe division at Jluffalora, 
wbiFt Fspinasae'i* division was met at Mercidlu i quarter, of an hour's 
march north of Magenta), by Clam Gailas. 

rding to MacMahon'fl own report, it was about 2 o'clock, 

that be commenced au overpowering attack on Hufiulura, juat aa 

Clam's corps was driven by the Imperinl guard, and BeiPchach's divi- 

wantod al leas! half an hour's time to reach Corbetta. Never- 

tit its own for nearly two hours against 

its number, driving thein back more 

ViaoMnhon ordered JSapinassp to come up closer, to ex- 

■ Ins riejit wintj to Caseina and Qazzoflame, and that he 

lorm with Lamotterouge's and ('annul'' h divisions. At 

time the Austriaus were taken in (lie rear by the 2nd 

regiment of Grenadiers under Colonel Alton. 

(To be w&tiaued.) 



[Sept., 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF SIE JOHN BUllGOYXE'S 
OPINIONS AXD OF THE BEFOULS OF LIEUT.-GEN. 
MACINTOSH ON THE DEFEND! OF TUKKKV. 

To the Editor of the United Service Metgaxme. 

f&m, — Having iu my letter of the lbfh ult. observed that the iu- 
formation comprised an that portion of Sir John llurgoyne's reeeut 
work, headed " Turkey and liussia in l&oi/' bad been eutnnnini- 
eated by me to Government, previous to the mouth oi' February in 
tbat year, when Sir John's opinions were written, I eonsid 
eumbent on me to show the accuracy of that statement which.it 
appears to in* can lie best accomplished by placing Sir Joan Bur- 
govne's remarks and ray own Bide by wide, as T have arranged then) 
below. 

1 inn aware thftj the length of my eumiiimiieuiitm will be severely 

tanking your .« pare, but. Geueiderittg the hnpOtianee of thaaubji 
ami the intcreM uVhae excited in military rirclee, I trust yon will 
consider it not uu sidled hi TOUT pages. 

It may be proper to observe, that at the time my reports, hurriedly 
put together, wore nude, I ma nut on the Active List — that I was 
totally unaided in carrying through the exploratory journeys which 
enabled me to make them, and that the different Ministers to whom 
tiny vu'iv addressed are no Longer in office. 

Hi my letter of the iSth ult. I have made si slight clerical error 
in slating tlitit I wrote to Lord Eaglan, "to draw to hie rerolleetion 
and notice the following postage in wy report of 1884.*' I shot 
hare aaid that I wrote to 1 1 ih Lordahip "the following pa, 
draw to hi?i recollection :ind notice w>/ report e/'lf-CH,"' 
I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

A. P. MACINTOSH, Lt.-ulenaut-General. 

The subject will be best introduced by the following enmmuntca- 
tion nersl Macintosh to Lord Stratford de Redelifie, Her 

iero~ 

points uonneeteu uitn the ucicnee oi lurJirr, gone into m 
more detail in hi* subsequent papers, which will be found iu par;' 

tons wilb the e atfio t a I'mm Sir John Hurgoyne's lUilitnrit 
Ojiitiiotis. 
I" -'I venture to -ubniit for perusal a (I hieh occurred t<> me 

in thi$ country, connected with its" defease M tin- rfdb to- 

: Hll.-ijl. 

it place, the line of the Danube \n »o , nc nature 

ol the country in its iinnn unmn'n- 

i posed to 

i:;it tie latter A\< 
meet Liu ; : ■ Uy sided. 

It tii I thai Mil- bfst phm of procedure would be 



lion I roin iTrnerai luaemiosu in ijiiru oirnnorn <ie neacunr, i 
M&jeuty*fl Ambassador to the Ottoman Porte, bearing date " Thl 
pia [near Constantinople], Otb July, 1858," which touches on 
various points connected with the defence of Turkey, gone inti 



l-olitul 

reference, 



.ikI ii.k i iliealt.Ua- 
•ativdaosU u> lacilimte 



ON THE DEfENCE Of TtJBKEY, 



43 



only to pan-ison the fortresses on the Danube, and to strengthen duly the 

i situation io 
their assailants, 
ith lii iimil'l In- done to put Shnmla nod Varna in 

complete n wtait of preparation to receive their garrisoiia as possible, and, 
the passes leading through the mountains in then* rear should 
:i<hI widi field work?, looking towards those for- 

4. '• Heavy cannon, such as ships' gun?, might be placed in these works, 

rhki used ng&hisi the tasofx on tbu side in the event of 

any porti irons falling into the temporary pobiwrion of an enemy, 

a. "It would he impossible to prepare such works at a period when active 

ight be going on in the field, and the expense would be greatly 

■I by employing in their construction the troop." which ate already 

in (hat neighbuurli 1 ; j ■ I _ bcftu'G their disperaiou renders this impossLbl 

igo of muuntain* called the Leaser Balkan, behind the great 

l towards the seji, the pass through which, near h'uld, should 

tlso be strengthened with a view tu its occupation, a* a tort re landing behind 

the pawn through the llnlkan, which lie in rear of Varna, might otherwise 

J penetrate from thence into the country. 

7. ' Should the mnii; succeed, as before, in reaching Adrianople, 1 believe 

that Constantinople might be defended by occupying a position which ex - 

:tr<N the Blauk Sen, from tin- creeks or hikes called Buyuk Chek- 

tul Ku tehuk I'll of Marmora. Thjs position, 

to be artificially strengthened. 

! 1, on the European side of the Dardanelles, ought 
:i hind attack, by works nrisi 1 across the Dai row 
pari of the isthmus north-east of (jidlipoli, as most of ilu- batteries on that 
loot the Stmii could easily be carried from the heights behind them, if 
now are. 
!( vouid also be very desirable thut the Gulf of Saros, behind ihnr 
lv surveyed, and the soundings n<Mr the Isthmus 
1, a favourable opportunity for doing which is atlorded hv 
in' fleet at Besika Bay, I say this in the belief that no such 
nt. exists. 
" !<• it ol onrshtps Iiavingatany period to act there, and possibly 

would he, found of gi'eiit utility. 
! 1 . • .viit'i' that works are, to a cei'Uun e.vtent, in progress 

the Mus-phnrus, which wad a precaution much called 
ir lot ; > li I have adverted to would require the cartful 

of engineers^ who troidd 
execution ; and I fear that the T 
doe* n>>l afford n snfficient number tor this nndertukiiig ; and 
11 my Blind that the whole staff arrangements in 
•y deficient, 
miethatit lb ascertained thai the Bays of Bourgas and Varna 
troeticahle stations for our ships of war; hut I am informed that 
Ulaek Sen generally are not very well known to any navy, 
it 1.1 Kussm; and it." various harbours, which are, 1 believe, 
by running along shore, are not accurately laid down 
Kamination of the ports of the Turkish shore, executed 
able, might, 1 should suppose, prore useful if our 
to enter the Black Sea, which could at present be 

,1 naval officers, assisted by .seme ablu ai u 

icr, with a commander and men gcmerallj 

; art to be forcibly occupied by Russia, it i? very pro- 



44 



STB JOHN BTTBGOTNE AND GUN, MACINTOSH 



[SlW., 



bank that troops may frequently he sent by water between (lie peninsula of 
the Crimen and the opposite shore, to which our craven in that sea miglu 
oanse great interruption, unci by assailing Odessa (which, I believe, still only 
possesses u insignificant fort, as whs the caso when I was there), as W 
other open places on the const, might draw forth the Russian squadron liom 
its stnmghold of bebastopol. 

15. M At Lord I'onsunby s Bequest, I wrote, sonic account of that harbour mild 
its works (then finished and in progress), when I was there in the wnd of 1 MA, 
and of Balaklava, near it. 

16. "The memorandum was marked * Remarks on the Operations of Russia 
near the Black Sea,' and was sent by his Lordship to the Foreign Office" 

The following is nn extract from his Excellency's reply in 
acknowledgment of the foregoing communication : — 

"Allow me at all events to thank you for your interesting 
respecting the Danube, and the means of defending Constaatiaoplt, 

" 1 have put. them in a way io be useful," 

In placing tin- (bQomng statements of sir .lohn Burgoyne and 
Genera Macintosh in parallel columns, "it is not intended to chow 
thnt. the information they respectively comprise wa 
i isclv the some form, but that it* purport, and even the details, i 
in both oases the same, thus proving ttat the facta had been pre viotalt 
.■<iniiinuiu.it. <! to the authorities by General MneintoBh: — 



Sir Jnnv Buihhmm; 

After some remarka on the 

comparative numbers and quality 
of the Russian and Turkish 
armies, and their position at that 
time (Feb., 1851), Sir John Bur- 
goyne proceeds : — 

a, "To whatever extent thev nmv 
threaten the two llaakfi, or make 
partial attacks there, or whatever line 
ihey m.'i\ determine to take tor their 
subsequent advance, the real point 
where they will make their pr< 
Eorttocroafl »3n ■ Danube, wia their 
main forces, may be fully expected to 
be in or about the centre. By this 
means the whole of the defensiro 
line <if the river will bfl cut in two, 
foul the Russian* once firmly ■-■= iul»- 
Itshed on the ri^lii bnnk) the lurks 
must necessarily retire t<> Sii 
and the Balkan; and it i> t.> be hoped 
that this will be effected before 

lied corps on the flanks shall be 
i. in Miiieli compromised. 

b. "A river of the extent of tlii.- 

nortion of the Danube, thai !*, same 

■ndreds of mil< s funis no teal u re 

leitce to a country ; it present > 

.' w obstacle which some poit- 

»ViW \m«v^, Ui a few hours obliterate. 



Lt.-Generaj. ,M 

Tin' followingwas addressed to 
a Stud' Officer high in rank on 
the 11th October, 18,':*, after 
reaching Knglanil : — 

1". " When I was jit Con 
in summer, at which period apprehm 
sjoiis existed that the advance of tl>< 
Russians would not Mop nl the 
Danube, I took the liberty of mi 
some us of a pv 

nature tu Lord Stratlbrd il 
iji consequence uf this, nnd lie 
upon those suggestioi rthynf 

attention. 

IS. "Mj having passed a;, 
months in the provinces and capital 
of Turkey in (runner years, em 
■ speak about that countn 
personal observation on these 
jecta, and according to publi 
accounts my suggestions Jjave at 
adopted by I 'mar l*»ctir« 
in the direction of the Balkan an 
Danube. 

J:«- " 'J l.i i .en -e of my writing to 
ymi jnst now is to say, thnt I think 
that although the Russians were to 

vitb the Turk.H, nnd even Jo 
occupy Constantinople, the Dnrda- 



OK THE DEFENCE OF TUBKEY. 



46 



Sin Jun>" Ecbi..ivm;. 

re any strong ibrtressee 
4 t he enemy's route, tiny 
l>e wi 11 garrisoned, and would 
■>■ |i.iiiiiiilarly harassing to an 
i it there waa attached to them 
itJIy strong tete tie po/it, bo as 
ire access, to both franks. The 
of defence on this part of 
nlier would be by retaining n 
lij*hf hold On the river (except 
these mi^'lit be good* for- 
), and foj the 

it tin- rear, ready to full upon 
■■t advance across it, should cir- 
rd a favourable un- 
ity, which n hardly to be 
Mn. 

Tie first real defence then that 
Id appear could be prudently 

!■ I be on the. Balkan pa- 
f these, it is said, presents very 
features that might, bo doubt, 
f much improved by entrench- 
and engineering work of dit- 
kinds. It is probable tlmt the 
f peal attack on the Balkan 
be mure dearly indicated ov 
ascertained than that on 
tuube, and against it the menus 
Id naturally thi : ' 
: still a loading arrange- 
f,>r defence would be good re- 
in th»renr,towippoJ't whatever 
ouM 1»- found to require it 
>n the Balkan it is to be hoped 
bo Turkish armies would, by 
gemeuts, be under Buch 
advantages ol position aa to 
i hem to make an ob.sti-iotc 
uid it' not deceived in the 
i ot nttaek, and thereby 
d to bo well prepared to meet 
;ht perhaps give their enemy a 
liscouragiiitf check. Still the 
must be many, 
my, still numerous, would 
igth establish himself 
but, by this time, feeling 
if the campaign and for* 
movement in such a country, 
aid find a difficulty in keeping 
er such large bodies, in main- 
* their efficiency, and obtaining 
I them. These difficulties 

icb as they are, they have alway* 
jtv well defended by the Turk*. 



Q] If, M.H 1NTOMI. 

nclle-s might be held in spite of them 
by a power having the command of 
a llect. 

■j<». ■■ You know that the European 
side of the Dardanelles isn peuinaula, 
connected by a narrow tieek with the 
mainland. The old Turkish raslle.- 
or batteries, bo well known, are 
chiefly on the water's edge, and would 
not defend the .European side of the 
peninsula in case of a land attack, 
and the peniiwula once occupied, they 
must themselves very aOon faU into 
tin- bamU nf the assailant*. 

SI, "To prevent the occupation of 
the peninsula by a force passing over 
the neck or isthmus, I would propose 
that a .strong line t>f worts should be 
riveted ac'runs its unrrmcnut part, whieh 
is only a J'tw miles hrmtil. and iif 
which point the slope of land is 
favourable for the purpose. It lies 
aonuj miles above {<*. e. N.E.) of 
Gallipoli. 

22. m If the Russians wen enabled 
touilvuini.' en Constantinople there i- 
uo doubt they would make a simnlte- 
eeoaa movement do the Dardanelles, 
and would easily carry the Latteries 
on the European side at the go 

whtie lliey are couiplrlily COttl- 
mauded. 

98. " Coiislaiitinojih iisivr 

that an army might occupy iis tulaud 
portion without a fleet being able to 
dislodge it, though it might bombard 
and batter the districts near the? 

24. : - A struggle of this kind would 
cause the entire destruction of the 
city, but. mere Operations from the 
sou would have little oilier result, 

2.'}. "Aa the fortification of theGalli* 
poli isthmus would require time, and 
os the winter there is usually not so 
severe pj to prevent the erection of 
such works, it might 1* worthv <A' 
consideration whether tins ikouhi not 
If commenced us soon us the ritk of 
hostility* in tpring in<ty apimr to ft 
jreat. 

26. "I really think that if i 
were also added nn the shore of the 
peninsula, along the Gulf of Sat 
naval power might make a stronghold 
of it" 



16 



SIB JOUK BTTBOOTfU-E A1H> fiES". MACINTOSH 



[Sept., 



Sin Jouw Bt'KfiOYSE. 

A greatly fatunase as In pw* 
dhjs advMde. With Httlo or 
no exterior, op iven internal • 

intiy, it in presumed, 
would furnish very lew resource*, 
the troops 
after entering i' lie would 

find tio great husbanded store of 
groin find provisions, such as arc met 
with iti other countries, or the little 
there would lifive been consumed, iu 
agrent degree, by thu Turkish troops, 
who will have been before them. 
The cattle driven out of their reach, 
or (it least very scarce ; the means of 
transport nil by land, and with no 
facilities by great roads ; with a large 
number of sick, which -would have CO 
bo removed or provided lor; with 
tly lengthened linesof commuai* 
ration, and various intermediate sta- 
tions to bo protected, amidM. a 
(mflering and e< 'y inimical 

jjitjiiil iitin,], aided, as it might be, by 
irregulars ; and both BUMCfl OH 

iiii'clv in the power of the allle*. 
from whence the uw tinny Would be 
threatened, nnd the otllM greatly 
assisted. 

/', -It may b* considered that at such 
a pci dl-]ovji:ired field of 

buttle covering the capital, and v 
(tanks could not be turned, could 
be relied on for effectually pre- 
venting the invader from attain- 
ing hn great and niml obji 
and there is no doubt but thai < i: 
cuinstauces afford facilities for the 
arrangement of such a field of battle 
along tlio line of the Carason river, 
from its mouth in the lake of Bujuk 
Checkmedge, on the sen of Mar- 
mora, to Kara Boumti, mi the libick 
Sea. The length of tin;" line from 
sea to sea is twenty-four or twenty- 
five miles, but each flank being 
covered by lakes rind rivers would 
be easily watched and soured, aud 
the extent of the real fighting ^muud 
would be by these features reduced 
to nine or [.Lin, but 

able undulations, aftord- 

strenc 

by a great devclnpnw 

field work? 



Gr.N. HACfWtOftrf, 
The .Staff officer already re- 
ferred to jreat prompti- 
tude and /.;il tor I 
receiving I he 

replied in the following terms ou 
the 21st Oetoh ' .— 

27. "Your letter of th* Mth, regard- 
ing Turkish nffutr* nnd the 
the Dardanelles, &e. 
perused by Lords II 
Raglan,* and now I send U to Lord 
Clarendon, tm containing much 
and useful matter." 

The following is extracted frolO 
the journal of General Mucmtoah, 
kept in l^'4't, and -nit dn 
thai year to the Embassy at i 
stantinople, .\ eopy was 
warded t<> Lord Raglau 
after General Macintosh's feturn 
to England in 1853 : — f 

■ The country, Par it disten 
eight or nine miles after leavin 
.\dri;i!M»[iL- gate Of ( '"!i- 

ublea the neighbourhood 

1 1 tif iii.ii th\ . I ii,- road 
unc considerable l»< > 
iiiid on I he opposite side of th>. ■ 
the village and Luke of Kir 
Chckiuudgee. which \vu reached 
about two hours after 1 
city. This lake id separated from 
the sea by a innrdiv isthmus >>f little 
breadth, which i 

tig between the lake ami 

the sea. The breadth of 
the waters ui r whicli 
is here about half n in ising 

higher np, ami dividing ut the dis» 
of several miles into a lurk ; 
'isiajile re- 
ir a river which is genernlly 
lake. 
tiles birth. ■ 
Irianoplc, lie the great Uke 
and bthmi Buyuk ' 

30, "Oo the Constantinople ■ 

* A cojiy ut it Mi 
Raglan 



is war. 



©H Fsjjlan 



ISoO.] 



OK THE DEFSKCX OF TTTEK1T. 



47 



Sib Joan Bphgoyjje. 

>,» M One taosl important advantage 
obtained from the occupation 
ol i hi = position would be, that it 
Covert the entire Bosphoroits, and 
wou?d therefore enable our fleets to 
remain masters of the navigation of 
the Black Se« to the last, and pi-e- 
nemy from Iho use of it, 
h "To apply ihij resonrees of thifl 
ion with effect, two ingredients 
!»■ available; first, early mid 
OMCgetic I"' w Mire i for entrenching 
•0 groat an extant so as to giro it 
the greatest possible strength - and 
the other, i Imt an adequate farce 
Miiin available tor its occu- 
pation and defence. The first would 
require the application of several 
workmen for t=ereral 
bf, and could only be effected 
bo employment of troops, but 
with an understanding that a d 

ncfil would be derived from 
their labours which would 

rogressively improved to the 
wary laxt moment. The second 
! require ."(1,000 good troops, 
i(»' increa^o in mini- 
f -uch i\s might bi_- interior. 
Thf*e may nppear to bo heavy de- 
it '-.in seareely be consi- 
; so, in and last stand 

II i if aii empire! 
Wr have now lo consider the 
part that can be taken by the allies. 
Fran -/land, in tbeae and 

fleet! are already W •:• 
• |niti' prepared to act in, the 
hey can render 
i services. They nil! main- 
tain the power to "the Turks of a 
water communication to the frontier 
;., while they interrupt 

slmt lesny, and thai render 

1 snpport to the OrrcBMii 

1 ilireaten Sebostopol, which 

be secured from an attack 

by maiiitniniti^ a large force in its 

Hlgjlbourhood ; they will powerfully 

in the operations of first 

lurk, 

ibe enemy, tin 1 

. 

Maiaoor-t. aiid the 



Gen, MjtcixToen. 

Kutihuk Chekmed^v r.lmrc i* a 
commanding position where 
heights arc very strong, although 
quite unaided by art. 

31. "A few works on tho heights, 
above and to the left of the town, near 
■ burying ground, would command 
the i-thimi^ and n'mt this road from 
Adrianopli', or a t&e depone, or per- 
haps a couple of MarteHo towers, 
not immediately commanded from 
the opposite beigi I probably 

have marly the samecuecf. 

3*2. " Boats could easily navigate the 
lake, and indeed might be brought 
into it from the sen, although i 
were to be seen upon it. 

3."i "Nothing seems to have been 
done on any side with jod 
cover the capital, so strongly situated 
by nature. 

'H. "Over the bridge at the great 

lake at Buyuk t Ihekmedgee, od the 
Constantinople side, is a second very 
BQportant pi^ilion. wli'ieh we nriehed 
a little before dusk, after crossing 
the dilapidated causeway which ti.<- 
the isthmus, and proceeding 
over ■ country of heights am! valleys, 
the former becoming bolder to our 
right, but which, notwithstanding 
tin- muddy condition of the wavs, 
were quite easily crossed. A zig- 
zag road leads down from the crest 
of the position, into ibe town of 
Buyuk Chekmedgee. 

35. " Next morning, leaving liuyuk 
Chekmedgee, we proceeded by u 
paved mad along the marshy isthmus 
which divides the Ufa from the sea 
and is very narrow, and newly similar 
to that at Kutchnk Chekmedgee, 

36. " On both sides, espedudry on 
the Adrmnnple side, the land is lower 
than at Ivutcimk Chekmedgee, but 
admits also of Ix-tng made very el rong. 
On the side last laentimwd it is 
smooth and open, at* undulating 
slope reaching from the heights down 
to the sen. 

37. " A river, knot 

soo, runs through the lake from 
height- ol ibe leper Bulk*" 



flIE JOffK BPBGOTira AND t»E!f. MACfNTOBli 



gai 

rnn 



t>Jlt JOBS Bu»«">l S£. 

i Roumelia at the hcud of 

e Archipelago, will be obtained 

pom ilnir maritime ascendancy. 

Jut to retain Al those benefits it is 

ibsolutely Dt that wc should 

scare 1 1 ■ « ■ being perfect mastei 

lie Bosphoru* ana the Dardsne I 

irithout die first we must retire from 

the Black ,Se.tt, without the la>! 

ndy from the Black Set but from 

iea of Blannqru also, [osing with 

even nil communication with Con- 

itautuioplu, except by the [ncouvu- 

lietit iuid distant route from Sinyrnn. 

' ml it must be remembered tlutt 

the Dardanelles, the possession ou 

idiieh everything hangs, u much 

learvr for the tnemjf to gtdn Aon 

tantinople, and thai hi* first 

would naturally be made 

gainst ilint station, in order to cat 

the communication between Tiir- 

ey and her allies, and thugpttichldti 

II further exertion in her fuvouri 

t *' The only mode of aecuring the 

loaphorus du been adverted to. 

he situation of the Dardanelles is 

taehed, hot presents fur greater 

Qities for its protection, though 

ill rii|iiii'in-.' t'liiisidciiibli.' mentis. 

'a 13 to be effected by occupying 

wcrfullytbcneck ofhuid,whicn con- 

ol . tlv groat Buropi mi Fetus 

;he old Chersonese of Tin nee), with 

the main land. At about sevenmile* in 

if (Tidlipoli. and near the vil- 

e of Boukdur, this neck U only 

reomikr '.vide, being th 

I that identical 
prirta. position that, du! I ml 

rrisoncd, outy be given cuuruiuu* 
cngth. The whole extent • 
ana the Peninsula, in rear of that 
Une, would be protected by the nnvnl 
farces. Large menus would he re- 
quired to be applied to the prepm , - 
tirm of this position within a phort 
time: 4,000 workmen tvmdd do it 
in three months, understanding, as 
in nil oases afield work?, that Win In 
is obtained, even from the earliest 
ceding, which is successively hn 
ivtd, ami .! garrison of 12,000 good 
*oulJ bi : ,],-. 

tiii< position, h 



GffiT'. MiLlMoHI. 

The return journey tin 
tlie poBition k tie 

annexed extract, taking urn i«- 
; iea iu a re verm — 

- We tvaelied Chat- 

bofon 

hours front Buyuk (bokmodgc 

fvm Darken on the Bind 

eight 

39, " LeavtnyChatsahJa. « 
by a narrow ru;id of square at i me I ■ I 
running across the .iiiel., 

funning n ruai'sh in its eon 
e Hi Buyuk LI 1 1 I 

to. "On leaving this mar 
Constantinople sidn, the ground 
into a fine commanding 
eietr dfth* great hike, with 
and town, and thr n 
btgtntd it, 

-II u -V similar roadleada to Derkon 
on the Black Sen. 

42. " Ascending the heights for .. 
two miles we observed, wi 
road ;i little, ,i comun -..t tit 

tin a fort in- telcgrupEi n 
I'urtlier on, ground foruiin.' 
]i i-ition. 

+3. u These heights aro aendy 

n ISitviikl'hi-ki., 
Kara-Bornoo, <uid tire tin 
the Him oftfefi 

14, - I'he lakes inquestu 
lelV of that strong defensible lini . 
tfihkh hi\ ilH right ,itt t! 
Kara-linrit'<>, tm lb, Q 

the 
■ 
3 

Bwpftoru 
eablt 

4J. ,l TnetownofChatsalds brae I 

ten tnile* from tlie passage over tin* 
manhy ledge, which separatee toe 

.r lake of Buyuk Chi 
from die mi. That hike and ih<- 
sdjoiufng one sre gradually tost in u 
ni:u->h ne.ir the town of" ChatSf 
and the advance of troops migh 
iv difficult, by taking 

IB Of tltr mittttv nf /.■*„. ,■ nmt,;/ 

Mice from Chats ildato 
the Blitk 3 miles, 



OK THE UErEKCE OF TSfiKET. 



49 



5 aid not be solely cojifiued r. • 
of the fleet, but 

irottl'ii".' ven turcatvuingfbroficniivc 

i vvrv 
irhin which might 

thought advisable 
a advance, cither to the 
icr, with ii 
isxatively short coniaiimicatfm, 
it is, 
nit that Hoaldtbrsn the 
boM bas>j i'iI' operation?, (iir mil, 0MM 
iilliaiiLi? with Ti 

iiicli would be applied 

nediatc protection of Co»- 

lo, although the water coni- 

wouJd bo open to the 

Hot" Knos, iitut, perhaps, up the 

ritaa, the depot*, hospital.*, ro- 

iblishcd on 

this Feninsuta. 

a to the consideration. 

ka defences for Constantinople 

. lim* boa been doa 

round the city, ul only .1 mile of ( tto 

in advance: this has been what, till 

a recent period, ha* always attracted 

1 1 to which alone attention 

wn» turned. The ground k extremely 

Iavour;ibl._\ l.h.1 allurdg great advan- 

tages to a defender, ai web" around 

t*elfa» its suburbs beyond 

<n Horn. Jt would carer 

ice from tli'- ->'it <>f 

to the Bosphorux, ai ■ 

ichcd, wuiil'l becaptiblei 

stderulii'- n.'-i:!.uii-c, but it has several 

1 , is cau h.inllvln' deemed Bufli- 

\r extensive ami iiilhu-iitinl for 
ic last resort ofn great army. 

[1 . 

dtnjjs aud fcufii! 
,-.- would bi' '^t'calh inlltieucd 
. iusurreeiinii 
ii'usiou of tin 
to that 110 vigorous 
in it. 
'I til ;t 
point lur 

whole 
rittlv, 

1 sa Ulti i;i 
QUI llv 



hlw W.itDfTOaff. 

aud ;i Utile to the north-east the 
of the little Balkan begins, 
which runs pretty steeply down tu 
the show of the llospliorous, and 
slopes towards the Black Sea. The 
• through i r ;ire difficult and 
unmade, ami there cam be Httfc tloubt 
that this lr',i,, if praj ;t/i<n«l 

and defex led, would put Cotuttwti* 

ItOfiU hrtjoii'l lh>. rilik Of COptttft. 

It would cover effectually the great 
bends or reservoirs on which the 
L'ity depends for water, and the 
country Which would be enclosed by 
it might uftcrwards be rendered fruit- 
ful aud prOSpOTO 

i 7 " From hence u highly defensible 
country, intersected by steep ravines, 
exten da 1 1 1 wards Cons tant i u pie , 
studded with occasional walled farm 
yards and copious fountains at inter- 
vals. 

(Ve proceed on leaving the 
dilapidated, lines and batteries near 
the great barracks nfRamish Chiflik, 
and passing several targe aqueducts 
which convey water across the val- 
leys from the reservoirs to Constan- 
tinople, and crossing the valley aud 
river of Ket-Kbanch-Sm], which 
runs into the Golden Horn, [reach 
Peru by a well-made road, which 
had brought us without inter- 
ruption from ChatsaWa. 

The un&Yburable treaty of Ad 
rianople in 1m2!I was hurriedly euuclu 
ded to save Constantinople Irotn the 
presence of Diebitche's arm}-, the 
advanced xuard of which had reached 
Ctiataald 

From the foregoing statement 
it will be sees that General Mac- 
It, in his letter to Lord 
Stratford] paragraphs 1 and 2, 
lt;i;l previously given an estimate 
of iii>- capabllltlW of the Danube 

as a Btrategetic line, recommend- 
ing the defence of the river to be 
confined to the occupation of its 
fortresses, being the substance of 
Sir John Burgoyne'fl remarks, 
para :: mo frof the parallel 

columns., who therein alludea to 
1850. e 



50 OV THE DEPEKCE OF TTTBKEY. [S»». f 

Siu Jouy Bl'booy.ne. Gen. Macintosh. 

give to the enemy the vast advantage the probable necessity of the 
of its navigation between their own Turks retiring to Shunila and 
territory and their advanced posi- Varna, an occurrence anticipated 
t ^ on * . , ._. also by General Macintosh in 

*. On these accounts I attach no para ' h 3 f the letter alluded 
value to it whatever, provided the f ° u JL .■> _, ri a ___„i __-_„ 
Carason position be tien up. At to > * here , «ie General recom. 
the same time I am bound to admit «**& J- liat th * a ? . fortresses 
that a contrary opinion is held bv should be immediately prepared 
officers for whose abilities I have to stand a siege. In paragraphs 
great respect. They consider that 4 and 5 of hid letter, General 
it might check an enemy from enter- Macintosh continues his recom- 
ing the city, even if he succeeded in mendation to strengthen the 
penetrating the great line. My great Balkan passes, a subject taken 
objection is, that whatever efforts , g £ j h Burg ^ ne ^ hia 

and means arc applied to the protec- *■ J , , b * , » 

tion of this position, which *I hold remarks paragraphs « and e. In 
to be of very inferior importance, paragraphs c and /, Sir John 
must be taken from those available describes the position of Karasoo, 
for the other, which is the vital sta- or the Checmegecs, which extendi 

tion." from tho Sea of Marmora to 

Kara Bornoo on the Black Sea, and covers Constantinople from 
attack. General Macintosh in paragraph 7 of his letter to Lord 
Stratford, and in paragraphs 28 to 47 of his report, given in the 
parallel statements, had previously described and pointed out the 
importance of that position, and recommended its being fortified. 

General Macintosh in his letter to Lord Stratford, paragraphs 
to 1-4, points to the opening for naval operations, corresponding with 
the suggestions made by Sir John Burgoyne in his remarks, para- 
graphs i and 1c. 

General Macintosh in his letter to Lord Stratford, paragraph 8, 
and again in the parallel statement, paragraphs 19 to 25, recom- 
mends the fortification of the isthmus north-east of Gallipoii in ilt 
narrowest part, for the protection of the peninsula on the European 
side of the Dardanelles; and Sir John Burgoyne in his observations, 
paragraph /, subsequently prescribes the same measure in exactly 
the same terms. 

Finally, General Macintosh in the parallel statement, paragraph 
25, recommends that these defensive works at Gallipoii should be 
commenced as soon as tho risk of hostilities might appear to be 
great ; and in his letter to Lord Stratford, paragraph 11, suggests 
that scientific officers of engineers should be ordered to examine the 
localities referred to, and to superintend the execution of the neces- 
sary works — both which suggestions were, within a short timo of 
their being submitted to the authorities, carried out, Sir John Bur- 
goyne being dispatched to Turkey far this purpose by her Majesty's 
Government. 

\. F. M. 



~ t 
I 



5i 



FIREABUie. 



LWrit all the efforts of the Pc«ce CoagrMI, it ia now universally 

the time has cot arrived when we may turn our 

>ears im«. pruning-hooks. On the contrary, there never was a 

bent upon applying them to a deadly use, 

metering them still more destructive, and giving them the keenest 

{ge t but steel will take. "Sharpen your matiamw" was not such 

bad order of the day. but it was out of date: for if we had 

itended to keep pace with other nations, we ought to have had 

a sharpened long before. In fact;, we received a similar 

two centuries ago, when Cromwell told us to keep our 

dry. It is th lentitnent in different words. Wo are 

1 that, to hold our own, we must be ready — ever ready ; not 

ppen our cutlass, and take care of our powder, but look 

OUT priming — ay, and our gun. too, Who would now go into 

tiwelTs matchlock, or lumbered with Brown Bess? 

fe might just as well take Davids sling. The armourers art, 

taking such strides — u year, a month, a day gives it such 

elopmentfl — it proceeds so rapidly in the path of invention 

reft — that we art? really puzzled to know what Weapon is 

How shall we arm r — -with carbine, rifle, or revolver? 

olver or rifle, or both, with which and whose ? This is 

; ami who shall solve it, when so many are interested iu 

it close: Instead of giving a prize medal now to this 

ml now to that, for some new devke, improvement, 

plication, it would be far wiser in Governments 

•us to award such a distinction to the writer of this 

i .1 do them the service of pronouncing which 

V all those that claim pre-eminence, are the best. But it ia 

■ly that a step &o rational will be resolved on; and we must 

content that our observations will obtain recognition in these 

-rend pages. 

doubt each shrewd manufacturer is breathlessly expecting that 

we shall give the palm to himself, but few of our readers will demur, 

when, without circumlocution, we at once assign it to Colt. Others 

may h/ive done well, but it must be allowed that, in modern timep, 

jh contributed so much to alter the nature of warfare and 

shion of our arms as the American Colonel. He it was who 

- the revolver, and it is he who haB since perfected the 

ile, and applied it to every description of fire-arms, Wherever 

learnt his craft, whether as 11 watchful shot iu the back-woods, 

a] mechanic at the forge, certain it is that he has it nt 

lis tot. ; and all the testimonials before us, parading the high 

iritics and oracles, say not ho much iu his praise 

ic fired veetertiay, or th< proved in need. 

of trifling objections, but they have little veal ground, 

■ shot* always declare that, after all said and done, Colt 

Ifad it been possible to realise th* fceflw tdt 

ing Irishman, and make a gun thai would fir*> mttrtd th»*er1M«f, 

i 2 



52 



flBEAllSia. 



[Sept., 



we believe this useful weapon would long ago have been found at 
Colt's shop in Pall-Mall. As it is, we are presented with anna 
quite as effective, and more adapted to the routine of war. In some 
cases it requires practice, in others a little care T to master the whole 
use of the weapon — the- capping, ramming, charging, OT cleaning; 
hut all this is a necessary initiation, not peculiar to Colt ; and once 
acquired, we see that facility depends on attention, and is regarded 
M much by Colt as by any other maker, 

After the famous cavalry charge at Balaklava, some noise waa 
made about the inefficiency of the carbine, and the necessity of 
equipping our dragoons with a better weapon. But it is very diffi- 
cult to introduce such a change into the British army- We have 
our traditions, and they are held in mow reverence in high qua! 1 
than were those of the elders and Pharisees in ancient days. II" - * 
desperate was the struggle we made for Brown Bess, aud when the 
poor old stock was wrenched from our grasp. we ,'tll believed or 
pretended to believe that our glory had departed. Let us make thr 
same noble stand for blunt fibres and useless turbines. The carbine 
ought especially to be retained ; for it has come down to us from 
our ancestors a* in heirloom, embodying all their unhandiness,, ami 
stamped with the prestige of antiquity. In the first place, it 
tachment to the paddle on the right side is so contrived, with the 
butt resting against the cautle and ralisse, thai oiountii 
extremely difficult, the dragoon having to pass his teg under the 
carbine, which employs his right hand at the moment when il 
required to assist his seat. Thus the whole weight of bis both 
be thrown on ;i region peculiarly tender, and fu soldiers deficient iii 
dexterity, this has hd to permanent injuries of the most painful 
character. No* i« this the only disadvantage resulting from the 
position of the carbine j for on active service in the field the dn 
finds it both an impediment and a peril. If his horse is shot under 
him— a common incident in action — let him devoutly 1 
outouiIic left side; for if he should fall on the right, his 
may be snapped like a twig, pressed down by the weight of the hone 
on the carbine, which, attached to (lie saddle, will act on ha limb 

with the f' lever. Asa lire-arm. the carbine wants both 

wieldinesB and precision. To load aud fire it in action, when the 
most docile horse is plunging about, and others are all but unman- 
ageable, demands more adroitness than we can reasonably expect in 
ordinary soldiers ; but he would indeed bra dead shot who could 
answer for the effect Of me fire If snefa a difficulty i? apparent on 
home ecu-vice, how must it be i in India where the dragoon 

is mounted on a barse of a ven diffen Jt and 

timid, progeny of Australia or Asia, n at best, < Aubtoua beast from 
the Cape? Corporal Sbaw, the Life- Guardsman, - KSWOTC 

bine at "Waterloo, and trusted to hi* muscular strength and blunt 
<r he oever would have done such havoc among the Frenchmen. 
i the face of the improved equipment of foreign cavalry, it would be 
ave our dragoons to this resource in future. 
I like those they v ill have to meet, with the beat 
fc&aWokfet weapons, and such as they may feel they tan depend on. 









1859.] 



TTBEAEMS. 



S8 



r e believe this requirement has been met by Colonel Colt. In 
" Pistol Carbine, with breech attachment, or* stock, which he has 
ly fabricated, we have an excellent substitute for the present 
wnbrotis weapon. An immense advantage is secured even before 
itering action, by the provision of six shota, which, from the great 
these revolvers, may be delivered with effect, while the 
joon himself is out of lire. At any rate, he is not exposed to 
risk of loading in face of the enemy ; and the ease with which 
the discharged pistol may be detached from the stock, and its place 
ipplied by the reserve weapon in his holster, enables him, however 
prolonged the combat, to defer this operation till he is out of 
iger. Of course, the revolver is incomparably more wieldy, can 
cocked and shot with one hand, and, as a consequence, the 
imbatant gains that precision of aiin, which the weight of 
I carbine renders impracticable in advancing. At the same 
new arm is so contrived that when not in use, it does 
like the carbine, become an incumbrance ; but the pistol is de- 
?hed and placed in the holster, while the butt is slung bj a strap 
the back, or at the side. As the weapon used ia the 7£-incn 
srrel .irmy and Navy Revolver, we need not bear testimony to its 
efficiency, as by most of our readers it has beeu practically tested ; 
ind, as every one admits the necessity of a change, we trust the 
luthorities will lose no time in arming our cavalry with this effective 
veapon. 

Colonel Colt was the first to apply the revolving principle to 
the pistol, he also elaimB priority in connecting it with the rifle. It 
must be confessed that he has here produced the very weapon re- 
quired for a volunteer force, which, without a more rigorous training 
mn is contemplated, cannot be expected to become expert with the 
ifieJd, With Colt's rifle the volunteer ia at once relieved from the 
of frequent loading. He comes on the field forearmed, and 
leeeaftarily with increased confidence, while he is able, from the great 
of his weapon, to deliver his fire at a distance very inspiriting 
to untried troops. An admirable guard on the chambers renders 
the rifle Bafe in the most careless hands, as notches between the nip- 
plea receive the end of the hammer, and prevent the cylinder 
rcrolving. On the other liand, the contrivance for rotation is just 
as simple, and the cylinder attached to a base-pin, is revolved by the 
operation of cocking. We know not whether any large supply of 
lege arms could be readily obtained, but the authorities ought se- 
riously t<> consider its aptitude for the movement we have now on 
"jot. and enter into an arrangement with this view. Whatever pre- 
on they may have in favour of the Enlield, it is manifestly not 
ipi>n for guerillas 5 and, moreover, if it were not open to 
hi* object ioo, we know that it cannot be obtained, and a long period 
ipse before we shall even have a sufficient supply for the 
Villi tin. As our deficit is in men, let us make up with material, and 
mr drafts for colonial service may at once be multiplied six fold, by 
inning them with Colt's revolver. At the Cape and Hohart Town 
the Volunteer Cavalry are already armed with this weapon by the 
" authorities ; and we cannot too Boon extend its distribution to 



64 THE tiA.CS MOVEMENT. [Sem., 

India, for which country, left as it now must be to the care of a 
diminished force, it is especially adapted. Its aptitude for fencible 
troops is equally striking ; but self-supporting Rifle Corps should not 
depend on the 'Government in thiB matter, but act for themselves, 
and we strongly urge them to select Colt's rifle. 

Nor must we close this paper without indicating to those who are 
yet but prentice hands, a good manual for the use of the rifle, and 
certainly a better could not be provided than that of Captain 
Jervis, who was so long connected with the Small Arms De- 
partment, and which is so well known by its title of Tlie Rifle Mvnket. 
A second edition of this valuable and really practical little work 
has just appeared, and comprises in its pages all that a Rifleman can 
desire to know of his weapon and its management. The contents 
are lucidly arranged under special heads, which bring the subject 
home to every comprehension, and, at the same time, facilitate re- 
ference. Though wo could name no one more competent to treat of 
the subject in its widest range, the gallant author nas confined the 
present work to an account of the actual state of the rifle, as it 
now exists, and the various details it embraces. This is introduced 
by a description of the process of manufacture ; and when our 
weapon is thus presented to us in its several parts, and, as it were, 
put together belorc our eyes, barrel and trigger and ramrod and 
stock, a perception of the mechanism brings with it a more thorough 
appreciation of its powers. Captain Jervis then tells us how to 
fabricate cartridges, cast bullets, and even make gunpowder ; and, 
in short, there is no point connected with the rifle on which he does 
not give useful information. We recommend the book not only to 
the members of Volunteer Corps — it ought to be widely circulated 
in the army ; and as its modest price renders it easily attainable, 
we doubt not that, when its merits are sufficiently known, Com- 
manding Officers will consider this an object worth attention. 



THE PEACE MOVEMENT. 



We live at a period when the whispers heard on the back-stain 
of the Palace of the Tuilleries supply the place of a i'rec assembly 
and a free press in France, and when the passions and emotions of 
our powerful neighbours are under the control of a Bonaparte. A 
siguificant nod, or a stiftnesa of demeanour, from this " pattern de- 
mocrat " sets the corps diplomatique shivering in their shoes, and an 
angry word sends couriers flying from one end of Europe to the 
other, and influences every " bourse " in the civilizrd world. 

It would really seem, therefore, that peace or war, or in other 
words, the happiness or misery of millions of human beings depend 
upon the will of one man. It becomes a curious question, which 
future historians only will be able to answer truly, to what combi- 
nation of circumstances does this remarkable man owe the predomi- 
nance he pouenes over so large a portion of mankind Y Does he 



1850.] 



TfTT! PIACIS MQTEMENT. 



as 



express the tone of thought and belief ae well aa the aims of the 

he age ? Doea he carry v 
him, for as of va-l numbers f \ 

really 1 1) public will in Franco ? [fto.be must owe 

his power to the fact that France contains amongst bar population 
a vj; ity of littlo Napoleons, kindred Bpirita only differing in 

thinking and noting as lie do< 

last few years, however, has shown that, for ^<>od or evil, he 

France that is unmistakoablc. li he desires war — 

plague,] », and slaughter come at his bidding. remains 

t<>! : i ether hc> can produce a lasting peace. We disbelieve 

in Ills power 10 do so, even if he really possessed the inclination. 

Tin-- Hiding antagonism between this working despot and 

tofet- napoleon III, represents the interests of 

ur ut' the military and ambitious kind. Of active, bold, 

d hungry nun, who have fortunes to make by 

the attorney <»f this class. He pleads their cause, 

U their interests, Ur ia their Captain as well as their 

iu will, tin- rich and the aristocratic fear 
and This ts the cane in France as well as elsewh 

capital and commerce, following her peaceable 

g also the rival of France, is naturally anxiflllfl 

n leading spirit. She neither hates nor fears hiin. Eng» 

: >k nustruai hint, and having a wholesome knowledge of 

i do mischief, calmly wait for event-'. Austria, 

.._' ■ , has recently received seven* caatii 

i hate him ; while il ia presumed that 
dull and conaerval nets of Russia and Prussia, must, in 

', bill dislike this great agitator and de- 
trov« ■■; 'ription. 

:' n lasting peace with a nation like France, aullen 

I with her barren victories over Austria, ITS pro* 

Napoleon III. ie the type of millions o£ minded 

ench men, who are like millstones in motion, when 

ist to grind will set fire to one another. ft 

furth' red, that there are many stirring natures 

n f of the volcanic masses in France. Italy and 

re full of discontented men. Garibaldi heads some thou- 

■ Italian patriots, who count themselves undone 

they; Those restless spirits employ J 

i mil jars and contentions, and may fan the dyin 

last war into n Ham*'. Hut the grand Idea that would unite 

whether Repul 'V'apoleomate, or Orleaniata, 

all differences of opinion, and make up all breaches, 

I rested on the cpjays "i" Marseil other day, 

man, and withou 

rtrike any i lar that suoh an e$- 

as I o should be heard" in a pop »t in 

. i time whet the $Lj,iit ,/tottc coi ca the 




.".6 



THE PEACE -tfOTEME^T. 






statements of the official paper* relative to the disarming of fcfat 
Imperial Navy, '' Orders lmvc been given/' continues the M 
'■ at all the Atlantic ports that tin- Bbips-of-iear fitting or fitted out 
are to be disarmed." 

And this brings uh to a point touching our nartry tint has 
much mooted of late. Let us admit, us is possibly the cm-, thai 
Emperor Napoleon is honest in his intent inns and meant 

Sacific policy into effect. Can \vc imitate him with safety ': Qtm 
ismantle our shipe and disperse our seamen r Anil in noticing 
subjeet it is no business of ours to inquire why our " faithful n] 
has come to the sudden resolution to put off bis ws 
assure the world that 2?Hknpire e'ext fa paw, Wc never cared ■ 
about his great armament*, his screw linera, bis transports, or his 
fortified fort of Cherbourg. Our duty was to arm if be armed, and 
he prepared tor the tign- spring that somehow everybody serins I i 
cipert he will some day make at us — if i-r are vnprcjiarni. 

There are several reasons why we cannot disarm our ships ■ but 
the principal reason is that France, from herpeculiar or <ua» 

well as the temperament ofber people, is always better prepared for 
■ n n war than England. The Emperor may disarm hrw whips and 
send their crews to their ordinary occupations, still this proci >'ding 
uiuld not be disarming in the same sense as we ghoul 
that we paid our ships oft* and discharged their men. We mj 
and label our spars, masts, and gear, and store them away for in*: 
use, but then we should not be prepared for iiiMnit war like our 
neighbours would he in ease of a rupture. -Not only art- the Hpara, 
moats, and gear of the French ships of war ticketed and laid bj 

.-, bo as to be ready when required, but the men are ticketed and 
lebrllrf? also. Every man, from the captain to the eook's mate, 
French linc-nf-battlo whip, frigate, or sloop, although he may be din- 
ohfjrged from active service, is compelled by the terms of the inscrip* 
Hon maritime to state where he is to be found, and in the 
his servicer being required by the state, he can be called upou at a 
moment's notice to repair forthwith to the jmrt mentioned in 
summons, and go on board his ship, take bis station, :md main 
seagoing duties. Now the OftM with us is verv different. When we 
disarm and dismantle our ships >u- an an though war could at 
disturb the political horizon apnin. We sintler our trained seamen 
and gunners to the uttermost ends of* the earth, so that it is quiti- 
possible that within thro:- months after s liiu'-iif'-baUle bhip Li paid 
off that her eompleiiunl of about 1,000 men may be serving in every 
navy except our OTOE. 

"But," says the Frenchman, '"that is no a an. We have 

niii'd, and we call upon you, if you are Inclined for peace, to imi- 
tate our example. We cannot comprehend your free institutions. 
It is your fault ; if your naval or m is imperfect Imitate our 

inscription m It ia not wn m seventy flraan i 

press warrants which you have repudiated and abolished. Bell < 
compulsion instead of choice and you will he a? ready for sudden 
as we are.*' 
Now we cannot follow the example set us by our neighbour- 



]s^9 



THE PEACE MOVEMENT. 



have eonae to the eonclusum that our sailors tmve no right tub*? eon- 
sidered as the only slaves in England. If we want their services we 
must go into the seaman 'a Labour-market and bid for him. Never- 
theless, we can follow the example set ua by our neighbour in the 
spirit in which it is ojfercd. For tiie whole matter turns upon orga- 
nization, or prepared uess for war. We ean retain our seamen on 
hoard our ships instead < 4* discharging them. We can keep thein 
constantly employed in their several duties, and so keep them in mi 
\ This proceeding would be mere expensive than that 

I of our neighbours, but that ia not the question, which is, being pre- 
paredfor sudden war. Of course we ean adopt the same line of argu- 
ment as our " faithful ally" and bay, " Oh, we don't understand your 
your kwcriptio id its arbitrary and tyranni- 

cal laws ire inimical to our free policy. Imitate onr example, and 
. will he m ready for hostilities at a moment's notice as we are." 
If the whole matter ia made to hinge upon organization then the 

tn.ition whose preparedness for war is most perfect must be the best 
aiized. W« can also *ay with justice and truth that onr ahips 
have very heavy duties to perform, and that they are distributed over 
every pcii — that tluv srecuarged with the police of the ocean, and 
consequently it is a. duty, a necessity, tor England to maintain a large 
uiivy. an.: large body of seamen in her pay. It ia idle to talk 

of our intention of invading France or injuring her interests in any 
part of tin- earth, but that from the nature of our institutions it is 
not only the cheapest but the best mode of manning our navy to 
ined seamen constantly in our pay on board our ship*. 
Wo are not supposing that the French government are acting 
an in perfect good faith in disarming at the present 
disarmament, after the Fivin-h in >del, leaves the French 
means of attack undiminished or nearly so, while, as everybody 
knows), every seaman paid oft' in Eogland is lost to the service and 
the ships laid up are useless. 

■ facts are patent to all the world, ami, on our part, some- 
thing ought to be done. We must either keep up a large standing 
or have powerful reserves of seamen capable of being brought 
.s 1-4.I at any time. We must either make it worth the while of 
maritime population by pay or pension to hold themselves in 

Iiiiness to man our ships when required, or we must breed, instruct, 
ia permanently in the service sufficient men tn meet the 
demands of 1 1 ith a maritime population inferior 

in srer} respect to our own, owing to the inscription maritime, has an 
immense naval reserve maintained at no cost to the nation. The 
inscription not nniy includes coast boatmen, long shoremen, but mer- 
chant seamen, fishermen, carpenters, shipwrights, and naval a;-ti- 
ipfcion. The services of this past body is of 
i iv vuluabh-' to the nation, but it is compulsory. The men 
have no choice. They are draughted oft* into the fleet every year, 
(hey are instructed very carefully in gunnery and the duties 
uf ineu-of-' It should, however, be mentioned that g u utter)/ 

n made the moBt of during the period of instruction. When each 
lie maritime community has been thoroughly instructed 



68 THE PEACE MOTElEEirT. [Sew., 

and thought efficient the men are released from their servitude, and 
are allowed to return to their occupations in the merchant service, 
as boatmen or fishermen as the case may be. It will be seen, there- 
fore, that as a means of offence it is of slight consequence to Prance 
how many ships she disarms and unmans, for the crews are always 
maintained intact, and are constantly fed with fresh men, as they 
pass through the period of their annual instruction. 

How painful is the comparison of our system with that we have 
so briefly described. When we reduce our naval defences we break 
up our trained seamen and abandon them as if they were so many 
worthless logs. When the State has no further or pressing need of 
them they are sent adrift. We exercise a mean economy when we 
feel secure, but which has too often proved to be the wildest extrava- 
gance. What is the consequence ? At the next threat of disturb- 
ance a panic seizes the nation — we have to create and reraanufacture 
a new fleet at a moment's notice. We have to coax, entice, and 
meanly solicit by paltry allurements the men we so wantonly dis- 
charged. They "stand aloof; we then resort to bounties, and so by a 
dilatory process we get, by half dozens at a time, the worst hands 
that can be found. Tho system, if it may be so called, which we 
employ to man our navy is not only a disgrace to a practical people 
like ourselves, but it renders us tbe laughingstock of every maritime 
power in the world. Besides being a costly system it is inefficient, 
and has been aptly described as a scheme for rendering the manning 
of tbe navy difficult, and instead of bringing a supply of seamen it 
drives them away. Our ships, when commissioned, often lie six 
months at their anchor waiting for a crew, while our neighbours, 
with a population whose maril ime instincts are inferior to our own, 
can man and arm twenty sail of the line in less time than our Admi- 
ralty, with all its powers, could get a single ship to sea. 

The .sudden manning of a large fleet of ships may some day be of 
immense importance to this country, and consequently we must not 
allow our fleet to be reduced, unless we have some system of naval 
reserves, quite equal to the inscription maritime of our " faithful 
ally." Nothing is more deceptive than the disarmament of a French 
ship when seen through the official eye of our " higher power*." But 
for the public press few individuals m England would have known 
the state of preparation for sudden war, possessed by France, even 
when she has not a single ship in commission. Let us suppose, for 
instance, that at Cherbourg and Brest, and at the Atlantic ports on 
the French coast, thirty or even forty sail of screw lines of battle 
are lying, what in England would be paid to be in ordinary. These 
ships may be manned by our " faithful ally" in an incredible short 
space of time. In the first place they would have all their guns on 
board, their masts, spars, rigging and sails would be stowed away 
ready for instant use, but what is of the most consequence, 20,000 
or 30,000 seamen could be summoned on board by telegraph, and 
each man would have his place assigned to him on board the ship 
he was told off to. 

It is evident, therefore, under such a system as the above we can- 
not reduce our fleet, unless we devise some plan by which 20,000 



1859.] 



THE PEACE MOVESTEirr. 



59 






or 30.000 trained seamen can be informed by telegraph, that they 
must proceed by railway to Portsmouth, Plymouth, Chatham, and 
• elsewhere, and fall into their stations on board their 
ship*, without any further ceremony, naturally, and at onee. It is 
;ir that no such system is known at our Admiralty; but it 
is n. ation to Suppose, that unless some method ig devised 

by which the superior organisation of the French mode of manning 
their ships is neutralized, that we shall sooner or later be at the 
mercy of a foreign squadron. ~We must, now that steam has altered 
the conditions of naval warfare, have a naval reserve of some sort, 
It only provokes a smile when we hear the Secretary of the Admi- 
ralty get up in the House of Commons awl gravely tell the lands- 
men, of which that august assembly in composed, that in case of ne- 
ity ilic , lil be reinforced by 231 merchant vessels. 

Gr^. <dness ! ! ! The navy of (treat Britain! The nary of 

Rarest maritime power <m earth ! The navy upon which more 
miliums of hard-earned taxes are lavishly spent, than upon all the 
"the world put together. This navy, which ought to be the 
standard of excellence, the model of all others, we are told by our 
i tiara] authority, may fall back upon the merchant service, 
1 be reinforced to the extent of 231 vessels. Well, it is re- 
sting to know, that one gallant seaman got up and told the 
''House" that such a statement " was all nonsense," and "that 
moil I be required to fit out the vessels, and in the mean 

ecome of the merchant service,** With blunt 
honesty and common sense, he further told the "house" tl 

Bffcy sail of the line in two divisions, one ready for 

other in a forward state, would render England secure 

linst the combination?! that might he entered into against her. 

It is some consolation to know that now, at the eleventh hour, we 

are endeavouring to form a naval reserve. Lord C. Paget has intro- 

which if it receives the sanction of the legislature, 

will, it is to be hoped, give us a volunteer force of some sort. He 

explained the provisions of the measure, which is to provide a 

militia force for the sea, as a reserve for recruiting the r.vvy. And 

i.vinly a perfect marvel that a nation like England, whose 

existence maybe said to depend upon the efficiency of her navy, 

should not possess even at the present time anything like a proper 

i reserve, 

now admitted that it is but of little use to rely only upon 

the coast-guard, which is an efficient force as far as it goes, but the 

Bum *n disposable as a reserve are less than 4, WO. And 

pect to the roast volunteers, as that body cannot be com- 

■ go farthi from our shores, it cannot be re- 

. a of any utility for the general purposes of the nary. And 

ckuowledged that impressment is abandoned, and do sub- 

ias been provided fur it, bo that we cannot reiy upon thnt 

■oceas for the future. Under the mc- 

ceuiTe boards of Admiralty have applied certain clumsy plan-* for 

q, which have always tailed to produce the desired result. 

a scheme? have nlao emanated from individuals, viz.. Sir 



60 THE PEACE MOVEMENT. [SEPT., 

James Graham, Sir Charles Napier, and Sir Francis Baring, bat 
none of them could man our ships with seamen. 

At length, in 1852, a committee was appointed to consider this 
important matter, and amongst other suggestions it recommended 
the continuous service Bystem, the increase of the coast-guard, and 
the enrolment of the coast volunteers. However, the difficulty of 
manning ships of war remained much the same. Then came the 
Royal Commission of last year, which recommend an increase of the 
Royal Marines, and also that from 20,000 to 30,000 men should be 
enrolled as a reserve force, under the title of Royal Naval Volunteers. 
It was proposed by the last committee that each volunteer should 
receive a retaining fee of £6 per annum, of which £1 should be 
deducted and set apart for a pension. It was further recommended, 
that at the age of 50 or 55, these men should be entitled to a pen- 
sion of sixpence a day, and that they should have the option of 
either receiving that pension or a smaller amount, which should be 
continuous to their widows and families. 

Such was the outline of the suggestions of the last Royal Com- 
mission, and Lord Paget's bill is framed after them. By it 30,000 
men will be invited to enrol themselves for a period of five years, 
receiving £5 per annum. The men will be called out for training for 
twenty-eight days in each year, and during that time will receive 
non-continuous service pay according to their respective rating. It 
is nlso proposed to give the men the option of retiring from the 
force at the expiration of the five years, or of re-enrolling for a 
further period of five years. 

According to this scale of payment, each man would receive £25 
in five years, in addition to the month's pay during the training, and, 
if they were enrolled at the end of ten years' service, they would be 
entitled to a pension. 

There are some details in Lord Paget's bill, respecting pensions, 
which it would be difficult to embody in a legislative measure, and 
it was considered advisable to leave them to the regulation of the 
Admiralty, should the house give consent to the bill. 

Now, while we wish every Buccess to this or any other measure 
intended to furnish a constant and efficient supply of good seamen to 
the navy, we doubt whether the £5 retaining fee will be temptation 
strong enough to overcome the prejudice unfortunately prevailing in 
the minds of the merchant seamen and coast boatmen against the 
navy. We have, however, no desire to utter one word against the 
official scheme, and, if the allurement is sufficient, we will be the last 
to counsel giving more, and we hope that our maritime population, 
generally, will sec that is to their interest to accept the terms offered, 
for we feel assured that the object proposed by the bill must be 
attained somehow. It is imperative for England to have a reserve of 
seamen equal, at least, to that maintained by our " faithful ally" 
on the other side of the Channel, who, as we have shown, possesses 
the power of manning twenty or thirty sail of the line at a very 
short notice. 

It has often occurred to us to inquire what it would be worth to 
insure to the inhabitants of these realms perfect security from all 



1859.] 



THE PEACE MOVEHENT, 



61 






alarms of invasion. A good round suiu is spent every year with this 
object in view. For instance, the money votes in the six years from 
1S-j2 to 1858, for labour, timber, ;md stores, for building ships and 
keeping the navy iu repair, WM £1 1 .105 } 0&tj. This enormous amount, 
be it remembered, doe;* not include the purchase of st 'am engines or 
coals. Then, for gunboats and Hooting batteries we laid out 
£3,000,000 more. And, if we add steam engines to tin- above huge 
totals, we find that the smm expended between 1852 and 1858, 
according to the report on this Subject printed by order of the House 
of Commons, exceeded, by a few odd hundreds, £JJ ■ 01*0,000. But 
even this buhl did nut inelnde ordnance and other items, sneh 
as |> shot, shell, and other expensive materials. One 

would have reasonably supposed that for this amount the navy would 
have been in a perfect working condition, and yet we hear nothing 
but alarms from the Admiralty, piteous declamations in Parliament, 
and lamentations in the press, became we are not secure against 
Zouaves, and Tureos. aud other mauraders. 

The truth is, we have found out that ships, guns, and steam-engines 
only go half way iu forming a navy, "We mast have men to make 
the service complete. We hnvc tried many inducements, and failed 
to catch Jack ; he has a prejudice against the navy, whether Well- 
founded or not we will not stop now to determine. Oood-eonduet- 
rosses of honour, better provisions, free kits, and £10 bounty 
don't man the Beet. We have also abandoned the press-gang, aud 
■ is a want of seamen fur the navy ' Wow, what will the 
i it lemon uf England" give, per annum, to u li\ e at home at CMC ':" 
We have seen, from authority, that they don't mind £21,000,000 in 
. Hi- 64,000,000 a-year, for ships to perish with the dry rot, 
to he cut down, re-converted, and twisted and altered to all shapes 
aud sizes, aud then sold for an old song at laat. Now, what are they 
prepared to give for men ? Ships, noble ships we have, or are in the 
of having them ; stores of all kinds we possess iu profusion; but 
the sinews and muscles to put these huge fabrics in motion — good, 
seamen— are wanting, 
uch as we value the power of money, we question whether the 
ulty of finding seamen for the navy hinges entirely upon hard 
cash. Any man who takes the trouble of calculating the difference 
of pay between the best of the great merchant shipowners of this 
country aud the pay, pensions, and other emoluments offered by the 
Crown, will perceive that the advantage in the long ran is ou the side 
of the navy. And yet seamen won't join. What is the cause way 
the good men stand aloof from the service ? Why do they refuse 
good pay. pensions, honorary distinction, good diet, berths iu the 
I -guard, and opportunities for promotion P We believe the 
he the natural and necessary consequeuce of that long-eon- 
tamed State crime— impressment. Our seafaring population have 
Led down from sire to son the despotism of former governments, 
who seized men, sent them on board men-of-war, and Dogged then 
ion: and, then, when their services were no lunger 
required, they were too often discharged penniless, Such conduct, 
in time, caused the coast population to look upon the navy with terror, 



62 IBS PEACE MOVEMENT- [Ssj*, 

and the remembrance of these byegone days still survives. We mar 
rail it an unaccountable prejudice against the navy, or what we will, 
but we believe the wrong inflicted years ago upon the seafaring 
population has its effect at the present hour. But we have done 
away with impressment ! impatiently exclaims the reader. True — 
huttlogging Ht ill remains. The cat was the accompaniment and 
necessary consequence of impressment ; stubborn, sulky, impressed 
men. smarting with the injustice inflicted upon them, must be flogged 
into willing, handy seamen. This spirit still prevails in the navy, 
lief urns of the House of Commons prove that in the five years from 
ISO'S to 1 Si>7, as many as 5.R23 men were flogged in her Majesty's 
ships, and no less than 182.779 lashes inflicted. The bulk of* these 
punishments, or more than 90- 100th, were inflicted without even the 
tin est igal ion of a court-martial, at the discretion of the commanding 
otliccr : and. being so inflicted at the mere discretion of any one— 
and no one is infallible — these punishments constitute an irreeon- 
eilnhle difference between the navy and civil life ; and. in our opinion, 
they arc suilicicnt to account for the otherwise strange fact, that the 
most glorious sen-ice in the world never can obtain sufficient hands. 

It is to he regretted that the Royal Commissioners took no notice 
of this mode of punishment. They contented themselves with in- 
creasing the supply of provisions, free kits, allotting of wages, pay 
for good conduct, free promotion for warrant ofliccrs, aud an outfit 
when promoted These recommendations are very good as far us 
t hoy go, but as we have now experience to show, they do not man 
the fleet : they are of trilling importance compared to the removal 
of the blight that now hangs over the service, and which acts as a 
scare-crow and prevents good men entering the navy. 

Now we have not dwelt upon these unpleasant facts in a spirit of 
hostility or disrespect to any otfu-er in her Majesty's navy. Tu all 
probability no officer could have avoided Hogging such men as were 
flogged. They were certain to have been the worst hands in the 
resnective ships in which they served. It is the system that is in 
fault ; a system that partakes of the old fogyisin oft he last century, 
which prevents men of good character entering the navy. Again, as 
was noticed the other night in the House of Commons by several 
eminent naval authorities, the Articles of "War require revision. At 
present they impose the penalty of death for nearly every offence 
enumerated in them. Such grievances as these tend to deter mer- 
chant seamen from entering a Queen's ship. The Articles of "War 
were considered by Sir Charles Napier of very doubtful legality : if 
so—and surely a British Admiral is no mean "authority upon such a 
subject — it would only be justice to modify them to suit the present 
enlightened age. "Wo believe if this was done, uniicivssarv drill 
abolished, and flogging abandoned, and some other punishment sub- 
stituted for it, more would be done towards removing t he prejudices 
easting in the miuda of our maritime population against the inn v. 
^£-*^ of * Q0 ^commendations of the Koval Commissioners. 
• *S5r\Lt X .J ended our remart8 u P on this subject further than w* 
gJJJMtAjtWfeeliug the necessity that a supply of seamen must be 
ftmw MOMWtee, we have thrown out the above hints, which we 



1859.] 



PEEPS FHOM 'iHE LOOPHOLES OP BETBEAT, 



68 



tve heard growled out of the rough throats of strong, hardy men, 
ipon our beach at Southsea, in the hope that they may attract atten- 
ioo. We have an nrganl need for the services of these men, i 
_>ver had a robust faith iii the French alliance ; indeed we never 
laid fancy that we were allied to France, hot to Napoleon III, ; 
id, ia taking him by the hand, we lent him the moral force which 
wantfl. A free nntiou like England would not ally herself to a 
ltliouL disgrace ; and our policy up to the present hour has 
ed by tear, and Napoleon has had the wit to divine our 
\ , and has used us tu further hi* designs. 
France can Dttjanisej and may rely upon her organization for mau- 
ling her navy; but we must depend either upon the free services 
4" our skilful mariners, or keep up a large standing navy. It wuuld 
preferable to maintain a powerful fleet to any system of organ!- 
vtion, at all events until we are satisfied that the "Empire is really 
;'' and considering the few years the empire has been in exist- 
ed that tt has undertaken two of the bloodiest wars ever 
jowo, we have uot at present much faith in its protestations. Who 
belie\ e i ii t he cent inuanee of the peace of Yillafranea r 1 Already 
Italy is in a ferment, and the new holy alliance between the three 
spotic powers of France, Austria, and Bussia, bodes evil to fee- 
The traditions of the empire are fatal to peace, and war is to 
ty. If the empire represented a principle, one night put 
in it ; but it represents nothing but aggrandisement, and war 
in*. It is a power created by a military genius and usurpa- 
I'ln- empire — or .Napoleon III., fur the two nt« une and the 
.mc — can be iimiiitiiined only by action. Peace would be fatal to 
iv ii a time of reckoning, and a trial for rulers, but war ia a. 
u u domestic troubles ore forgotten in the 
i.struggle for foreign mastery. And these are 1 ho baubles for 
Frenchmen are willing to barter away their liberty. Who, 
i be deluded into the beUef that " .L'£inpi>'Q cest la jMaV." 
lttrti luu been civil to us to aervQ his turn, but freedom, as 
by Englishmen, is incompatible with a Bonaparte ; and 
ring ourselves with a man, and not with the nation, we com- 
i grave error. For these reasons, then, we would rather put 
tfeuty sail of the line in the narrow seaa, well manned 
id diamiaa for the present all ideas about the 

rttmoi 



PEEP* FROM THE LOOPHOLES OF RETREAT. 

U\ Ktniito Major Mvrksman, 

•nr great advantage possessed by a despotism over a con* 
All militari diung) ■ and improvements 
A commission is appointed to imeshgah' 
proposed Alterations, The scientific and 
pre eugaged pursue the enquiry with ardour, make their 



64 PEEPS PBOlf THE LOOPHOLES OF BETBSJLT. [SlM^ 

report, and their recommendations are either carried out or put aside 
at the discretion of the autocrat. No time is needlessly lost. Under 
a Government like our own, on the other hand, the obstacles to great 
ameliorations are considerable. Parliament appoints a select com- 
mittee from among its own members. The inquisition proceeds, evi- 
dence is taken, matters approach maturity. Suddenly a change of 
ministry involves an appeal to the national constituency. The whole 
country is thrown into a ferment by a general election, and business ia 
suspended. Weeks elapse ; the returns are made, and some of the 
members of the select committee are found to have lost their seats. 
With the substitution of a few new men the inquiry is resumed, and 
perhaps goes on for two or three weeks, when, presto, the autumn 
arrives, the session breaks up, the members fly to the sea shore, the 
cover side, or the continent, and the investigation is deterred for 
months. 

Such has been the history of tho Military Organization Committee. 
Its appointment was urged more than a year since by Captain Vivian. 
Six months ago he obtained the committee. In April it met for one 
day ; Parliament was dissolved ; the committee resumed its duty in 
July, and at the beginning of last month it again adjourned until 
February next ! Yet the subjects embraced in the inquiry are of the 
greatest national importance, and their solution should not have been 
deferred one single hour beyond the period when certain important 
truths had been elicited. 

A copy of the evidence, so far as it has gone, has accidentally fallen 
into my hands, and its perusal has deeply interested me, because, 
though no longer in a position to be affected by any changes that 
may be wrought in our military system, I am, 1 hope, far from indif- 
ferent to that which coucerns men "of the cloth" who are still 
actively employed. The inquiry which has been instituted does not, 
it is true, directly affect questions of discipline, but inasmuch as tho 
army must more or less benefit by the arrangements instituted for its 
government and the insurance of its eflieieucy in u time of war, all 
that has been given in evidence does, to a certain extent, materially 
concern its members. An abstract, therefore, of the main features of 
the committee's proceedings will not be unacceptable. 

The points to which attention seems chiefly to have been directed 
are the relations of the Horse Guards to the War-Oflicc, the powers 
of the Secretary of State for War, the education of the ami}*, the dis- 
posal of commissions, the direction of the ordnance, commissariat, and 
clothing departments, the patronage of engineer and artillery appoint- 
ments, and the stale of the national defences. 

Without regarding the order of the enquiry — which, indeed, has 
not proceeded upon any very regular system, as respects the division 
of subjects — I will take first the state of our national defences. That 
Sir De Lacy Evans, who is on the committee, does not consider that 
this point has beeu sufficiently weighed is clear, from his having 
inoved in his place in Parliament for a separate commission to inves- 
tigate our position, which motion the ministry have staved oft' by the 
public assurance that they are doing all that "is requisite in that" way, 
Of which there seems to be little reasonable doubt. 



L8C0.] 



PEEPS EEOjf THE IiOOPUOLfia OF BETEEiT. 



65 



For instance, hi reference to the coast fortification^, it appears, by 
what fell from Sir John Burgoyne, that very much lias been done of 
late years to add to our national Hccurity. But Jive years' time, and 
an expenditure of a million of money, are yet requisite to nut every 
point in a proper state of defence, A good foundation has Tbeen laid 
at Dover, which " is a very line position, and will make a very strong 
place." A great deal is doing there, upon a very good scale, and 
re a great improvement. " It wdl be a place d'armes of the 
class when complete," The Isle of Wight is regarded as of 
great importance ; the Needles have been made powerful ; the back 
of the island is excessively strong, and a few precautions (forts are 
being constructed there at present) would make it very powerful 
indeed. u I shall then," says tSir John, " look upon the Isle of Wight 
aa tied on to the main land, which would he unassailable. '* The 
precise defence of Spithead is under consideration. Portland is 
capable of being rendered very strong, and works are in progress to 
attain tins i tid. Alderney has been fortified, and with a garrison of 
2,500 men would be impregnable. The most exposed part of Devon- 
port \s ill be defended when the works now in progress are completed; 
hut then is still much to be done. There are favourable positions 
direction around Plymouth which will enable it to oe made 
a powerful fortress. The sea batteries at Pembroke, to guard against 
>'\ .-i! lipping, are being much increased, at the instance 
of the Duke of Cambridge. Batteries, in fact, art 1 raising, or to be 
raised, at the entrance of all ntir great rivers and estuaries. Liver. 
pool, Aberdeen, and the Hutnber, tor example ; and, so far, we shall 
have fortifications enough to resist an enemy, appear at what point 

I he may. 
natfriet being complete, or in progress, the pertonnel to whom 
the defence of the country is to be entrusted comes next under con- 
sideration. On this point Sic John Bnrgoyne takes comprehensive 
lie does not depart from his original idea of tlie worthless- 
■ nli illod rillo corps. He would have 200,000 men of the lino 
and militia always ready, the militia to be embodied constantly, at 
: as long a a "the French have an army of 500,000 men, which 
they can send at any time." " With the means which they have of cros- 
sing over that short channel you never can be Bafe ; a war might come 
ninntli <>r less, and you cannot get up your troops in less than a 
Bur John baa no objection to volunteer local corps of artil- 
lery, who, without being removed from their ordinary places and 
occupations, would be available during time of war, and always elH- 
t'ieut. Jli" thinks thai 4,000 to 5,000 might be mustered at Liverpool 
'illery and infantry, but he woidd not give them a lino 
uniform. " A little forage cap, and a common workman's jacket 

il be uniform enough, and they Bhould have an interest in the 
thing in some way." 
IliH Hoy al Highness the Duke of Cambridge, who was examined 
r-i-at length, does not speak BO distinctly as Sir John Burgoyne 
•'tint of the defensive force which should be kept up 
lautly. He considers that the existence of a ! .c force, 

ami a large fin bodied militia, would render so many as 200,000 men 
U 8. Mao., No, 370, Sett., 1659. * 



I 



06 




VEEi'3 FHOM Till: LOOI'ttOLKS Olf 



needless. In effect he says tho same tiling as Sir Jobn. Bui 
the Duko is ich in dread of inir:: 

ive cf the Secretary for War, <>r of overstepping the boundariM 
of liia natural modesty, that he constantly stops short upon 
threshold of liia recommendations, in olr 

Itlt rations, ■ When Mr. HorstuM] y fioaacd 

or any expense to any ruimunt ought to stand in thewri uc 

dangers to the counfcry, tho Duko replies: 

lot in n matter of course for the Governm ; it a 

far the | the Government. 1 should aai I the 

same time it is fci .eminent to dedde thoso questional sud 

not the L'onraiander«iii-CUief. Ho only reports what liin views aw. 
and upon that (ho Government act; it rests entirely with 
(iovoniii' 

Methuihs this tone, however true the far; 
calculated to rivet the chains by which tho Commandi 
linked to the authority of the War OlHce. It in hurnili; 
to know that the highest authority at tho Hdbm Guards in 
supremo when the -Hire of one shining of 

is in question, without tho frequent declaration of the niebinc'. 
fact. 

The account which his lioyal Highness gives of the fo 
nnnv is satisfactory as far as the allowed amount of 



n happy to eay the army ia more complete than 
From nil our returns to tho Horse Guards, I 



"1 

■ 



believe lh:it i 
times of peace we were never so little* under our MMfeU 
we are thirt moment." But he nevertheless admits tho t 
of Colonel Herbert's statement in the H 
have not more than 38.000 men of the line actually avail 
Bervico in this country. His Iioyal Highness adds : 4v 
idea of the deductions which yon rauat mak force, You 

down #5,000 men ; you must deduct 10 per <vnt. for nick and a 
and men in the depots.* 1 And then lake 80,000 lor the colonies 
India J This is a long way from the force actm 
defensive purposes, if we have hut a small number of noli 

1 1. The Duke, however, thinks 
battalions, who would answer well for the oeeii^ 
in time of war. if in sufficient strength. — that is to wi; 
drafts sail for India to join their respective set a 

Boyal Highness is not equally favourabloto lb< 
would not like to rely too much upon Ihorn ; 1 

of meeting an invasion — " 'i be useful, but it in a 

great question with me whether they would not be qnite 
the way." He baa never met with a military man who. in 
of the sodden landing of an ■ to make a nr 

London, • all upon inlation I 

■ ■!!. his Bi oppw 

<-n\\ did rM ask Parlia> larger f 



sou* 



■ r '. 



18*3 



PE1P8 FBilM TUB LOOPHOLES OS HETB£AT. 



07 



have, because there is no use id going to tho House of Commons for 
200,000 men when the army ia 10,000 below the number actually 
authorized. There was good sense in this. A paper force is of no 
practical sfibut beyond furnishing a ground work for tho discontent 
of the tax payers. General Peel is strongly of opinion that the 
volunteer artillery should he encouraged. He would give them so 
many daj'S* pay in tho course of the year to insure their training ; 
be would ki take them for so many years, and they should have so 
many days' training during the course of tho year." General Peol 
does not think that the militia could be increased without resort to 
the ballot, and, after all, if the country sanctioned the raising a largo 
additional force of any kind, where is it to be put ? "We are very 
deticient of barrack accommodation. " Even now," says the late 
fJ l ti titan J for War, iP it ia impossible to carry out the recommenda- 
tions of the Sanitary Committee, and to give the quantity of cubic 
lir to each man which is recommended by them." Neverthe- 
less, General Peel would prefer, if it were possible, the presence of 
nad to untrained troops, and he incidentally refers to the expe- 
tion with which good battalions may be created, " I am happy to 
i u as regards those battalions which have been raised 
lin the last two years, the state of efficiency at which some of 
have Armed is perfectly wonderful. A great many of them are 
>ut to Malta, Gibraltar, and the Ionian Islands, and Sir 
rka told me that he had seen three regiments of second 
at Malta, and that he never saw liner regiments." 
Thus we cone to the conclusion that England is very badly sup- 
plie.J with troops for defensive objects ; that if Parliament gave the 
could not get the men ; the ride corps are not to be relied 
id that mil* dependence for protection must, therefore, ba 
luntoer local artillery! This explains Mr. Sidney Her- 
: v circular, addressed to the riflemen, who have been Blowly 
Every encouragement ia given to gentlemen on the 
i the:!! si -Ives in local artillery corps, and they are even 
privilege of raising their own earth works on sites where 
intent may be disposed hereafter to place guns, 
iucation of the officers of the army is tho nest subject of 
discussed by the committee. It appears that the Duke 
u is very far from bains satisfied with the present sys- 
boough he is the President of the Council of Military 
•a, he oli to to the rules by which it is made obliga- 

te take up given qualities of this or that kind 
I ga, 

don thai the obligatory marks are objectionable. I 

dak that what ■ to have ia tho general education of tho 

I think thai whether a man i or a good 

tkematiciau, signifies very little, and 1 should take a good 

sieal man just as willingly as a good mathematical man. I am 

I from taking a good classic: but I mu 

■nl mart. Tj it must become a cramming system. 

ing mathematics, and the other subjects are left mil." 

pamphleU pointing out' the pedantic and useless 

E % 



PEEPS PBOXT THE IOOPHOLE9 OP BETEEAT. 



[SSH . 



extremes which have been gone to, was brought, it seems, to the notice 
of the Duke of Cambridge and the Council of Education ; but no 
action has been taken in consequence because the Council had pro- 
nounced it imprudent to make any change until they saw how the 
present system worked, The consequence of its continuance is a 
great difiWlty in getting young men to enter the cavalry, The can- 
didates being, for the most part, the sons of gentlemen of fortune. 
(Id not care to run the risk of failure. '• It is not" (the Duke, 
loquihti) M that'they cannot pans their examination as well as any 
other persons, but i think they do not consider it worth while to 
run the risk of being plucked," 1 As the standard of education, and 
especially of mathematical proficiency, nets injuriously. His Koyal 
Highness has endeavoured to procure its reduction, and in I 
object he finds a oaHtihorateur in Professor Moaely. But the 
Council is obdurate. Yet many men besides Lord do lias dean 
the standard of education preposterous and injurioua. Sir John 
Bnrgoyne, in particular, naturally valuing scientific attainment 
engineer officers, serins to deride scholarship altogether in 
oilier branches of the service. "I don't think," he replii 
question from Mr. Horsmnn, "that the men who pass the 
examinations always make the best officers ; " and, in an*wi-r to 
Sir James Graham, he says, — " You do not get moral tpialiiy — 
you get education apart from moral quality. I should lii, 
h tatter for a staff officer It tin- than a man of the highest att, 
mentis. I think that men who make the best cricketers, and so 00, 
ars the bcBt persons for first commissions." 

The great ,lj V t'L>itv of sentiment on the subject of cdu< 
not he easily reconciled. There seems but one way to unti< 
Gordian knot, and that consists in the establishment of n mil. 
college, or in the extension of the appliances of Sandhurst t> 
whole of the candidates for the Guards and the Line. This is a fa\ ■ 
notion with His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief, and r 
well-wisher to the British army must desire to see it carried out. 
The Duke declares that he wishes to extend the area of education iu 
much as possible, and to get what is taught in the general schools of 
the country : '* Not particular schools — -not preparatory schools— for 
these examinations ; I want to get the young men from Hon 
or Eton, or Winchester, or where not, and to take the education 
which they receive there, and to let them show that they hate 
attained proficiency in that education, whether it be mathematical, 
or classical, or modern languages, or whatever it may be." And, 
having got them, Flis .Royal Highness would send them to Saudi i 
where, in a department of the college especially established tar their 
use, they should acquire a professional training before obtaining a 
commission. They should be taught "pontooning, field works, sur- 
veying, military riding, and all those various professional pur 
which really young ollicers, except at such a college, have not an 
opportunity of ever seeing." 

I think it would he difibulf U devise a better system of 
military education for tho vrnmg officer. Before he could 
possibly commence hi* "professional training," he would have 



1859.] 



PEEP! £BOM TITE T.0OPIT0LE8 OP RETBEiT* 



GO 



been grounded in mathematics, geometry, drawings and so-forth ; 
and the very conditions of his admission would stimulate the 
schools of the country to adopt a more general system of education . 
The worst of it is a at present, that the heads of schools are either 
very learned or very ignorant. The former maf/islrt are from the 
universities, and their standard of excellence- is centred in u high 
degree of classical or mathematical attainment ; the latter, espe- 
cially, employ masters and proiessors of whose capacity they are 
unable to judge, and a sort of academical chaos, consequently figures 
the contents of the pupil's mind. 

The main object of the Military Organization Committee being to 
simplify the business of the War Office, and place the relations of 
the Secretary of State, the Commander-in-Chief, and the various 
departments upon a sounder basis, the inquiry has gone very much 
into that particular matter, and it is quite clear that, as far as the 
evidence has proceeded, the investigation has not been commenced 
one hour too soon. Never was anything so cumbrous, so complicated, 
ao costly, so unsatisfactory. One twentieth part of the money 
which ia spent in public correspondence— needless correspondence, 
as will presently be seen — would give a handsome increase to the 
pay of infantry subalterns, and relieve the cavalry subalterns of 
the cost of forage. Imagine the War Office receiving, registering, 
and replying to something like 350,000 letters per annum (about 
1,000 per diem), of which number about 30,000 come from its imme- 
diate neighbour, the Horse Guards 1 To open these letters the Office 
employs (I quote the testimony of Sit- B. Hawes) a first class clerk, 
of considerable experience, assisted by two or three other clerks. 
The opening begins at half-past nine, the letters are cast into boskets 
for the different departments to wbii.ii they relate. There are three 
deliveries per diem. By eleven a.m., the first delivery is distributed ; 
at one p.m., a second delivery takes place ; and at three p.m., a third 
delivery ; so that nearly the whole of an official day is consumed in 
le receipt and sorting of letters. Before the distribution, and after 
e opening, the letters go to the Kegiatrar, in an adjoining room. 
EBoer and his assistants place upon them a number which 
udk-utca the subject of the correspondence, and marks them to the 
particular branch l'or which they are intended. Clerks in the several 
>ranrhes then annex to the letters such previous correspondence as 
be necessary to enable the Secretary of State to answer the 
"cular letter or application which may be forwarded. In the 
of the Commander-in-Chief, every letter goes first to the 
itary Secretary or- Adjutant-General, or Quarter- Master-General, 
ids it down to the clerks with memorandums pencilled thereon, 
id the letters are either again sent up with former papers, or are 
upon instanter. In the War Office a different system prevails. 
il'ter registry, a letter goes to a junior clerk, who, to show hiB know- 
f business, makes a minute upon it ; then to o superior clerk, 
ho makes another minute ; then to a third ; and so ou through 
different grades of Under Secretary, Assistant Secretary, until it 
fhes the Secretary of State, with half a dozen memoraudums upon 
it, contradicting each other, and ail upon some trifle ! This system 












rfiira FboM tiib ioopiioles of ffiETRSiT. [Sm» 

of reference and minutes causing an immense consumption • 

and waste of paper, is illustrated by Mr. Smith, the Comniiaiary- 

General, in bis evidence. 

** There was a question about messes at Malta, in vol. 

of a penny a day. The paper (containing Mr - state* 

ment) was of such an obvious nature that it required no oxplana- 
tion on my part. The subject matter was to place a sex 
sender upon the same footing as two juuiora ; that is, to gu 
an extra penny a dny. I eould not sanction it upon my ow: 
bility. If I had done so, the Accountant* General would probably 
have objected to it. I therefore sent it to Sir Benjamin Ha 
the Financial Office of the War Office, simply requesting Uim to 
approve Of it. instead of his approving of it at oner | I 
know whether it reneln-d him or not), it was sent by the aawiatan* 
chief clerk to the Accountant-General to know whether ho coo* 
eurnd in mv recommendation ; then a second-class cierk in ihe 
A eeountant- General's office made a minute, critiei 
t!ung from beginning to end; then the chief clerk sent i 
■BOW whether I could explain what the Reeoml-clasa rlerl, 
I wrote an explanation. Then the chief clerk sent it bn< k U> ttw* 
- . »iisint- General, and said that he saw no < hi it. 

Another clerk in the Aecountnnt-GencraVs office made n minute, 
Baying that he saw no objection to it ; then tho chief clerk ■■ 
to Sir Benjamin Hawes, and said he might a] it, and Iff 

did approve of it, and that was a thing which involved a 
a day. This small transaction occupied nine days in tra i 

Another illustration of this absurd and complicated system uf 
reference and correspondence is supplied by Mr. Godik" 
assistant Under Secretary of State. Hear him ;— 

n If a comiminicatinii comes from a combatant officer 
Commander-in-l hief, upon which he (tho Commander-in-t 
wishes to forward a communication to the Secretary < 
minutes, or the Adjutant- General for him mini: 
tion from tho officer to the effect, ' Apply to tin State,' 

That, minute goes down to a clerk there, is translated into a lone, 
letter, id which the whole affair is recited] the draft of that comes 
n I* lr> the Adjutant-General to be approved; it goes down to lie 
copied} it is then entered and sent; it snivel at. our (the War) 
Office; it is there registered; it goes down to a Board to be re- 
ported upon; it goes up to the Secretary of State to be decided 
upon; the Secretary of State puts his minute upon it, 'Approval 1 
or ' Disapproval ;' ntfi approval or disapproval, instead of going back 
direct to the Commander-in-Chief in that form, iy translated into 
another letter, in which the contents of the letter to which it is an 
answer are recited, and probably, instead of three v tends 

over three pages ; then it is rough drafted, 1b approved, is sent 
down again to be copied, is then sent Tip again to be signed ; it 
goes down again to be entered, mid then issued and sent by a mes- 

'" to the Commander-in-Chiefs office. There are do le: 
batty, than pix or seven processes, most of them length)- and labo* 
rions ones, instead of one, which would have been the mere transfer 









CAMPAIGN IW LOMBAEDT. 



11 







of the Secretary of State'a minute to the Board concerned; that us 
Inference, I really do riot think that I exaggerate when I Bay 
th:tt, if we a ict with all the world our eorresponJeueo by 

mini io than halt the cleric* of the department. 

* * • I tliijiV f fcoltqk usD&ceieatily to multiply the 

Sir Benjamin llawef, who appears inyeterately attached to all 

eoaatiufj systems, thinks thtro is virtue in allowing junior clerks to 

write minutes, and much value in n multiplication of eorrespon- 

e. The former enablea a secretary to discover tale nt, aud the 

but* Hut surely both these enda may be attained 

by simpler menus, and with a much leaa consumption of time ? The 

Conn bat hie experience and that of the oflmcrs 

artnu-nt 1 bom to m amazing delay" in the answers which 

to the letters addressed to the War Office. ,; Letters 

are marked : urgenJ ' wili come back in a day or two, but il' 

ywu do not put that on I should nay the average waa nine or ten days 

certainly" General Peel is decidedly opposed to the dilatory 

tan* He agrees with i\lr. t'i hi mutuary OeiHi in thinking 

the tyateni of com .rijHindence generally in the AYnrDepartnuiii 

wor- possible. Jn war time the machinery would wt work 

at a! 1 have no hesitation in saving t liat I think thatn 

■more minutes than in at all necessary. I 

should I \ ted my attention to roduci ii -4 the number of minutes 

I iad remained art the War Department." 

f all this vast accumulation of correspondence 

\g is the presence of upwards of 500 clerks in the AVar 

rtment, i a varying from £90 to £1,000 and £2,000 per 

annum. It is high time that the entire system wore tiuuU'verse, 

caused to flow in a more profit 

of the army are overflowing and converted wttiO 

Ithy martl i the military soil is left waste for want of a 

moisture. The press will do good service in venti- 

pplying its commentaries to established facts 

the session of Farhamcnt is fl As far bj my oid can 

t be withheld. But fat the present 1 think that I have 

■1 eiiiiu-lj. There are many other points of gruat iu- 

iu poaDection with thia inquiry into the organization of our 

b&ahmenfcs which I must reserve until next month. 



<P.YIGN OF 1849 IN LOiMBAEDY. 
(Continued Son* pqgQ sir..) 
OHAPTEB V. 

; '; , — Battle of f pjigtia — Uatdc ol 

-Kill of MBan— Conclusion of the Camp 

e 12lh of July, all their reinforcements had < ume u\> to ihe 
were very great. 12,000 of 
General AYeluen from hia corps after the teduetwa, 



72 



CAMPAIGN T7f LOMBAHBT. 



[Sept.. 



oi the Venetian mainland, and were forwarded, to Lcgnngo on tin: 

Adige, where being joined by some battalions from 

were formed into a separate corps under Minor General L'\,. 

remainder of the reinforeeinents were Bohemian and German 

nuts forwarded through the Tyrol and I'arinthia. The total 

Austrian foreo in Italy amounted to l82,OiQ0 men, organised in 

battalions and CO squadrons. The eavalrv were nearly 11,000 £*> 

and there were 240 gun*. This large ioree was divided 

corps, of which three ( Wratiplaw, Asprel, and Woeher,) were eoneen- 

trated around Verona; one (Tburn) was in the Tyrol 

one fCuloz) at Legnago, on the Athlon the leiV, and one < \A 

in (he rear, blockading Venice, and keeping up the eommui 

A garrison of 2,000 was left by Asp re in Vicenza when 

to Verona, and lie had been rejoined heioro lie moved by the brigade 

which he had detached to open up t he communication with Biweieda 

by the Aiv;i valley. From the force of the army in the field must, 

however, bo deducted 12,OOu mm sick, and two strong battalions 

still on the march. 

Of the Piedniontose forces it ia impossible to state the number* 
so exactly, but there can be no doubt that thev wero mmoerit- < 
superior to the Austrinus, and that more partieuhirly 
army under their King was very considerably so to that cor 
by Imdebky. The reason of tliia was that the blockade of Venire, 
the observation of the line of the lower IV and the garrison in 
Venetian mainland, were far greater deductions from tin- troop 
tho field than Charles Albeit required to make, all of "m* 

ini mu-ftf ions were (secure, and order in whose rear was kept up by 
the National Guard, consequently nearly all his troops were dispo* 
sable for active operations, except that on the light bank of the 
a good many Piedmontese reserve battalions were placed in Pia- 
<vnz:i, Parma, Modena, [<Vn\irn. and Bologna. The main army on the 
Adige, numbering about GQ,000 men, was divided into two great e< i 
commanded by Generals Bava and Sonnaa, and eonsiatcd ol seven divi- 
sions, viz., those of ArviDara, Ferrere, Broglia, and the Duke of Genes, 
the Lombard divisions of Perrone and Visconti, and the reserve un 
the I Jnko of Savoy ; Sonnaz commanded the left, liava the right v 
Hey end the main body the extreme left consisted of adivi 
bards and free corps, commanded by Durando, who waastat 
the western ahoresof thelakeof Guarda; the extreme right of General 
Rgpe-'a division in Venice. The old Piedmont c»c troops wo 
a match for an equal number of Austriaus, but the Lombard d 
nom were much inferior, and the number of recruits am 

; talking which had been incorporated v\ith the old Pico* 
numtese veterans*, had much impaired their efficiency, and rendered 

t opponents in the power of moving 
under 

Albert, unable to attempt anything ogaiuat the army in 
Jiu ii "ut, ft, H i aa&jiiled by a perfect torrent of abuse for bis inaction 
by lue 'evolutionary press in his reur, bow determined to undertake 
a measure which was the urtuiediiiU- cnuW °f his ruin. This was 
the siege of Mantua, No moremeiit could be more dangerous than 



196a] 



CAMPAIGN 1S T,OWHART>V. 



73 









this, in the way in which he proposed to execute it. His plan was 
impiete the investment and undertake the siege of that pbier, 
tea on his extreme right, without giving up either the plateau. 
of Itivoli on his left, or hia works in front of Verona in the centre. 
In other worda, he was about to accumulate the mass of his funics 
around Mantua on bifl right, whilst he left his now attenuated and 
weakened left and centre is their old positions opposed to the hulk 
of hia adversary's forces concentrated around Verona. Such was 
the distance between the two wings of the Piedmouteae armv, and 
so near was Ivadetaky to their centre, that to attack it from A'erona 
he had a fur shorter distance tu march than Charles Albert had to 
bring up support from Mantua. To undertake such a movement, 
involving a dissemination of his whole army in thfl face of a power- 
ful and concentrated advcr#ai*y, would seem, at first eight, to show a 
total want of military skdl in the Sardinian King, and were ho 
merely a general in command of an army thia judgment would be 
juafc, but he was more than a general, he was King of Sardinia, and 
head of the Italian League, and consequently with him military 
movements were constantly made subject to political considerations. 
Thia is a circumstance which must always be kept in view in criti- 
cising the actions of a commander. He often is obliged to under- 
take movements, in a military view dangerous in the highest degree, 
but in a poll tiual absolutely necessary. Of this nature was the pre- 
longed stay of Kapolfion at Dresden, even when, as a military poBi- 
it had become untenable from the junction of Austria with 
the Allies, and the present movement of the King on Mantua. As 
Vr of an ilLcemcnted league, hia sole condition of existence was 
It was the mural force of victory and action which could 
alone secure, not only his position at the head of all the Italian 
states, but even keep his own crown upon his head. Inaction was 
certain ruin. Already the murmur of treachery was heard from the 
democratic party in his rear. He must do something. Eetreat he 
dare not. Attack he could not. Ilia only resource, therefore, was 
to undertake the siege of Mantua. Pur that, considering his 
political position, he cannot be blamed. It was a military fault dictated 
by a political necessity. But in the execution of it he certainly seems 
not to have taken the most prudent; military coui>c. lie HQJght have fol- 
lowed two courses. Instead of maintaining a considerable force at 
Rivoli, and In front of Pesehiera, he might have abandoned the 
itry between the Guarda lake and the Adige, made Peschiera 
and thus shortened his line from right to left, by 
r on the natural obstacle of the Guarda lake, whilst he 
pied and fortified the line of the Miueio as the battle ground 
' centre with strong late* depoiit, and fortifications in the heights 
ig its left bank, where they commanded the right. This would 
re enabled him with comparative safety to have undertaken the 
blockade ofMantua with hia right wing and reserve, which, should have 
been protected by strong defensive works thrown up on the nide of 
Verona and Legnago. Even in this way it would have been a very 
hazardous undertukitig, for he would have abandoned to the enemy 
the greater part of the important line of heights between Verona 



74 



CAlffAlON IX LMIBABBT. 



_ * ^ 



and the upper Mineio. But the danger would have been owed 
lessened, ixuwmuch as the line from Kivoli to the Mineio below 
Mantua is fur longer than from Peachiera to the name place. U 

Jn-operly fortn'tkcl with field works it is in itself a stronger 
bom its less extent could have been better mai 

reinforced at the menaced point, and it is further removed fru*o tta 
entrenched position <f Kadetzky at Verona, f'2). I 
atill kept the bulk of bin foffPM roncentrated in 
on the hei-hf * o£ Beam mid Bottom Catupagna, but:; 
and all the positions to his left i and merely kept rutin 

n force Bufhdeut to restrain the garrison and oppose : 
MfOi Then, if Uadc-Uky attacked him from Verona, he vouldtaov 
the bulk of his forces in a carefully i'oi tafied position. If he marched <ft 
Mantua by the right hank of the Adige, he could fall ( nfhl 

Jlnuk by Vilkuranca during the movement. If he 
relievo it by descending its left hank to Legnago and • • 
be could move by a shorter parallel line, and 
Nogara. Thia would probably have been the beat plait. 
keep his left at Eivoli, and hia centre in front of 
accumulated the bulk of his forces around Maud 
right, where they were at a greater distance from Ida centre than 
JUldil/.kv, WOT madrii MS. 

the 12th the movement began. Charb 
l.c;iil-i|uai*tera at Roverbella. Ferrerfe's divisio > ioto 

in the centre and undertook the blockade on the nidi.- 
Jk'lliure, and the inundation of Berese; to the vib. ma, 

Oppoatte Fort Pietoli, it was continued by the new I 1 tries. 

jhAcfe como up firom ttbq Oglio, to whom a brigade and rifle batUiboa 
wrm added U> enable il to continue the u 
abovi' llii bnra. This completed the blockade ou the 
the To do the same on the left batik the Duke of >>n\oy'» 

division, which bod been withdrawn from the left at Iluoli, wna, oa 
the LStfa pushed on to Cuatellaro (on the Legnago reed 
Duke of German mined to Mozzeeano, and the bead - : 
shifted fvj Marmivolo. A variety of minor eh l:usr« 

all involving the left aud centre for the reinforce men I 
W< iiiiul. iuju turn for n moment to the opjposite bo 
Since the commencement of the revolutionary movement tb* 
■■del off Fcrrora (in the Papal States to the . 
which contained an Austrian garrison, had been subject to what the 
inhafadtanta of the town bad boon pleased to call a I hi 

reality a convention wan eoneluded by which, -■i>u>cn* 

gng'i i bombard the place, the citizens promised to supply 

ly with [ tly before this, however, a 

riaon was thrown into the town, who, of eourso, 
etrforeed a petu blockade, arid it was in consequence reduced 

< ** fin- want of pro i relieve it, Radetnky directed 

Major I-- <n i.ii Culoft, who lay with his corps at Leguu 

i under Prince F. Liech These Betting nut on tl 

sed the Po m boats nci I '.»ello, and reached 1 

'owing day, the Hedtnynteee troops, too weak to 



1R50.1 



CA3ITAI07T IN LOMHABDT. 




them, withdrawing. A convention was then concluded lift ween the 

Austrian eurnuuindcr nnd the townsmen, with the sanction of the 

Sednsonteae commanding officer, that the citadel should be re- 

lh*d by the inhabitants every two months. The day after 

itenstein set out on his return, Crowed the l'o. and, in obedience 

instructions, directed Ida march on Gravcrnnlo. This email 

i situated on the Mmeio, close to if« junction with t he Po, 

and has a bridge over the former stream. It waa held by a email 

Austrian detachment, and Leichtenstein'a instructions wera to cross 

tl»e river there and move up its right bank, against the rear of the 

corps blockading Manturt on that side, and they won* to he assisted 

Vy a the garrison. On fipproaebtng it, however, he learned 

Hen into the hands of the enemy. In fact, as Boon as 

■lee Albert heard of Jjeiehtciiatcin's movement, he directed 

Genera? Kava to cross the Po to oppose him with a brigade nf 

infantry, a regiment of cavalry, and two batteries, and he had 

ifly readied Borgoforte, and crossed over some of his men, when 

t?amed t ! LuBtrtans had recrossed the river. Instantly 

littg their project, he marched his whole force on Oovcrnolo. The 

Kiiall Austrian garrison, const sting of only three companies, with 

fotte gunst, made a gallant resistance, but driven from the defence of 

the bridge bi the superior fire of the artillery, they wire speedily 

surrounded in the open plain beyond it by the cavalry, and their 

squire being shattered by a discharge of grape, it mm broken, nnd 

they were nearly nil takett prisoners. Two of the guns with a few 

en managed, however, to get off, and threaded their way in aaibty 

Bava immedir.* ied this important post, which completely 

secured the right flank of the blockading corps, in force. The Pied- 

^botitese having collected in force at Castelkro, Leichtenstein rect 
orders, to prevent his being attacked in flank, to turn aside from 
Governolo, and march on Sanguinetto, a village on the road between 
Legnago and Mantua, not far from the former town, where he would 
he m communication with, and form the advanced guard of his own 
corps. He reached this point on the 21st. Having been ordered to 
ti to Mantua to confer with the governor, he was cutoff by the 
of the investment, and G-eneral Simbeehen took the 
id of his division. 

iportant events were now on the wing. Radetzky 

1 with an eagle's eye the false movement of Charlea 

he was careful not by the slightest move on his own part 

to give hitn notice of the coming storm. On the contrary, to lull 

■> a still more fatal security, he issued a bulletin to his troops 

itig to a still longer continuance of their defensive attitude, 

<>n at Austertitz, he was determined not to interrupt 

neiuy in the execution of their fni.ic manoeuvre. As Boon as lie 

stmentof Mantua by tho bulk of their forces eonrph 

still farther to distract their attention from the centre, the point he 

had determined to overwhelm with his whole force, he directed 

Count Thurn to collect all the disposable force of his corps in tho 

■I, and descending the right bank of the Adige, assail their left 






at Monlebaldo and Rivob. Having collected lira troops to tfcl 
number of twenty-three companies on the 21st, he advanced to the 
attack in. two columns on the morning of the 22nd, The right 
column, consisting of ten companies under Tiiurn hi person, moved 
Against the Piedmontese, who were posted to the number of about 
1,000 men near La Ferrara, on the northern slopes uf the Montebaldo, 
They stormed the heights under a heavy fire of musketry, and toiling 
on under a burning sun over those rugged cliffs, finally drove them 
bock to their main position on the plateau of Rivoli, There, however, 
their column was checked, the Piedmonteae batteries received them 
with a heavy and well-directed fire, fresh troops were brought up to 
encounter men worn out with heavy toil, and far from being able to 
nuikc an impression on the left flank of the plateau, they could with 
difficulty maintain themselves at San Martino, at the foot of the 
southern slope of the Montebaldo. There they halted for the 
Nor was the left column more successful. It was commanded by I 
Lieliiiitnsky, and consisted of eight companies with four guns, it 
moved against the plateau of Hi voli, by the road which deaeends along 
the right bank of the Adige. Its couTse,consequently, lay in a D 
pass, with the river on its left, and the mountains overhanging il - 
and to enable it to advance a flanking party had to be sent to 
the nearest heights, and move along their summit abreast with the 
column in the valley below. In this order they got as far o,h Ine 
there the road leaves the banks of the river, and turning to 
ascends through a narrow winding gorge the steep flank 
plateau of Eivoli, to the village of ftoana on the Buramit. Sen 
they were met by General Sonna/, in person, with 3,000 men, with 
ftuir guua, the head of the column jam died together in the narrow 

Sasa, now smitten with grape, whilst its flank was exposed to I 
estructive fire from the light troops posted amidst the overhanging 
rooks, and it could make no wav, but after sustaining a heai 
was obliged to fall back. Upon the Monte Postello, ou the opposite 
bank of the river, the Austrians had planted an eighteen pounder 
and some other guns, which did good service during the attack, for 
they silenced some works which the Piedmontese had thrown up to 
command the road, and from their elevated position, were able to 
play, across the stream, upon almost every part uf their camp The 
Austrian loss in killed, wounded, and missing, amounted to 8 
officers, and 201 men. Twice the pass leading up to the pint 
Eivoli lias witnessed the repulse of the Austrian arms, for tin re it 
was that (Junsdanovich'fl column was defeated by Is' apole on in person 
on the lith January, 1707. In the evening they occupied much the 
same position as they had done on the day before that celebrated 
battle, tor one column held il baldo, while the other lay at 

the foot of the ascent near the river Bide. The extreme danger of 
hifl position induced General Sonnaz, iu spite of his sued 
retreat, for he. foresaw that the attack would bv renewed on the 
following day, whilst any movement of Radetzkl from Verona, 
against the weak and extended centre, would lead inevitably to his 
retTeat being cut off, and consequent destruction. Accordingly, at 











1859.] 



CAiCPAIGK IN" lOMBARDr. 



W 



nine in the evening his columns abandoning the plateau, fell back 
upon Pesehicra. 

Kadetzky now saw that the hour had com©. The bulk of his 
opponents' forces were grouped round the marshes of Mantua far on 
the right, while the entrenchments on the heights in his front were 
weakly manned by their attenuated centre and left. Swift and 
strong as the spring of the lion from his luir was the stroke of the 
old man. On the evening of the 22nd he led forth his army from 
the entrenched camp of Verona, and, having placed a strong garrison 
there under Baron Haynau, disposed them for the fight. From 

(Verona, ifl already mentioned, a hilly range extends to the Mineio, 
and from the banks of that river westward as far as Castiglione, it 
is bounded on the east by the Adjge, on the south by the great plain 
of Mantua, which nms up to its foot in the neighbourhood of Villa- 
franca on the left, and of Goito on right bank of the Mineio, and 
on the west by that of the Chiese, which reaches it at Lonato and 
Castiglione. It is composed of a sue cession of swelling hills, ex- 
tremely like one another troth in shape and altitude, This line of heights 
immediately to the south of the Gnarda lake and north of the Man- 
tuati plain, and bisected by the Mineio, forms the true line of defence 

that river; for an army in possession of it, and established 
u ekeval on the river, is not only in a position of great strength in 
itself both for offence and defence, but in one which no opponent 
ran venture i« pass by, as hia flank, rear, and communications would 
all he exposed to attack in the plain, extending from its southern 
front to the Po. This was the position held by Charles AhVrt with 

whole forces, before he undertook the siege of Mantua, and to 
expel him from which was the object of Hadetzky's flank move- 
ment in May. The strength of it he had experienced in his un- 
successful attack on Goito on that occasion. Taught by this failure, 
his object now was, by a front attack with hia whole iorce, to carry 
this hilly rauge and establish himself upon it, on both banks of the 
Mineio, in a position facing Mantua ; in other words, on the very 
ground held by the I'iodmontese in the end of May. The part of 

position which be required first to carry, and that on which the 
PieamOntese centre stood, was its eastern face looking to Verona. 
II- re He three parallel ranges of hills running north and south, one 
behind the other. On the foremost of these the Sardinian line was 
established, and on it stand four villages, all of which was strongly 
entrenched and occupied anil were the keys of the ground. On Hie 
Sardinian left was the village of Santa Guietina, in the centre Bona, 
On the right Somma Uampagna, each of these were distant abuul 
three quarters of a league from each other; about a league south 
treat from the latter, that is in a direction thrown back at an oblique 
:myle from their right, was Custozza, behind this range, which 

ried their firBt battle ground, lies a second similar range of which 

culminating point is the Monte Goddo, behind it again rises a 

third range, called, from a village which stands on it, that of San 

Giorgio; in the valley between the second ftnd third ranges tin; 

1 stream of the Tione flows. On the first ridge, holding the 

villages, General 8omiflK posted his men. Their position was strong 






ClMfAlUV ur fcoMaASaV, 



both from nature and art, for it was covered with entrenchments on 

which tbo whole army had laboured, but he had not n furco ae*rij 

sutlicient to man such e works. For, of the four brigade* 

which originally composed his corps ouo IkhI been Bent to " 

aud another, that which hud formed the left wing and had fo 

Eivoti, Invd retired as before noticed to PeBehtera, so that he 

two left disposable to occupy the ground. He could nut 

bring above 12,000 Piedmontese into line, Tho Tuscan dirui 

hitw'.'vex, posted in the plain, on his right, at Villafranca. To beai 

upon this weak foree Badetzky brought about 45,000, ■• 

ranged for the attack as follows ;— Aspre'a corps forn 

wing, it waa to attack in two columns. The ' 

infantry and caTolry brigade, under Count SehangaUch. was 

move against Santa. Guistina and the extreme Piedmont 

second, consisting of three infantry of brigades, un 

"Wiiupfen, on Sona in their centre. TVratishuv's C613M 

lull wing, it was also to attack in two columns, Wohhjem 

to lead three brigades against Somma Campagua and 

Pirdmoutese right, Clam one brigade against Custosva aud their 

right flank, and Colonel Wyes with some light cavalry was 

this movement by advancing on the eitrcme Austrian left into the 

plain towards Villafranca, so as to observe the Tuscans. V 

reserved corps moved in rear of the centre, ao as to support, a&v 

menaced point. It consisted of three infantry and one curalrj 

gade, and the reserve batteries, Each brigade of Aaprc*a and W'n- 

tislaw's corps had a battery of artillery, nnd one or two squadron* 

attached to it. Charles Albert therefore so managed ma 

with Jin army on the whole equal in numbers to that of 

he yet I lect on the decisive point to fight the battle of 

only 12,000 men to meet his opponent with 45,000; an 1 

the measure of his generalship, for Napoleon had said tl 

derisive mark of an able general is to be, with forces on the whole 

inferior, superior to his adversary at tho point of attack. 

It was on the evening of the 22nd that the Auatriau army marched 
forth from Wrona. Endetzkys original plan was for all I 
to move on to the attack at 1 o'clock on the euaiiii 
a terrible umipeet of wind and rain came on in the 
were drenched to the akin, and no movement was pos?. 
lasted. With the early dawn, however, the clouds cleared 
sun shone out in all its brilliancy aud the advance comment 
was Sunday, the 23rd of Juue, a memorable day in the annuls 
Italy At seven o'clock, Wimufen began the action by t 
his heavy column into action against Sana and the adjoining 
held by the I'a-dmoutese etion continued for fo 

hours with great violence, tho ese mak 

resist am. ■ : trow tin ound a regular aih 

or column 

With .. Jjy hjg], 

I and brok< 




nran I 



\uslrians 



UA1CPAICW 



79 



iheEQ mad assaulting with the utmost gallantry ; bo mingled 
ler did both parties become, that frequently the Amtnamfl 
of their enemies muskets ns they were pre* 

(1 twisting thera off, tired themselves thnniL'li 

return, At lust, however, numbers prevailed, and by 

-triau colours were advanced to the summit of- the 

the Piedmdfttese, alter being driven from all their en* 

, lie centre, were in full ret r -liU hi the 

n the Austrian right, Se L .|j led on 

.1 (iuistiua, to secure bis Hank against a oounter' 

! Buaaoleugo, lie detached n small eulumn to observe the 

i-e, and with the main body went right against Santa 

:ina : hia orders wore to mate only a false attack, hut seeing 

triumphant advance, ho converted it into a real one. and 

th a rash. Aspn'-, having now won the whole 

itiy'i position, led hia corps a e rose theinter- 

I hntofSen ( }iorgio,whero they hndeolleeted their 

a eccond stand. This village was stormed by 

■{•:, and the whole corps passed on without a 

the road to Peachicra, npon which 

tfie one i (iv fell back. 

the Austrian left, Wohlgemuth led on his coltunn at the 

time s cfiq»3 attacked. The position of the 

y shout S,,niina Campagna was very string; at the 

o9 the height on wjiieli the village htnnds were three strong 

bed ii ed together by garden walla, theee anil the 

tended by 3,000 men with four guns, and though 

luperior force, they made n most detcmnued 

is "own and Supplicoe's brigade in front, and sup- 

rassoldo'a, Wohlgemuth threw his force freely 

: tin.- advanced line above mentioned was defended with 

. rind a sftlloy even waa made agfll "vnk of tlie 

■is, but the odda were too great. The pout was at 

termed in front and turned oh both flankw, mid 

us uniting their columns rushed together up the 

iie main position, and by the sheer weight 

i'iedmontese right before them. Clun, 

iching Custom with his brigade, when its 

neral retreat of the line, abandoned it, 

ielnw, thus successful in both hi^ on the Piedmonteae 

ordered A advance of his corps over the intervening 

nls the Miucio, Clam, having occupied CiiBtozza, pushed on 

■ heights on the other side of theTione. Wra- 

ituth'ij column passed on to OHoei, the Piedmon- 

all haste before him to the >■■ Meet* the 

( rassoldo with his leading b 

the siunmit of th nt o, and looked 

ig along tranqni t. The reserve 

;io, wlicr. 
■ <hi the r\lii I burn with 

tfbe abandoned position of Bivoli, and, though 



CAMPAICW IS LOMBAllDY. 



[fl*H., 



difficulty in bringing up supplies prevented Ins further progress that 

day, he had entered into communication wit 

port, the main body of the army. By the 

Eadetzky had earned all the nitrei 

centre, driven it and their left wing ai 

possession of the whole range of heights to the north of th 

tuan plain as far as that river, 

So far the Austrian advance had been triumphant, but \i « 
unattended with danger, for whilst they were pressing . 
hilly range towards the shores of the Mineio, Char 
employed collecting a strong force at Villafranca, in the phiin 
then left. This position, which was strongly barricaded, h 
by their forward movement in rear of the Austrians, and • 
sews it that their extreme left was held, refused by Clam's ! 
betng halted at Custozza, and on the heights on each aide 
Tione about that place. Villafranca was not above half n 
distant from the foot of the heights. When the Austrians had ad- 
vanced to the Mineio, two courses lay open to Charles Albert 
to raise the siege of Mantua, collect all his forces on the 
of that river, and throwing himself across their onward 
a general defensive action near Goltn, or to coneentrat e 1 1 

Ibis forces about Villafranca, and from thence assail 1 ! 
their left, and having won them threaten their rear and comti 
tions. This was the bolder course and the more peril- 
was likely to lead to the greater results, and was the one I 
The two armies thus came into a very peculiar pos 
mutually passed each other and menaced each others communica- 
tion, Kadetzky, pressing on across the Mineio, threatened to gain 
the roods to Mian ; Charles Albert attacking from Villafranca seemed 
about to seize that to Verona. Each party aimed a vital thrust, 
aud each in bo doing laid himself cpen, Kadetzky 's position on 
the heights was the strongest, buthis troops p> a ta their front 

were scattered and open to a Hank attack. Charles Albert had hi* 
men better in hand tor a sharp and decisive stroke. This ho de- 
livered with good effect on the 21th, but to understand it we must 
advert to the Field-Marshal's movements on that day. 

JLe had a double object in view (1) to gain possession of the high 
grounds on the right bank of the Mineio, (2) to Secure his flank and rear 
from attack. This double strain in opposite directions n 'vied 

to a dispersion of his force. To secure the first object, he brought up 
Woeher's reserve corps to the Mineio at Salionze, and pushed 
two of ltd brigades there, over the 'river. The passage wan effected 
after a smart skirmish. Meanwhile, lower down the stream, Wohl* 
iiutli'sand Supplieaz's brigades of W'ratislaw's corns crossed at 
•M nziunbano. To effect the second, Strassoldo's brigade of the* 
Bame corps remained on the Monte Vento, and occupird Vallegin 
fating the plain of Mantua, and in echelon next to him Clam sf 
at Custozzn, with ordflM tomoveonwhen relieved by Simbachen from 
Bauguinetto. Asprg'a corps observed Pesehiera, and Thurn ad- 
vanced to Cola and Sandra ' the high road leading from 
Verona to IWbiera. The general result of their movements was, 



^B 






CAilPAlSS IS 10MBABDT, 81 

while four brigades were crossed over to the right bank of the 
three were disposed in echelon on the left flank of the 
rjnv. tn make bead against Charles Albert in the plain, mid two 
■ted iji the neighbourhood of Peach lera who could 
■ ;my threatened |uim, At the same time, foreseeing the 
Mi Verona being cut off, Badetzky ordered 
mtoon train to be marched back from the rear of the active 
to Poiitou (immediately below B-ivoli) on the Adige. The 
f one body here requires to be explained; at the time of 
•nei'iil advance from Verona, 'on the 23rd, Simhaehett's brigade 
i^ii a m ■ 1 i • ■ a orders to advance towards the main army, 

i such n fifty as to join its extreme left. Jt: would thua require to 
traverse the plain near Villarranea diagonally ftom tlje lower Adice 
ear I> n wards the upper Minna, ami would become a flank- 

left and rear of the army during its advance, Ou 
• (2-Uli), it bad come so fur up that it waa ordered to occupy 
'je high ground between itomiua Cauipagun and Cuatosua, and to 
in tl« latter post Clam'a brigade, which was then to rejoin its 
rwu, corps. It bad along and wearj march through the burning 
Jain, and il was ." o'clock, p.m., ere its leading battalion reached 
ion as it did, however, and without waiting for the 
ader of t ho brigade, Clam marched fur the Monte Vento, and 
thua the entire defence of tin- flank and rear nt' the army between 
le BConte Vento and Verona, came to depend upon this* single and 
ibaustL-d brigade, not numbering 5,000 nun, which were stretched 
u loose marching column nlong the lugli grounds all the way from 
■a to Smnma Campagnu. The consequence^ of this imprudent 
on Chin i^ part waa »oon apparent, 
A! this vciv time Charles Albert, basing concent rated about Villa- 
mca five infantry brigades, and a cavalry division, numbering 
ber about 1^j,OW> men. commenced bis offensive movement, 
ivi re stationed ou his right ou the plain towards Verona, 
M iiifmilry to tin left, moved direct against that range of heights 
which Ctu ud Soma j a Canipagua are situated, which tb\ 

rould thus assail from the southeast. Having won thi:* petition, 
tu advance rapidhj towards the Mincio, assailing in rear 
ulet/k\'« wliole army. The advance of the Piediuontese brought 
tit-in direeth upon tfie brigade Sirabsehen, of which one regiment 
ilv ( Haynau *s), had reached the Monte Torre, close to Custuz*a, 
k- next Emil), was on the heights between thai andSomma 

jtmpa-na. ami the third (Nugeute), waa in that village. They 
mid oppose ii" effectual resistance t<> the immense tnaaa of fresh 
apt thus poured suddenly upon their Hank, but were broken 
i and shivered to pieces man Instant, liaytiau's regiment, 
n the right, contrived to hold its ground the loudest, and fall back 
tolerable order to San Giorgio, but Prince Emil'a, in the centre, 
ih! j in front and rear, was cut oil' from the remainder of 
,;tud nearly all taken prisoners. Its broken remains, as well 
m those of Nugent "a regiment, from Summit Cumpugua, had the utmost 
'ifficulty iu making their escape to Verona. In this disastrous action 
ie brigade lost 1,817 men, and 43 officers, and by its results the 
No. 370, 8 kpt., 1859. ti 



fen 



Pied monies- v.L-ie eslnbli&hed oti the foremost rauge of b< 
which the Aiifitrmu army had so recently ad 

jiouaintl lenlv found the foree cov< 

completely tie feat e d T and their adversaries in posses;- *feo*g 

position in their rem*. 

In these eircumatiuiccH Hadet/.ky's resolution I tak*» 

i cruiint'iL to face hiw araiy to the right about, and nffltaihf; 

with his whole forcea Charles Albert on the height* otf Custom, 

drive him back from thence into the plain on Villain <ordm 

tero issued ble that evening, the movement to begin 

lormng. .Ml the i roups which had passed over to the right bank 

the MiflOtt) were: withdraw ii, except those mfOin :rri>0D 

lorghettu. ^lozambano, mid ^alioiui. Prom, his unii 

the rear, WratisWSa eoip* (formerly the left) be<»inu 
i«l As]«V''s (formerly the right) the left wing, jiadi 
dictated by the ground on which liia troops and tl 
His right held the whole of the hilly range between the 
Tione ; but the Piedinontese had now the southern 
ridge between that stream nndtbe Adige, the northern pu 
n.\vc\i>r, still [TniJiinini; in the hands of the Austria 
lined, therefore, to remain on the defensive with i 
asume the offensive vigorously along the su ■ ridpv 

beyond the Tione with his left. For this purpose \Y rat inlaw wai 
ordered to occupy Vallegia strongly with titraesoldos brigade on 
the extreme right, whilst !<•■ drew up the remainder ol 
the (summit of; the Monte V en to as far as the Tione, with imrtrue- 
tions to lioM tli.-it jHiiitiun ogninsl any afctacl he plain at 

his fei't, on the south, or from the opposite hank < 
the east. Aepre w;;s ordered to bring up bbe <n hole of hit • 

I the aide of Peach iera, and Inn nit; concentrated it in the dii 
Hona on the northern portion of the ring" li 1 lust \ 

Somma OvrnfRgBtjiand Cnatozaa all be, to advance alojv 
from ndtth bo youth, driving before them th<- enemy from tl 
hitler poiBts, until he had fairly puahed them over its south I 
l.uuk into the plain, To support him llaynauv 
strong brigade from Verona, whii-h he, with much 
witnessing the progress of the action, directed again at ihr 
flank of the enemy at Somma Campagna. Wochi i 
Ml brought up to the neighbourhood of 

t any attempt to juree thai portion of the line 
Thmii's corps was to observe Peschiera, und nflbrd nny fm 
port thai might It required. It wjw calculated that the troop* 

• would reach their n -, i\ to attaek. ( 

midday, Chariefl Albert on his side aba prepared to recuzi 
re on the ■ >f the following day, 1 nroeaethe 

Duke of Gtanoa, who, with bit dii -non. was posted at Somma I 

Si formed the right wing, was to advain e on Olioti. Th 
^ uke of Savoy, with die guards ami the brij li, was toad 

nut Coatozaa, in I whilai 

General Bava, on tli as to as=-a 

the Aosta brigade. Instructions wet it to General 



srpt 

Jul-' 






CAMPAIGN IN LOITBABOT. 



mho had Mien back to Volta, on the right bank of the Mincio, to 
support Bava's attack by an advance on Borghetto, which lies oppo- 
site Vallegio. Thus both parties prepared to assail each other 
the same moment, Hadetzky intending to hurl his adversary from 
high ground he had won, back into the plain ; Charles Albert 
desiriug to win the remainder of the heights which lay between him 
and tho Mincio, and thus cut on' Hadetzky entirely from Verona 
and his eojnmunietitiou. Both played a bold game. Each was trying 
eckmate his opponent. 
The morning of the 26th broke with a cloudless sky, not a breath 
I air was stirring, and the aim shone out with more than its wanted 
fierceness, the thermometer rising to 28 g of Reaumur in the shade. 
Amidst this almost insupportable heat the battle had to he fought. 
It began with the advance (about S o'clock) of Bava against Yallegio, 
i the Austrian right. On approaching that place, however, he found 
mass of Wratislaw's eorpB assembled there so formidable that he 
did not venture to attack until reinforced by a regiment of the guards 
ii the centre; they did not reach him till mid-day. He then 
assaulted the village, but eouid make no progress ; his columns re- 
4 by a heavy fire of grape and musketry from the defences, 
charged In flank by cavalry, and smitten from the heights by round 
shot from the batteries there, were driven back in disorder. Again 
be advanced, and again experienced the same fate. Convinced now 
stialaw'a position waa impervious to an attack in front, be 
i to assail it in flank from the side of the Tione ; but mean- 
■ the roar of a innonade waa heard from the right, in the 

of ttumuia Campagna, and the high grounds there were soon 
d in smoke. This waa caused by the advance of Aspre'a 
Odrps. That: able commander directed the brigades of Gruilay and 
Liechtenstein along the ridge from Sona against yomma Campagna 
and the front of the Picdiiiuutese right, whilst Ferin'a brigade, sent by 
synaufrom Verona availed its llanlt. Ciiiil&y eameiirat into action, 
it was reed «ed by so heavy a lire from the defences of the village that 
: make no way . Perm now arrived.and combining their attacks 
i wo brigades .sssaded it at the same iustant, the one from the 
t in- other fr< mi the Verona side, but so vigorous was the defence 
ta Duke of Genoa's division, that for long no progress was made ; 
the Austrian batteries thundered incessantly, the infantry lined 
iv wall and hedge, and frequently threw themselves on with the 
i, but the line of the Fisdmontasfl lire would not recede. At 
ing from fatigue beneath that burning sun, and having suf- 
rere loss, the Austriana fell back. A short lull now took place, 
t as they had recovered they again advanced to the attack j 
their officer led gallantly in the front, old Aspre was seen in person 
liis men, and after a severe struggle the foremost houses 
were won. and a secure footing in the ullage gained, 
ig fight ensued before the Piedmontrse were eipelledjJor every 
ad e\ cry house was defended. D iiring this struggle, Lieehten ■ 
n'i brigade, further to the Austrian right, was assailing the Casa 
and the heights to the Piedmontese left of (Joanna Cainpagna, 
•uost of which it carried, after a hard fight: but the Duke of 

Q 1 



84 



CAMPA105 IX LOMBABVY. 



[to. 



Genoa made a bold attempt to regain them, and when repulsed held 
fast to Monte Boscoue, the most in as we'll na the last, of the 

■whole, and which commanded the- field, on that side Badetek 
hia silver hair streaming in the win his whole staff, 

now rode forward into the front line of the skirmiahers. He was re- 
ceivedwith deafening shouts from the men. which pealod loug and loud 
over the whole field, and, excited to the highest pitch of enthusiasm by 
hia presence, tile Austrian*, now Reinforced by Ferine and Guilav'j 
brigades from Sonmia Canipagna, rushed forward with a resistless 
energy to the attssn of the Monte Boscojie, the summit of which 
ma mod crowned by their white-coated columns. The whole Pied- 
montese right, driven from their ground, fell back a! 

Their centre pea very strongly posted on the Monte Gosio in 
front of Cuatozzu, There, under the i)ftke Of Sitter, sfc 
guards, the flower of the army, and the brigade Conk This point s*fi 
attacked as boob &a the engagement had become warm on the :- 
Campsgua ride, by Kerpen's brigade, forming the right of Aaprtf'fl 
corns, Pur long the Croats and Kin ttt -wfco/COropc 

could gain no ground. Hour after hour passed by, and still n<> pro- 
gress was made, Sehwurzcnberga brigade una now ordered up in 
haste to support them ; so terrible at this time was the he:* 
during his advance, one of his battalions alone left a third of it* 
number behind, and many struck by coup tie Wt'i/, "frjthed at lb- 
mouth, and died." The arrival el' this brigade, together with that of 
another from "Wocher's reserve corps, who were despatched by 
Ihidctzky himself, at last gave the Austrians the superiority of num- 
bers, and as evening came on the height waa won, and the Dtilu 
\<>y driven back on Gustuzza. The Austrian* continued their trinm- 
ihnnt advance both from thU point and Sinnma Canipagna, and the 
luke of Savoy, seeing that hi* position hud become anteaal 

;treat of the Duke of Genoa on hia right, abandoned Doefeoaa. and 
uniting with the latter they both fell bank into thu plai 

ight came on Aspic's corps, sweeping over the en bbfl ri 

lalted on its southern slope looking down ou VHlnfranco, 
lits which had so recently been crowded by the Viedmo 

■oluning were covered with the Austrian watch fires, 

Wo left General Bavn with the Pjedmoutese left win?, nfb 
repulse bv Wiwfiblaw'fl coi-ps at Vullegki, prepariug t<> assail It in 
flank by the valley uf the Tinne. For this purpose, having ei 
the rivulet with the brigade Aoatn leading and the regiment of 
guards in support, be advanced up it^ left bank till he came opposite 
the Monte Mmuaor. which is on the right bank, and on which the 
flank of China's brigade, forming the left of Wratiahw 't eorpa, rested- 
There bringing up hia right shoulder he recrossed the stream aod 
stormed the height, Chun now effected a change of position on kill 
right, left thrown back, m that he formed a line at right angles to 
his original position, and facing to the eaat, and this lie main! 
against all Bstn*a attacks. The Monte \ to the north of 

Clam's position, and there wo \\ outflank- 

ine him, might gain possession of ita eastern extremity, but a ri He bat- 
talion posted there ■tiffiw»dtOvinrti< , «Me its rugged sides. Sttpplicaxt 



1859,] 



(AMPAION IS 10MBABDT. 



85 



brigade was now brought up by Wratislaw in all haBte to Clam'a sup- 
port, but its leadingbattaHonhadonly just joined him when, encouraged 
by the rapid progress of the Austrian tire on his left, he suddenly 
assumed the offensive, And leading on his men to the charge, carried 
the Monte ilamaor at the point of I ho bayonet, and hurled Bava*s 
exhausted and now dispirited troops down into the plain. This 
occurred about the same time that the Pieduioutese right and centre 
fell bai:k before Aspre*. Everywhere the ridge of heights was won, 
and the whole front line of the Austrian army, brought up to their 
hern edge, lay aluug the summit like a heavy thunder cloud, 
threatening at every moment to descend upon and envelope the 
Piedmonttie army collected in the plnin around Villafranca at its 
fcet, Bavn ~s retreat had been harassed by some stpijulrons nud horse 
artillery detached from A'aOcgio. On the right hank of the- Miucio 
General Bonnaa made hi attack; he found that his men were too 
dispirited with their defeat on the 23rd, and worn out with the long 
and harassing marches they had since had to be adequate to the 
Jiertion. A trifling skirmish in that quarter was all that ensued, 
^e Austrian loss b the battles of the 23rd and 25th amounted to 
72 officers and 1D04 men killed, wounded, and missing ; that of 
Simbseheii's brigade on the 24th to 43 officers and 1917 men. Their 
total loss in the three days' fighting therefore amounted to 115 
officers and 3221 men, including about 800 prisoners. Of the Pied- 
montese loss no return exists, but it must have been even more 
considerable. 

By the result of this battle Charles Albert's position bad become 
very critical ; bis blow n-iinst the dank and rear of his adversary, 
ablV conceived and strongly delivered, had failed. The main body of 
his troops were collected on his right about VilJafinnca, another 
itHl in the rear, watching Mantua, his left, under Son- 
laz, was ut Voltn, on the opposite bank of the Mincio. Radetzky, 
with his u hide army well in band, lay on the heights in his front, 
and held buth banks of the Mincio; be might cither full on the King 
at Villafranca, or, crossing the river, overwhelm Sonuajs's corps, and 
descending nu Mantua, cut off his retreat. ~Sot a moment, there- 
fore, was to be lorft in reuniting the Piedmontese army on Sonnaz's 
corps and their left, so ns to secure their communications. At mid- 
light accordingly the King broke up from Villafranca, and forming 
his troops into two heavy columns, marched with the utmost expedi- 
tion by Qunderni and Jtoverhella to Gknto on the Mincio, Nothing 
could exceed the order and regularity of their retreat. The rear 
guard, consisting of the Queen brigade and regiment of Aequi, 
which came up from Mantua, retired in echelon, one taking up a posi- 
tion and waiting there till the other had marched past it, and 
assumed a new one in its turn. At daybreak the rear guard was 
assailed by some Austrian hussars and horse artillery, who took a 
few prisoners, but beyond this no loss was sustained; the two 
coin ed and crossed the Mincio at Goito, were they met 

Souuat's corps, who, however, was immediately ordered back to Volta, 
which position it was for the present to maintain, so as to cover the 
march of the Piedmonteee army from that Bide. 

(To be Continued). 




FHAyCO-SAEDINTAN ALLIANCES. 



"Whet*, during the Crimean war, the King of Sard >-d the 

allied armies then waging war against Russia, -we all n 
how much consideration he wan looked upon in this couni 
seemed to he more particularly connected with En gland than will 
her Gallic ally ; indeed it was pretty generally believed thai 
friendly feeling existed between the French and Sardinian arm;- 
the Crimea. When Victor Emmanuel visited London he w;>- 
ceived with something very like enthusiasm. Fetes were mail 
hira, and addresses presented to him, with a good will and A 
to which the sovereign of a small state could not per 
But public sympathy was enlisted in his favour. A 
the English people regarded the King of Sardinia with u p.: 
friendliness ; tbey looked on him as a protegu of England, 
they thought, the representative of constitutional monarchy ::i I 
Magnified, as it were by the combined influence of thesr 
stances, Victor Emmanuel occupied a larger space in the pc 
than he was entitled to by his actual political dimensions. Througk 
the influence of England, Sardinia was represented at the Censr*** 
of Paris. Her presence, as was well known, wji* by no mean* de- 
sired by the continental powers. The consideration at that i 
ehown to the King of Sardinia was mainly owing to the fael 
being the ally of England. He was her petted favourite. A» 
we all cherished Victor EmmauueL and propped him up as a until! 
prince needed to be propped, when striving to take place be*i<fe 
monarchs of the first magnitude. 

The talcing of Sebaatopol terminated the warfare in the Criim*, 
and soon after we saw friendships springing up bctw< e who 

shortly before had stood in battle array against each oth< 
only did the French and Russian Emperors- forget their differ*- 
but, in the popular phraseology of the day, the soldiers of the two 
armies commenced to fraternize. Like the gentleman iu the j 
who declared he never liked a man so well as after he had fou 
him, the mutual affection of the two Emperors seemed 
acquired zest from the previous exchange of hostilities. 

Things went on in this happy train between the two Imperial 
eagles, but Sardinia was not yet smiled on by her mighty neigh I 
*We have said that she owed her place at the Paris conference i>> t he 
influence of England, and there is no exaggeration iu saying thai 
was mainly sustained in her political position by the moral support 
she received from this country. 

But the day arrived when thlngB changed fbt Sardinia. V 
Emmanuel was taken into favour at the Tuilleries, and the fri 
ahip between the two sovereigns was sealed by a matrimonial alli- 
ance, the King of Sardinia giving his daughter in marriage to the 
cousin of the Emperor. Soon the merry peal of the weddii 
was drowned in the noisy clang of the war tocsin, but. the banner 
that was unfurled before invading armies bore the sunny inscripi 
of freedom, It was in behalf of Buffering Italy that the generous 






FlUtfCO-SARBrVIAtf ALLIANCES. 



St- 



feelings of the Emperor Napoleon were awakened, and Victor Em- 
manuel, wafted aloft on the strong wing of the (rellio eagle, was to 
me must fair plains of Lombard j, ana perchance of still 

:■*. But all Italy, even to the shorts of the 
Adriatic, was to be released from foreign rule and foreign influences, 
liclojig td the Italians, and her great eniane]pnt<>i' pro- 
• nought for himself no territorial aggrandizement — be 
cant, haropiouof Italy, and the friend of Vict or Emmanuel. 

Tliepe glorious tidings called forth, even to the most latent spark, 
the fire of ItnUan patriotism, and Victor Emmanuel, stood forth, in 
the eyes of Europe, a representative man, He was the incarnation 
•ual liberty in Italy; lie, by the. aid of hia powerful and 
genertuu brulber-in-nrm*, was to restore to his country her ancient 
right.-* ; he was, in short, to give Italy tu the Italians. V icsbcer Em- 
mas i do nil this forthough the French troops outnumbered 
imn Sardinian, and as the success of the campaign must 
neeewariiv depend on the exert: he former, still as the Em- 
peri repudiated all idea of personal enrichment, Victor 
Emmanuel v, as plainly the man who, by tho aid of his idly, vni 
his country. 
i!icti tho French armi entered on the campaign. Victory 
>vy, the An&trlana fought bravely, so rand r (he 
iqueror. But they had a generous victor to desl 
as from him that the first overtures of peace proceeded, 
tl the two Emperors met tote a tote, untrammelled by the 
or secretaries. The insult of this interview 
need In Napoleon I IL in a telegram to hia empress, the 
; line > run ■ — " Pence barf been conelmled between the 
ror of f Austria and me.' 7 And Victor Emmanuel, in whose 
mighty things had been undertaken, where was he? 
ice a* • contracting power id ignored. It i,s true, he is 
o Lombardy, but it has not been ceded to him ; it has been 
the French emperor, and Victor Emmanuel receives his 
territory from the hands of Napoleon. This looks as 
in were only the nominee of France, and the- Emperor, we 
; it prudent to keep an army of 50,000 men in 
He seeks no territorial aggrandisement, it is true, but 
r are rumours that Savoy i* becoming discontented with the 
of Piedmont, and wiabea 10 become incorporated with France. 
■ of the earliest fruits of French influence in 
i first revolution was the absorption of Savoy 
Department of Mont Blanc," 
now the question arises, what will be the result of French 
m the affairs of Italy ? None wishes better to the cause 
lorn than we do. Enjoying the blessings of eotisti- 
diould lie glad to see all as happy as 
I'tain that there is in nome races, in some 

speak, for certain foru eminent. 

for political well-being seem to vary in different 
each people ean best solve for itself the problem of what 
these conditions are, Tuscany has taken the initiative amongst the 



newly freed Italian States, ami show* a cafiability for «eitVgo\«n> 



—- ,' ----- i -— — — - — - —j- — — — ... . — — — — —j; . 

EL-nt which we. trust will be.atllowed tine for defa 
But we might ask whether Victor Emmanuel' 
red by the changes: that, have been rniade, and wbeth, 
i be improved, Supposiia g the King of Sardinia to be the uulrwa- 

molld.4 kiiIam ,--.£ k*a noitr Vuiafea«ifuifl ilia nhvf li.T ari\\ lmV& i.r\ T\z<r Tf >H>I 



melled ruler of his new poaBeasi oris, the part hi! will have to perform 
does not appear an easy one. Doubts are ahrefcdy aifeertftj 
the possibility of amalgamating the' different nationabi 
States over which he haa been placed. And these 50,000 Firada 
Boldiers in Lombardy, for what! purpose are they to he ero^h | 
Where there in to mueh^cprfe»^y|[tfcb^e*fe large boom, ll>r con- 
jecture. Shoold Sardinia Jem e no greater benefit from hi 
alliance with France than she has done from her .■ 
Emmanuel will have little cause to rejoii 

succinct account of these allinnces, mid of tlie cirjComBtanres ito 
led to them. 

When the political troubles, wliieh terminated s^ fatally for 
XVI., commenced in France, that monarch* a prisoner ill i'aru, 
implored the interference of the other niommtrka -of JKii I nw 

the common cause of royalty ; and the Enii 

§King of Sardinia, and the King of Spain formed o treaty, with tk> 
object of aiding the King of France. Large forces were to be 
assembled, The Emperor of Germany wwb to send 30,000 in. 
the frontiers of Flanders ; 15,000 soldiers of the (J err manic 
were to advance towards Alsace ; 13,000 Swiss wrru tn nppear on 
the frontier of Franche Conte ; 15,000 Fiedmonfcese on the borders 
of Dauphine, and the King of Spain uurlertook to collect 20,000 men 
on the Pyrenees. These Jive armies thus advancing on diuertmt 
frontiers of France, were to unite with any of. the Brencb ahoettl! 
ontiiiued loyal to their king. These All:.-, r.vkonedafelen** on the 
leutrality ot England, t hot rgh they received an intimation that, m 
Elector of Hanover, the King of England would lend hie support ta 
the Allies, It was agreed that, a the following June, a protestation 
should be issued by the Princes of the house of Bourbon, and thi* 
was to be followed by a manifesto from the Allies, it was farther 
declared that the object in assembling thesft *roop» t was to terrify 
the French people into submission tn their king. 

The contingent ot 15,000 furnished by the Piedmonteee bo- 
large proportion for so small n state, 1 nit m t\\ rim of ihv 

King of Sardinia consisted at that time of some of the be«t dis- 
ciplined troops in Europe. The King could bring into the ih-hl. 
80,000 infantry and :i.5iX) horse, besides these, the country could 
furnish 15,000 militia. As these soldiers were for the most part 
mountaineers, and well acquainted with the fastnesses of their native 
mountains, they would be oble to oppose the passage over the Alp? 
of au army far superior to them in numerical strength. 

The King of Sardinia took a very prominent place amongst the 

Allies. Besides bis sympathy with the royal prisoner of France, he 

*»w ijmptoma in the conduct of his own subjects that served to give 

an im^ulso to his conduct. Amongst the people of Italy, none 

expressed ft ttrc-uger sympathy with the French revolutionary prin- 






i 
i 



HU.XC0.9\RI>IMA.S ALL1AVCES. 



89 



uipte* than some of the- inhabitants of Piedmont. If other Italian 
States felt gulled by tbeir ruler?, and caught up the echo of the 
great- cry of political freedom, which resounded throughout France, 
ttiU none showed stronger inclination to adopt the principles of the 
revohitiotiists thau some subjects of the King of Sardinia. Jacobin 
Huli8 were already established in Savoy, and the King, understanding 
perfectly well the darners to royalty invoked in the spread of 
Jfovobin principles, used every exertion in aid of the Bourbon 
cause. 

The geographical position of Piedmont, which makes her the 
natural guardian of the Alpine passea, gives her an importance to 
Xvhidh ' Iter! estotit could ■not entitle her, whilst it exposes her to 
all the dangers that muit arise to a small state situated between two 
powerful neighbours; She is bv these circumstances constantly 
torceil to maintain a military attitude. The French Republic, appre- 
ciating thet»e advantages, and aware of the favor that republican 
principles found in Savoy, proposed to form an alliance witb the 
Kin; of Sardinia. The Ring refused, and a French array, commanded 
by (ieneral Montesquni, entered Savor. The in ireesmet with 

rapid fi«cce*BJ The whole diBti'ict at* far as Mont Cenie was soon in 

r section of the French, the Piedmontese were impulsed, and Savoy 
■tg subdued, the} - next turned their arms against Nice. A 
d and naval fbreewore simultaneously directed against the place, 
people within showed signs of discontent, aud the commander 
of the garrison, who had only two thousand men under his com* 
mnnd, was obliged to retire. Nice fell into the hands of the 
and the use they 'made of their victory was not very en- 
imaging; -to their Italian partisans. Though the people had 
abown the most friendly feolmg towards the French, yet when the 
latter obtained possession of the town they plundered aud burned 
house* and put thousands of the inhabitants to death. It ia 
rut these eztniee were committed by an unbridled soldiery, in oppo- 
sition in the commands of their general, and it cannot be denied 
that the Convention instituted a Commission of Inquiry to aaeer- 
in the amount of lo&s sustained by the Italians, But it is one of 
,c greatest misfortunes of war that the outrages perpetrated by 
Licentious army are such, even independent of the loss of life, for 
whieh no reparation can be made. The first fruits of the Italian 
campaign were, that in the conne of a few weeks, Piedmont lost 
Savoy and Nice, her army wad repulaed, nod her strength paralyzed. 
Wo have <aid that revolutionary principles had taken deep root 
Sitvoy, Thu Jacoliiii clubs established there threw off branch 
societies throughout the country, democratic opinions obtained a 
decided ascendancy, a National Convention assembled at Ciiambery, 
where kingly rule, tithes, and the privileges of orders were renounced, 
deputations from all the clubs were sent to Paris, where the Govern- 
ment received them warmly, and within a month Savoy was incor- 
porated with France as the department of Mont Blanc ; Nice was 
toon after absorbed under the title of the Department of the Mari- 
time Alps, and Monaco soon followed. 
The King of Sardinia had no renaon to coogratidate himself on 



oo 



FBAffCO*SJJlDT\IAN ALLIANCES. 






the effects oi' French influence in his dominions. After the execu- 
tion of Kin;,' Louis*, Ru.Hsia and Great Britain entered into an alli- 
ance, bv wb ich they bound themselves to carry on, by 
means in their power, the war against France. Great Brit 
formed a treaty with Sardinia, by which the latter power 

m annual subsidy of £200,000 during the ooutinunniM 
war, in return for which she was to keep up au nr. 
men, and f lie English Government, moreover, engaged 
for Sardinia the entire restoration of the territory she had h 

The King of Sardinia was playing for a larye stake, II 
already lout Xiee and Savoy; and we find in the early | 
a republican army, 525,000 strong, entering Sardinia. Tl, 
opposed by a force of 40,000, composed of Fiedmontesc 
Irian*, Soxw engagements took place rather to the disadvantage 
Sardiuia, but tbe restutfl were net important. 

In J 70!j things* had assumed a still more serious a*p 
great*--! ar&Otaat the crowned beads of Eu*o] leagued 

against reiohit iimnry France. Had the Allies acted with viu 
and unanimity from the beginning, it ia very jirubabh 
publican cause would never have gained the pren< 
afterwards attained, The Emperor of Austria, indeed, 
preparing for war, and had went fresh troops into 
support the King of Sardinia, Russia promised I 

lent no troop*. Prussia professed to maintain an armed . 
iniliiv; in foot, she was too busy with the spoil* sin- had lat 
uuitvd iu Poland tol'inl any active assistance against a 
she was not immediately threatened, England had ep< 
enough ; of her intention* thaw was no doubt. 

France, then, wm at war with all Europe, but the Dire 
intimidated, nan planning fresh conquests. Get 
invaded from the lihine. Austria was to be attacked on Iht . 
soil, and the King of Sardinia was to be compelled either to m 
peace or submit to the loss of bis dominions. But the iuvew 
of 1 inly was the darling project of the Dili 
of Louibardy would be a severe blow ) :• and North 

Italy, woo either by conquest or alliance, the rest of the | 
might be easily subdued, Ueneral Bonaparte was chosen 
cMnihiini! of fchfl Italian army, and aa the p 
in a great measure the result oi' hi* own in 
appointment was irrepressible. He anticipated tbe in 
success. 

With 30,000 soldiers, ill-provided either with eh it lies or 
food, Bonaparte was opposed to an army of 00,000 n 
of whom 20,000 were rtedmonteee, the remainder Austrii 
The destitution and misery of tbe Frenah army seemed 
•reached an almost innvdilde exeesa. Soldiers without oh 
*feh$a.t food; otDcsrs not receiving during entire yeara i 
^» »Wit t. ,k. and not a bane for the stan 

**»• Xa etl'oi't naa made iu thi ummcinl department, and an 
^hk« «t . ; W|W , IUU [ t,, ^ fli j|| g entira j of division to enable 

1 ^** V^alottbe cobuj ,, » **«»«jaiga. 



But privations and destitution only served as stimuli to the 

mished soldiers. The rich plain of Italy would furnish abundant 

noble cities offered abundant plunder. Such 

thr nee of the general's address when he told his 

oldiers their country owed them much, but eould not rewind their 

roMge and their constancy ; but the wenlth of Italy wa« laid before 

onJy to ^riisp it. 

The eloquence of the commander enkindled Hie courage of the 

Idiers ; thev v. ere ready to dare anything; rind dissensions amongst 

enemy, wno eould not agree upon the plan of action, were not 

favourable to the designs of the French general than the enthu- 

4 his own troops. After the most masterly manoeuvring, 

naparte succeeded in his design of separating the Austrian from 

to rwdtnontese forces, t-ho conquest of each became easier; con- 

siou prevailed all through Piedmont — the King received snch 

tradietory counsels from Ins allies that he knew not what resolu- 

take. The English imd the Austriims advised htm to shut 

up in Turin, nM send his army beyond the Ptf\ they expa- 

largely on the danger of exposing hi* people to the corrupting 

lencc liituni.iry principles, and recommended that he 

three fortresses ofTortona, Ales^nudria, and Yalenga 

the Austrian general, who should then be able to defend hi mself 

rai with the bank of the 1*0. 

Phe situation of the Sn :-d in ian King was most perplexing, lb' 

adc-d the revolutionary French, but he feared as much, or perhaps 

re, his powerful and ambitious neighbours of Austria- lie could 

" to put them in possession of three important fortresses. 

perplexity he resolved to negotiate with the French. Bona- 

m not empowered to make peace, but he granted an armistice, 

imposed conditions that looked more like the dictum of a 

He demanded that the fortresses of Com, Tortona, and 

dria should be given up, with all the stores they contained. 

pplies he needed for the support of his army, but he promised 

mild be paid for by the French government, It ras also 

t .'i 1 that the Ptedinontese roads should bo left free for LhepnsHnge 

neb troops ; that the Sardinian array should be dispersed m 

ages. Bonaparte's object in making this last condition was 

secure his rear. Ho had the wisdom to perceive that the reduction 

.mut would be a work of greut time and difticulh, if, indeed, 

could be entirely effected. His opinions on the subject were not 

li the wishes of the Directory, who had given orders 

the total subjugation of Piedmont; but many reasons, founded 

actual observation, induced Napoleon to adopt a different line of 

luet. Nor was his tact ■us a diplotnafifet less conspicuous than 

18 ft general. In his interview with the Sardinian minister 

er mnnbers of tlie court, he contrived, without committing 

i-roiiiise, to awaken hopes in their mind that Pied- 

■ Tests would be secured by ttU alliance with France, 

as represented as her natural foe. But it was whilst 

hopes thus awakened that he wrote in the following 

to the Directory : — " The King of Sardinia has surrendered at 






£ 

do 



1)0 

I 



discretion, given up three of his strongest fortresses, and the half of 
a dominions. If you do not choose to accept Lis submission, tut 
solve to dethrone him, you must sinuses ran for :i few weeks, and 
ve me warning, I will get possession of Valenga and march upon 
urin. On the other hand, I shall impose a contribution of seme 
illions on the Duke of Parma, and detach twelve thousand men to 
ome aa soon as 1 have beaten Beaulieu, mid driven him »cr 
dige; and when I am assured, you will conclude peace with the 
ing of Sardinia, and strengthen me by the army of Kellerman. Ai 
to Genoa, by all means oblige it to pay fifteen millions.' 1 

Within B fortnight a treaty of peace was concluded between the 
King of Sardinia and the Republic, The King renounced the alii* 
ee he had formed with Great Britain and the other allied pi 
d gave to the French Savoy, Nice, and all of Piedmc 
lps, granting besides, as we have seen, a free j 
omiuioua to the French troops. 
This alliance with Piedmont was essential t< 
tbe designs of France in Italy. Without a certainty of the neutra- 
lity of Piedmont, any attempt at the invasion of Southern Italy 
would have been chimerical; and when Napoleon advanced th 
he pen insula, marking his way by a succession of conquests, b 
the alliance with Piedmont tbe safety with which lie hi 
to a foreign country. It may indeed be objected that Sardinia fell 
om her first promises ; but let us remember that the position of a 
moll state in the vicinity of two powerful neighbours is by no 
enviable. If they quarrel, and she sides with either, sh, 
the resentment of the other; if the party to whom she has allied 
herself is defeated, she is exposed to the rage of the conqueror ; if, 
n the contrary, she be on the winning side, ahe soon feels she haB 
een used as a cat's-paw in the struggle, and that her ultimate fate 
ay be dismemberment or annexation. 

And such was the result of Piedmont's alliance with the Fr> nch 
epublie. We have seen how useful this alliance bad been to 
Bonaparte, as it gave to Ihc Italian army a base of operation* in 
taly. and by delivering in to their possession three import ant fortresses, 
ade them masters of the Alpine passes But Victor Amad< 
who had severed himself from the Allies, found that those to whom 
lie had transferred his friendship were determined on his downfall 
when their purpose should be served. The French were now the 
actual masters of Piedmont, and Victor Amadeus was soon made 
to feel that his sovereignty had dwindled to a mere shadow. He 
was subjected to the severest mortifications by his new allies ; his 
wer in his own dominions was ignored, bin country w;is traversed 
every direction by French troops, of whose approach he re- 
ived no other intimation than a command to supply their wants; 
and, to add to his aniKiytinec. the spread of revolutionary opinions 
in his dominions every day increased under the protection of 
French authority. 

At length some of the Sardinian provinces revolted ; the French 
ibassadot would fain persuade the King to pardon the insurgents 








r.i 



rBAKC'O- SARDINIAN AlLUXCtS- 



whilst he at the same time endeavoured to induce the King to 
give up the citadel of Turin to the French, 

Tho King was in a truly wretched position. Convinced that his 
rebellious subjects were encouraged by hie perfidious allies, he still 
dared not declare his belief, Indeed, the French authorities made 
no Becret of their predilections, for they opeuly took part with the 
insurgent* ; and when the rebel;* were defeated by the Piedmontese 
soldiers, the Directory showed their true disposition by pretending 

^that a eouajUKaey to murder all the French in Piedmont had been 
overed, and if the King wished to prove he was not an accom- 
plice in the plat, be would instantly deLner up the citadel of Turin. 
Flaoed in Bo ditiictilt a position, the King was obliged to yield. He 
yielded tin- fortress, and was thenei -t'urtli little better than a prisoner 
in his own palace:, where lit* was surrounded by French guards. 
Foreign ambassadors, seeing this state of tilings, begged oi* their 
governments that they might be recalled, and now the poor King 
-was left unprotected in the midst of his false friends. He was 
forced to dismisA his ministers, both civil and military, because of 
isatiolit" brought against them, and the republican generals 
»ged everything pa they pleased at Turin. 
Jut nt length the time, came when even the shadow of authority 
was taken from Victor Amodeus, lie was accused by the French 
of having, in a secret eorivspoudenee with Vienna, expressed a hope 

»(hal he might soon be delivered from his new allies. For this 
offence he iu fined £"320,000. On another occasion, when accused 
imaginary transgression, ho was obliged to pruvide n con- 
tingent ft* eight thousand men > at another time, a pretext was 
ud for demanding the surrender uf till the royal arsenals* in 
short, the unhappy King was completely the victim of the ill-faith 
.iud atiilMtinii of the trench government. He was ultimately 
obliged to resign all his continental dominions, which fell to the 

I share of his perfidious allies. Under the shelter of night, and 
mred by too protection of Talleyrand, then French minister at 
the Court of Turin, he retired to the island of Sardinia, General 
k possession of the royal treasury and ail the fortified 
places in Piedmont. A provisional government was formed, whose 
members were all el' the most violent republican opinions, and a 

»pri - i was issued, saying that any noble found engaged in an 

ins. i:y movement should be sent to France, and half of his 

property confiscated. 

h was the disastrous position of the King of Sardinia. In 
ISOii the Finrt Consul, by a public decree, annexed Piedmont to the 

1 .Republic, These were the fruits Sardinia reaped from her alliance 
with France. As a modern historian suys : "Thus Sardinia, which 
be first of the European states that submitted to the power of 
Napoleon, w Inch, after a lortnight'B struggle, opened its gates to the 
youthful conqueror, and had since, through every change of fortune, re- 
mained faithful to his eause,was rewarded for its early submission and 
long fidelity by being the first to be destroyed; and the keys of 
placed without opposition in the bauds of the French 
Republic 



18»0] 



DXSEET101?. 



95 



Feel concurs with the commissioners on the point, and will be ready 
la consider applications from regiments tor the supply of the necea- 
■arv apparatus, and for the hire of crick ct-groun da, &c- 

ff B. Ha.wj: 

used the words *' pretending to institute" advisedly, for it is 
tdrioug that half the inquiries are msMuted, and the consequent 
circular issued to allay some public feeling, and without auy intent to 
remove whatever existing evil may be under agitation, w itnesa, for 
instance, the numerous rammrbskms which the state of our army, 
as exposed by the Crimean war, brought into existence, crowned 
by that at Chelsea, "So one who pays attention to these 
oga can imagine for a moment thai the least good ha» resulted 
from any one of these inquiries, or that, in the event of another war, 
the like evils and blunders would oot again prevail, and with like im- 
munity to their authors, and for the simple reason given above — 
lamely, that the object of these commissions was to allay public feel- 
:iad not to discover and eradicate the evil, because in so doing 
the punishment of those who more immediately caused the disasters 
of the war could not have been effected without laying bare matters 
u would Lave deeply compromised the whole of our military 
T5ut letting alone byegones, it would really appear upon the 
surface that an attempt is about to be made to do something more 
•i instance limn appease the public mind. 
"We do not, however, gjye the authorities the credit of having 
devised these means for the suppression of the crime above alluded 
to, knowing that the order haa been issued solely in deference to 
the report of the sanitary commissioners, which, while assigning 
four causes as militants against the health of the troopa, lava great 
tigth on 'the want of proper exercise;" and rightly, because it 
nly nne in which the soldiers have not the advantage over 
- from which they are drawn. The other three—" night duty, 
ranee, and bad air," — though doubtless in themselves most 
tjil to health, are experienced by other trades and callings, 
;< Ihr higher degree, and without producing half the sickness 
ig in (lie army. ; ' H is, therefore," to use the words of Mr. 
"to the physical conditions which affect the respiratory 
Which he elsewhere describes as being markedly destroyed 
lie -<>rt of exercise the foot soldier undergoes, " that we must 
look for a solution of the problem, as to the health of the army." 

To return, however, to the i-iivular. With whatever object it 
may have been UMQed, if energetically acted upon, and the instruc- 
tions contained therein honestly carried out, it will, we are con- 
iboltsh, to a great extent, the cause of the crime of desertion, 
and that is I lie only way to permanently abolish the crime itself. 
we think we shall he able to demonstrate, and have undertaken 
ly to show, if possible, to all concerned, the necessity 
lowing (he matter to rest here, 

iken up the pen to give their ideas, and offer sug- 
this subject, but there has been, we think, a want of 
u all of theni— a desire, as it were, to counteract, and not 
■ate. the disease. 



96 deserts [8m, 

The greater part have bad reference to the recruiting n stent Oat 
proposes raising greatly the reward to bringers of recruits ; anotbar 
suggests doing away with the employment *>f pensioners 
recruiting service ; another writes that, owing to the double I 
and eousequeufc double reward to recruiting serjeauts, the inititu 
staff frequently enlist a man for tin- line the day after the 
enrolled him in the militia, We are ourselves of opinion tin 
amount of bounty offered, and the number of ri 
may nay systems —in short, the inefficiency of this branch 
service, first opened the rogues 1 eyes to the possibility of jetting * 
living by a systematic course of desertion and te-eidistment. B.> 
the methods proposed not striking at the root of the 
attempted, must fall far short of effecting the desired result. 

Others have dwelt upon the necessity and f punishi 

one proposes, to punish deserters by forcing them to serve abroad 
for a term of years. This, if carried out. would have the ■ i 
making all regiments on foreign sen ice penal corps Win* re could 
officers be found for such ? or where indeed men— save l In e« 
in question 't or if found, what esprit dt> corps could poi 
in them "r Every infantry regiment in its turn would thus 
and then what becomes of the service? The writer nm] 
imply by his suggestion that there should be a certain Humberts' 
regiments abroad composed entirely of convicts ; for to pui iirnn ju 
the hands of a body of a thousand lawless men would hardly bfl 
deemed advisable by the most strenuous supporters of the ticket- 
of-leave system. It is manifest, however, that, with n 
the punishment of sueh delinquents, the authorities do nut take 
sufficiently stringent measures t « » deter them. Foe instance, a 
sapper, James Lloyd, was tried in the spring of the year at Chatham, 
for deserting a second time from the royal eugineefcs, and Heatedoad 
to one tm.ith-itl tyid tu>lce days* inipfimnmenf. Supposing I 
have heen a first offence, and destitute of aggravating eireuinstani 
such as a re -enlist luent into another corps Sat the sake of the bom 
and that the crime of desertion in the army was small, the pmn 
tnent would have been in no wise severe ; hut when we see the pi 
to which this crime had then reached in the service, and looking 
James Lloyd's character, find that he, after receiving the high 
usually paid to recruits iu the royal engineers, on his Ural cidisi 
merit, iu 1858, almost immediately deserted, re*enlisting into the 
60th rifles, thereby defrauding the public of another bounty, 
lie, on being convicted of insubordination there, gine himself up as 
a deserter, was tried as such, ami sutlered, in accordance with 
sentence of the court, eighty -lour days' imprisonment (he would 
probably have had fifty lashes tacked on to his punishment had he 
been tried for insubordination); that, having at the expiration of 
this imprisonment been forwarded to hi* proper oorpe, be imme- 
diately re-deserted, and again attempted to enlist iutu another corpt, 
AVe inuBt aver that the punishment awarded— 113 days" imj.r. 
nient— for this second desertion, whs not only insufficient, but 
directly an encouragement to a renewal of the offence. What 
be expected from a man of this stamp ? Surely the most sanguine 




KESfcjl 



f tnor. oikl !!;ini!i hope to make an effective soldier 

By retaining him in trhe service great expense is incurred, 
id the injury to the* vegmient to ulu, h be belongs, by the force of* 
id example, i* incalculable. Ten years penal servitude would not 
If Hot hiivi' been (■- fl punishment tor the man himself, but 

i ab*r>lufHy w-ceBSary, io* example*:* sake, to punish, and at 
ifrtwaw* apt n> worthless a fellow. 

U- haw beard other migrations tqo, having reference neither to 
unproveiii le recruiting service, nor to the inadequacy of 

li. emanating from an excellent and expe- 
nd aflieer. is sultieietttly practical to deserve notice. Se 
its', in ardor to burnetii ntely check thia disgraceful trade, that 
rv odken ruid soldier should be indelibly marked by a round 

•>L al t the tilth of an inch in circumference, on the left 

e ilif wrist; officers, in order thai the mark 
-ml men, for the apparent reason, that no 
ild enlist a second time without detection.- Many will 
tkf their beads at this idea, call it barbarous, and other hard 
in, but upon reflection, aud a glance at their wives' or sisters' 
;l rescind them, and, we think, admit that the mark 
Id be but a badge of honourable service, differing little, to our 
I. {torn the external badges common to all professions, Men are 
"jamed of Mich ■ un the contrary, the Prime Minister holds 
- 1 than usual when clothed iu his robes of office, 
mi the feeling I hotter portion of his eotemporariea arc en- 

, ing luiii liia position; the weight of the chain which the Lord 
icuously wears, but helps to convince him the more 
'the weight of his own consequence; the Life Guardsman listens 
rifch pleasure, as he canters down " the row" at noon to the elank- 
1 of his steel Bcabbard : the soldiers grumble not at having to shave 
>eir whisk ulation ; :uid the Jate order, making it eompuL 

and man to wear as much hair on their upper 
is aa they can coax Dame Nature to supply them with, wan 10 
'ivedwith universal satisfaction throughout the army. But enough 
; wc have only adduced them to show that no uproar 
mid b I in the service b\ such a decree as that proposed; 

he method suggested is practicable. 
certain, and that i- that a atop must be put to this 
' ruinous crime. Full well we know that to perma- 
sutly i imposture the service must he made an honoux- 

reU ae an attractive one, and this can only be effected by a 
n id in our military system, which, at present is little 

■tier tluin ;ui ill-organised swindle. Throughout them is a total 
\ , mid here in the real root of 'the evil. The ays- 
be divided into three classes, under the 
: — 

i <<f recruits. 
i»1 of consideration for (we had nearly written — III I 
en. 

ra aud discharged men, 

Mac, Xu. 370, Sm ( . IS59 k 



D19ERTI OH. 



[Sift- 



On thefint of these heads—" Deception of ret 
dilate, because the shortcomings of the recruiting service havebecon* 
so apparent that the military authorities themselves are forced to 
acknowledge their ei^ tence ; indeed the Secretary for War. ha* pub- 
licly promised to revise the system. 

On the (second — ir Want of consideration for soldiers" — sufficient 
could be t*aid to till n volume, hnt as this paper la only, ae befase 
stated, to draw the attention of those more immedL 
to the good effect which n just de toree Guard* 

Circular" must have on the mental and ph; . «nd vow- 

quently comfort and efficiency of our soldi hall mote 

selves with merely pointing out a 

sidemtion for them Ms should cause ordinary tottBBty and justice to 
blush. 

let. Why should soldiers abroad be compelled to pay tor be* 
freight, insurance, .V ■.. of the neeessari 
mere;; i'U their value uf, in our -olouy, 11 per centf 

2nd. Why should they be paid in a maimer ho obiiuxioua to tbffr 
feelings, so insulting to tils reason of rational beifigtG 

3rd, And tine ie particularly appropriate to the pi-esp-nt m;r 
why have the authorities hitherto no gtodiWif sei i !, igairot 

all amusements or attractive employment far the men in : : 
hours? "All work ami no ;■ itwhen 

Jack grows up to l" 1 a man he becomes lea* sttbrnisah 
•till beyond his reach, lie seize.-! the only substitute withii 
Although ihe Sanitary Coniumsioncru hau 

intimate connection between drink and no • .y the adnp- 

tion of their suggestion with reference togymni t.<unptaUoo 

to drink would bo li and thus ( 

atone, two cans. J by them for the ill health v pa. can 

be, to a great e\i cut. retturred by one act, yel - 
cible from the ru .I'. hem, si u ill ackoovr* 

ledge who takes the trouble to peruse it r There is little occasion 
fur thin, l>" now that the fruit of kl 

perau.ee. 

We iii-c aware of aft tastaoaee where an officer , 
and brother olhVers' expense, to erect n gj 
eorner of a barrack, bill was told tln> thing was im 
unprecedejitfd. Allusion should here be made t 
paragraphs ha the t,} n's Regulations: — 

" Cricket-grounds and lives-courts, h 
public expanse far th trwps. 

commit ml iut/ rr/immU and ihjtots <r h>rn 

the barrack e* pnt, and, atly, the expen 

pairing any injur. nil Lie - 

damaj 

" These rounds and ti*> 

charge of the barrack master, who, !■ 



at Imonn 



illovnag 



- 
h;irrM i 



ually, u nli 

id the 



m 



roop« 



MM 



DBSIETIOIT. 



themselves, for whose amusement aud recreation they have been 
formed." • 

If we erase the words fives-courts from this, we should li ; 
ask what truth there is in it at all ? Where are these cricket- 
grounds ? Any one reading the above would of course suppose 
they were attached to every barrack, or, at any rate, to the prin- 
cipal ones, and doubt-legs such it* the impression intended to bo con- 
veyed. A^lmt, then, will the public think when we declare that, 
having visited some thirty quarters at home and abroad, we have 
onl; iade at the expense of the officers who 

were quartered there Bret, and has been maintained at the eoit of 
thel ; i nee, w tthout the smallest aid from the Govern- 

ment, further than the permission to use the land. The story goes 
that when the Government decided to build a barrack at this station, 
tbe agent selected its present site because he was informed that the 
town in the immediate vie laity was spreading rapidly, and in that 
direction, a circumstance calculated to raise the value of any super* 
fluous land the Government might invest in. It is needless to add 
that he met the fate of other Government agents — he was duped. 
The town was truly increased, but all the new buildings have been 
erected mi the opposite side. Thus the piece ia UBed a* ■ cricket- 
ground by tbe troops because the Government cannot part with it 
on advantageous — should we not, perhaps, say any — terms. 

But, became we have been so unfortunate as not to have seen 
otb» it does not follow that they exist not, but 

inch is naturally the impression made upon us. One thing, how- 
ewr safely assert, and that ia, that whatever lanil 

may have been allotted by the Government for this purpose, no 
tricky t $ round, as stated in the regulation, has been made by them, 
or any further assistance given for that end. If there be any such, 
they are only, we may rest assured, there to dupe the public into 
* belief that they are general even as the large cloaks hanging in 
ewy sentry-box or nook convenient at St. -Tampa's and Buckingham 
Pal:i 'Lissers by to imagine that the boou is common to 

all soldiers. Little dream they that in our North American pro 
tinees. where the cold aud damp exceed anything ever experienced 
in this isle, the sentry, on his limited and slippery 
he kberniomeier perhaps at live degrees, has 
no c •■•■! 1 1 1 m i I.- , save tho old ordinary soldier's great 

I uf late insufficient even in this mild climate. \\C used 
•ay no more on this head. The want of consideration — ay, haiiesty 
tareat; and until there he honesty os rho part of the 
xpect dishonesty on that of the emplo 

i ■! hear a well-«dUieated, well-bred ma* 

" done the Government," ea -it? To 

ted but to the fact—for fact it is — thai lie 

or mi enemy conquered with his oh u weapons. The 

Government labnurtM have few opportunities of this 

unprincipled of their number 

omittu] in [!■• later c i 
b CLimptter. 

ml 



100 



UEsEliTtOK. 



take advantage of them when they do offer. Witness tbe trade 
desertion ami fraudulent re-enlistiaent we are now deplori 1 
what of those possessing principle*; ashs the reader. The. 
forbear till toleranee can no further go, and then the) 
Woolwich lately, and Ibree their outers into the te 
justice, if not a sense of their own dignity, have 

pated. Or, they bring a civil action, as y Worfc 

and compel restitution from the Government by 
they are driven to meetiug, as the local European force 
gain their just demands, thereby causing the rep; 
most deplorable and pitiable picture we can ecu 
great nation fearing to visit the most heinous of 
punishment its own laws have apportioned to it — iu short 
sustain its own dignity. In met, a dealing with government 
looted on much in the same light aa a barter in horse flesh, 
well allowed that in this you may il do" your own father, a 
Because you an? aware that the old gentleman is tr;, ing to on 
yon. And this is just the ease with the Govemuieut and its 
vants. Again we repeat that, until there bo honesty on the i 
from whence it should emanate, it cannot he hop 1 for <>n 
other. 

These being our sentiments, therefore, the proiuulgi 
Horse. Guards Circular is hailed by us with unfeigned . 
:m holding forth the hope, that more eonsideratioi 
comfort may, with the hearty co-operation of the mor 
officers, be expected Car the future. When it is conei<i 
the vice and crime in the army arise from drink, to which tbe i 
dice is driven by tho absence of ;dl resource in the b;> 
this order is indeed of happy augury. Libraries there . 
truu ; but on the average only one eighth of an infantry 
subscribes tn them, and this not from any distaste to read 
from sheer incapacity, Even supposing, however, that all 
could take advantage of this boon, it would not in itself he si 
employment for the men, and still les.3 when the naturally i 
and physical temperament of the soldier is remembered. 
is all very well on a wet day, or in the evening of a fine day, but 
muat ourselves own to the difficulty — ay. indeed, imp 
setting to any sedentary occupation, with the bright am! 
sua shining in at the window, and bidding our pl> 
ngain>t our mental. It always ends, with us, in ;i conn 
for the former. Books and papers are hud; ■ i tin 

but, fishing rod, or gun, usurps dominion. Now our fe 
score are not singular, indeed we are aware that um< 
is the wry reverse whi mhvr. Some, do what 

them, will prefer t<> loll about the streets or lanes iu th 
fheir barracks, till ennui they enter apublie 

as some officers, with . 
limn* of fashionable prom .>| 

billiard or wlii-i room. I 
I'll. 

:S Jll.l 



1850.] 



D£9Eimo>\ 



101 



onverts. The first stop towards a better State of things having 
iow been taken, it only remains to be seen whether generals and 
officers have the real interests of their men at heart, or 
only think how best to obtain their own selfish ends. Doubtless it 
ud be more agreeable to the Secretary for War if none of these 
officers made application tor moneys, or if those that did, would, by 
ie ingenious inuendoa, give a loophole For refusal. But let us 
ie that, in this, the Secretary for War may be disappointed, and 
true interests of the army, and consequently the nation, be at- 
tained. Depend upon it, oh, ye worshipers of the W&r Office Mam- 
n, a clear conscience is far preferable to a field marshal's baton. 
On the third bead, " Neglect of pensioners and discharged men," 
we would first denounce the unjust proposal of a writer in one of 
periodicals to do entirely away with pensions. We know that 
course would not only be, in the highest degree, impolitic 
judicious, but opposed to all Christian principles. Neither is 
r, we are glad to say, that such is the practice in civil life, 
gentleman, having a declining servant, who has served him 
kithfully for ten or a dozen years, pay him his wages, and allow him 
he workhouse ? Docs he even allow tria horse, under 
instances, to descend to a cab r" We thank G-od, no ! 
Then huw much rather should a Christian nation exercise — not gene- 
rosity — justice towards its servants. But, apart from Christian prin- 
[pies and arguments of right and wrong, is it not moat impolitic 
a nation, to breed distrust and discontent in the minds of its 
ore? And what sensible man can doubt the 
>sult of the one we now denounce. We are too morally 
the contentment of our soldiers, to render recruit- 
oently successful, the comfortable old pensioner in his 
i- must be the bait. We attach the greatest importance to 
"com the conviction that a recruiting parly, marching through 
3 village in which one or more pensioners are wiling away the few 
remaining years of their lives in ease and contentment, would have 
erical success, and obtain a fnr steadier class of men, 
hat day, than one billeted there, a3 at present, does in a twelve- 
uth. Indeed, we are of opinion that a placard to the effect 
hat oung men were wanted for the — regiment, would pro- 

<1< Mil il result. It is, at any rate, worthy the consideration 
iitiea, whether great economy in the recruiting service 
i not be effected by Hie just allotment of pensions. 

ids young men to take up the profession of arms, 

t hat t hey may hear their fathers or relatives extol it, and see the 

tion they take in society in virtue of their uniform. Does the 

uivr in his country village hear like encomiums on the service 

d the old discharged soldier who lives there from hand to mouth. 

ie to himself and a curse to the hamlet? or does be enry him 

ition ? Alas ! no ; the veteran can only recount the debauched 

of his early life, some seventeen years experience of cells, 

ters' drill, and may be the lash, and then when health for- 

bim, as needs it must under such circumstances, he tella 

of his discbarge to his native place in a worse condition than 




when he enlisted. la it to be wondered at that well-conditioned 
lade shrink from witnessing such scenes, or indorsing aiu-h treatment ? 

Do not let it he supposed, however, that all men 
in the army, and that none live through these trials. 
maladministration, without becotniug contaminated. \V 
many really good men who, after long years of - ;ive obtain 

their discharge with a first rate and well-deserved dbtt 
what has been their fate? It grieves us m tell it. A 
will suffice, Happening to spend a few days lately in a small - 
touri, we came ou an old soldier, almost cxinpli 
rheumatism, produced by continual azpoaim during a ter 
sixteen years and upwards. He had been discharged as 
active service, on the commencement at hostilities with Ei 
pension of ninrptnee a da;/. He had been a man of oxcell 
racier ; had three good conduct badges (the greatest number 
can obtain in that period of years), and an equal number 
having married with the permission of his co mm finding officii', 
was before this poor fellow but starvation ? Fortunately an officer 
of his late regiment interested himself about him, and obtained far 
him the post of groom to a gentleman in the town ; but as the poor 
man remarked tt> us, " How can I hope to keep a situation, lor 
which 1 am becoming daily more unfit, and which even now, though 
my master makes everything as light as possible, is loo much for 
me," 

With this sad, but, alas, too true tale, we close this paper 
trusting that the dawning of a new era in the soldier's life, 
we hope we recognise in the oft-quoted circular, will grow intoai 
and bright reality, and that those hi whose power the carrying out of 
the embodied measure lies, may be induced to do their duty, erra 
as wo have striven, in this feeble manner, to do ours, 




LEGISLATION FOE LVDIA. 



How ii it. we n<-k, that everything connected with India partake* 

of jobbery t How is it that a bill for determining the strength of 

the European local force for that country cannot be introduced at s 

tly early in the session to give it fair inquiry, but must 

hi* smuggled in. ami India's requirements give way to grouse sb- 

ask, at this late hour, does the Secretin of 
<■ lor India fin *ary to place the num 1 >opa 

1! doubt, and have that number legalized? Even by his 
own stat' i army was 

24,000 m passage out. The qt 

to tl lumber never becoming practical. After the 

inutinic- asidere ' 




LEGISLATION FOR m>IA. 



from 1S53 to IS59 ho large a force as 25,000 men was considered as 

leding tb nit of European local force for India, why is 

■y for deteraiining its legality now i 

:? yet pending whether there be any Local army, and 

fcbe Army lieor^auization Commission bad been ban- 

I about for further report between this country and India for the 

month*- If, then, this question is unsettled, where, we 

iv for smuggling in this bill, and, in the words of 

State for India, " to legalize that whkh is a fact, 

zq anything that waa illegal, but to place the matter on 

basis, and to remove all doubt." 

■ma that suddenly it ie feared that the number of 25,500 

mq iaay be exceeded, and to prevent this is the bill now brought 

any rate, we are told bo, as " it by no means prejudged 

h might he raised about the Indian army, which 

n future decision." 

;id the Secretary of State lor India's speech, iudecd. 

At heard, do not think the bill quite independent of any pre* 

igtng the future quasi ion of the army of India ; nor are we quite 

il Sir C. Wood himself i!id not hope that the number of local 

once legidly hxed, would greatly tend bo decide the question 

-»1 or p , ice. We are the more inclined to think that 

-e, from the (ew words spoken on "the disputed 

imediately following the previous statement, 

: point." or, jii other words, the having a local army 

as we before said, have been brought before 

»i« to the notice of the House of Com id should have re- 

from the [secretary of State for 1 ndia more M tlum a few 

present exUtuig in the local force, its cause, 

n- removal, deserved more than a tew words [ 

jd should not have been dragged in with matters foreign to the 

That it existed and exists is too sure to he doubtful ; and 

if arising from want of loyalty in a local army, would be a 

reason for not perpetuating or sanctioning for any time 

ach a force ; but if the cause of this uneasy feeling arises from ill-treat" 

isnt ©r want of consideration in the authorities in India, then, before 

farther power wan given to these authorities, or the present "'legal 

dixod,'' it would have been well to have had some in ve**ti- 

govcrnment of India is a puzzle, — however much it is 

-ride. Whatever may occur in that land, tending to 

in the supreme government, appears to pass un* 

m*. U.;nv happy ought to he the governor of such a land. No 

■ r hie financial arrangements lead to bankruptcy, he 

in, No matter whether bin cringing 

re army lends to mutiny and murder, No 

whether his unjust ' of a European army leads to 

the fortunate governor of this 
Land, shall not be brought to account, but have also a step in 
peerage, and greater powers for destruction given him, 

mat this with the governor of a smaller and not improbably 



worthless dependency, and how different is the treat ith 

latter each net is investigated, and its unhappy 

pLui'iio fed of roses. Kor Iris misdeeds or 

is no friendly Secretary of State to sin regie in lit t: I 1m 

the Commons Housi forward disagreeable matter* at «wb 

times a^ there is no ehfince of investigation. For him 

ihovomfk ignorance of the &vlrject, to east a. friendly 

past, and prevent good being done for the future. No. His small 

territory is known. The confusion is not too confounded; 

him neither promotion nor pension is awarded for doing that whirh 

he should not. 

Having pftid t!i:> mbch on the method in which nnv mveMi 
Into Hie ad airs of India is generally enudueted, w shall 
comment on the causes <A' the lute outlmvk of i ; ir» tlw* 

local European forces In India: and also " Bay !i few word* 
necessity for a loeai army of Europeans in India. 

Pew who have been inlndia and served in ; 1 1 1 _s ■ >{' 
beginning with the relief of the Cabtd prisoners, and < 
the relief of Litclmow, but must hare obse 
European fenea of the late Company, cither artflli 
however short of the homo army in absolute discipline, w« 
inferior in loyalty Or coiiragej and wherever a hard f> • 
had beeu gained, in it had served some of the European force* of 
the Company, vicing willi their comrades of her May 
devotion and deeds of valour. Good service ha* been pertormti 
by these loeal troops, Indeed, better service has 
formed, even by that glorious army which stood bl- 
and dug from the hard earth with frozen lingers I p root? 
wherewith to parch the green eoll'ro rat inn. 

Something wrong, very wrong, must have occurred to mate 
local army lately bo loyal. To make this army that st .m ,1 almost 
alone before Delhi, that retook Benares and Allahabad, that rj 
the revolt at Median, that shared with their brethren of the 
service the grand advance on Cawnpore, and the relief of J/ur 
Something, we repeat, must be wrong to make this army no long** 
loyal, To make this army so far forget its duty, its loyalty, ' 
for the land of birth, and of the Queen that reigns over l 
to think of intrenching themselves, and ceasing to obey the 
of those put in authority over them. Were the cases nl' 
tiou isolated, then am- would imagine the soldiers in the v. 
when we «ee almost entire regiments standing out for what 
term their rights, regiments that cored not. two years ago, whetr 
they fought for Queen or Company, so lo laud refca 

nied her name— then we must believe that that arm; 
grievance ; and such an one as should have heen treated respectful 
They wen White soldiers, was the argument of an irre- 

sponsible t \ and as such not to be treated with perfct 

or argument. A lawyer's opinion first, 
and bayonets of those who, eTflt 
shoulder uu the crumbling walls of the D 

unit of India was transferred te 



and failing this, 

1 1 1 der ' 






i.atiov r.iii ivhia. 



we 



(MMtM>" thay wwe to be transferred »hw. "What mattered a to sn 

'iieible govern pr that mam e soldiers hat] only been 

sworn Company, and that with the master, the services 

Lost f What matteredUt that many of these 

ompany'a eecvaoe io preference to her Majesty's, 

tbe many prizes for good conduct, and Uju few t«> share 

attered it timl the advent of eighty thousand more 

ado Ibe prizes scarcer? What mattered it that a new 

style of discipline was established, which, being superior to their own, 

made their ■ hancea of obtaining promotion and appointments yet 

t ? What mattered it that, until the sudden transfer of the 

tuit*iit neither they nor their officers were fully re cognized P 

iter by courtesy, tin- former not at all; and when invalided 

i -treatment at the India House, had no attention 

paid to their claims ? What mattered it that a bounty had always 

on :■. man in I service transferring his ser- 

that the Prime Minister of England had said, that 

he entitled to their discharge, or frpeh bounty? All 

■ mattered not. The <<>](liers were white, They 

be overpowered, and pounds, shillings, ami pence, 

idcred before the rights, expectations, or moderate 

■in fan army whose name will survive long after its detractors 

men \* ere heard to isay , " Had we been niggers we should 

ted in this way.' 1 Yes, indeed, had they been 

then would|their wants have been conceded. Clemency 

have been the first to guarantee their rights, and 

ould we have beard of "Delhi recovered for thirty-seven 

Ive annas," nor an order forcing half an array to resign 

urn. either to re-enlist or burden the parish; failing this to 

<>n, yielding unwilling service, Th is service being extracted 

Ji an inability to accept thti terms of "return or 

having familial or in debt, serving inider audi terms 

optional i 

local forces DO soothing order is issued. For these 

of comfort, reminding thein of how much they have done 

Uuw much that state in iudebted to them, No 

"extra batta'' or increased pay if they will onlv be 

igh to continue their services. No, not even a semi-severe 

wrapi*d up in regrets and threats, and ending with a prayer 

to whom it is addressed should come to grief, and be shot 

any or rebellion. For sueh as these — white soldiers — there ia 

■■il tor clemency. Ko need to direct their being forwarded 

nit to Allahabad, or any other place near their 

Id tii.y be 10 ridiculous as to rise md murder their 

and 

it a lot - necessary for India we will now endeavour to 

utting a*>idc all causes nf irritation, such as we think 

shewn in the previous pages, we may safely assert that in 

dine, ami usefulness, it will be second to none in her 

ice. At the time of the transfer of India to Vh* Hom& 



9m 









Government, it was stated that the terms on which the army waa to 

be trail sferred, were, "the like pay, pensions, allowances, an 

leges, and like advantages as regards promotion :md otbei 

they hid continued in the service of the feaid C-o&tpa "■*, tjgat 

there to be no local force, and all the pi -> ■iflaatal 

with the lino for general service, faith would not. una- 

cttmstrtncos, be kept. For however pi 

some of the late Company's officers having i 

of serving in Canada, New Zealand, or England, still to tboe«e tonl 

officers without money, being incorporated with the lit 

system of purchase, wonld be ruin. It would he impossible withoat 

a local army to continue the " like advantages as regards pay. p»» 

motion, A and as these advantages ba\e been proi 

the people of Great Britain, it would, to say the least far 

dishonorable to break that promise, simply because its fultt 

is disagreeable, and opposed to the wish 

clique. 

For the better government of India, and for Oriental 
generally, a local army is necessary, both on t b+- score of count 
and usefulness, An army continually being moved from one " 
part of the earth to another would bo much more eipon- 
stationary. The passage-money of officers alone would be a 
Minn, and that of the men enormous. "With locals, \ 
money of officers is avoided, and that of the men has to « 
owee, or, it' mTahded home, twice in a lifetime. The 
necessary to be kept up — not only with the Horse Groarde, 
colonies generally, shoidd the Indian army not be I 
another very serious item of era uditure. The transfer of i 
and men from India to Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Act,, 
entail a separate stafl", and various inn dental expenseer, 
the economy question l and now for n few words on the uaefu 
a local force. 

To understand either the language of the inhabitant - 
method of preserving life, or the ways and habits at the native 
India, a long residence among then] n nniw— fji rod also 
tion on the enH of aliens to consider the country M not impr 
a home. This last never conld be with officers and men onlj i 
lo the " Innstlv country" to be able to live on their pay, 
only iu the hope that the day would arrive quickly on which the 
.it might be ordered to a cooler land, or that t! Id ha** 

saved money enough to allow of an exchange. II ,,'n ihe 

inducement to learning the Ian be. still with the poaaV 

hiiity of being at any lame — v qh — able l 

healthier climate, would render it heapoaafblt tti retain I 

'lieers. The love of home, of health, or even of cht 

ould overcome Ihe desire to save m j, or allti 

idea to rise uji as tho du loa WMBg of the 

languages being particularly doll work, and requiring much npj 
tion, would mih be undertaken by the lew — amoag otlicers 

ien, and chiefly in the former class, by those whose poverty made 
ire than a very short resident in India a likely event. The leorn- 

g them being onlj * > an appointment, and th? 



LEGISLATION FOE I^DLA. 



L07 



na of collecting the sum to quit the land t would not tend to make 
learneT a thoroughly efficient officer. 
Vj the natives of India the continual change of those over thenx 
Id not be advantageous. They would not be slow to discover 
masters had but little interests in comuiou with them, 
that a superficKiJ study of their habits, sentiments, and language 
only undertaken f*»r the purpose of enabling tho Englishman 
aooner to return tn hi^ native land. Asiatic cunning would not 
ong in finding out his immediate superiors* weak point — longing 
home — and he would make the moat out of it. Ill leelni«< mid 

Cattteat would arise, dissatisfaction be general, and neither 
d the country nor ita master be well served, 
'bin ta looking at the officers of regiments for general sertios get* 
• cavil employ; but how will it answer in a military point of view, 
a applied to the command and charge of regiments or companies 
stive troops ? We fear worse. 

o under-, tend the native soldier, his language, and habits 

ii be better done by a young man than 

, later period in life. The habits of a native soldier, sailor, or 

Lint are totally different from those of a similar class elsewhere, 

much. Impressions are easier made, and 

charitable views of prejudices tune taken at tho age of youth 
i in more mature years ; ami the officer of ten years' service in 
Anient of the line, fully impressed with the dignity of discipline 

.root of it in native levies, would be incapable of cither 
roughly learning the native language, making allowance for dif* 
peed, or forming that attachment between officer and 
t without which a native army is worthless. The native soldier 
appreciate brute courage or the gallantry that will lead the way 
the deadly breach ; but it is to be hoped this is not the only 
ig for an European officer to do. The native soldier requires him 
>e able to enter into his little griefs, to be his adviser, leader, and 

1 friend, and this cannot, and will not be, if that officer is liable 
ooBtant removal or his place taken by others without knowledge, 
fveu thr wiah to Require such. 

i native army must be kept up in India, and thai army must 
0cal ; that is, an army looking to India as its home. If the army 

and boa local interests, these interests wUl be best cared for 
local officers. 

.n European local army is equally necessary, and will, as we before 

. by just and proper treatment, be nothing inferior to other regi- 

its in the colonies. The knowledge of the country and its 

"uage is good, both lor mau and his officer; and the certainty 

in choosing the Indian service — the choice is for ever — will 

-"Idier strive to attain some of the prizes obtainable by 

■■ in the land of his adoption. It is vain to expect 

ttoer officer or man of a local army will qualify himself for 

s if he finds them shared equally by those 

MDg bat Gar a short time, have chances in other prizes ob* 

in better climates; and if, on tbe other hand, there is no 

y t but the prises of India left opun to the scramble of thcysAs 

bone by poverty or promises of patronage, then fcccw%\l 



10S 



LEGISLATION FOB 1X1-7 V. 






to esprit dt rm-ps — farewell to that striving to 

duced so many good ojiicera, and ere Ions, farewell t a 

natives of India bay. tbeis power, They ha- 

in combination lies their strength, and even justice would i 

the Eii^un-ii people* iliat would unite to 

nation treating Uiem as conquered, and using their com 

producing powers as i iiease o£ seli'-aggrandizeiirL-ut alouc. ' 

India is nut what it was, even ej is »c*r<* 

there, and the means of living difficult to obtain. The cobudob 
necessaries of life are there, by their prices, enhanced into liuturM*; 
and of all our colonies or tribute states, it is far tlie most e.vpercsite 
to live in. Long years ago, vrben the Englishman was 
land — when peculation was the rule, honesty thi 
indeed there was an opening to wealth for most men willing to work. 
hard and wink at iniquity — then was there no diffii 
Government to find men willing to leave the land of their t 
devote their energies to their own and the country's welfare 
were prizes for all grades, from the superintending of a bi 
building to representing the highest authority .'it the court 
native king. Not so is it now. The expense of living is ten ■ 
the prizes are less in value, and shared in by thousands. 
India as part of the general tour for the whole of the British armv, 
loiug away with all local European forces, and the prizes wili& 
niinish still more. The desire to obtain them would be bi 
sient. Comparisons would be made as to their value, and 
resignation would be immediate in the first otter of even a tol 
Appointment elsewhere. 

Have a native force only local and yon behave m< rly tn 

tlie European offieera attached to it. To them lite pay of the 
ranks is not sufficient to avoid debt. They would be superseded 
daily by the line. They would be looked dawn upon bv their breth- 
ren as possessing only local knowledge. The very want ■ 
perfection of discipline ba their native levies would be a c* 
iiTitntion. Treated ae inferiors, considered aw mere adjuncts t 
line, which was to be kept up in BuiHcieut strength to crush ni 
time incipient rebellion, the preach would U< wider than evi 

between Queen's and Company's. 

For the good of India we believe a loco! Bttny, both European and 
Native, is necessary. In the first, a young officer could learn hii 
duties, and would, by remaining with it, at any rate learn son.' 
of India and its inhabitants. In the second, a young officer 
liow to command Asiatics, and will, by habits of study and ntt< 
be not improbably a valuable servant of the government givu 
tn i ploy. 

With tlu 'Ops all promises! should be kepi 

Beparate advantages held out. Let the discipline be strii .-; 
attention to duties fully exacted from both officers aod men ; but 
let not cause for heart-burnings m iee exist. Do awa 

all invidious distinctions. If, as a local force, eighteen years of re- 
sidence in India to to be exacted from the officer, give him c 
advantages in the land of his exile. Do not expect him to share 
contentedly the prizes with nun wbo hr*' ' option of serving 



1859.] 



OLE HOME DEFENCES, 



109 



elsewhere. The brevet promotion obtained by the line for service 
in parte of the world, known only to the local officer as sanitaria, will 
be and is galling enough, and often deprive? him of command. This 
be > ad only regrets; but when be sees things for which he 

has come so far, studied ho bard, suffered so much, and expatriated 
hunself for eighteen long years, taken by those whose life lias been 
on^ of luxury and ease, the local officer and soldier, whether in an 
European or native battalion, feels that his treatment is not in 
keeping with justice or faith: and that Great Britain, in her anxiety 
to provide for those drawing her pay, or having friends with in- 
fluence, has omitted to remember the claims of those doing her good 
wrrice elseivl 



OUE HOME DEFE.M'lv" 
ii a tew Wouds on QVy MtLiru, YbomaseV, AJra 

VOlUNtEEKS. 

1 

II. 

Tin: preparations connected with the defence of Great Britain 
naturally resolve themselves into three distinct and separate classes, 
according its to whether we regard them with a view to encountering 
the enemy on the open sea, to endeavouring to prevent his landing 
trrived in furc^ upon our coasts, or, aa a last resource, 
to advancing against him, when lie baa evaded or overcome one 
effort!* to arrest his progress, and has succeeded in obtaining a firm 
footing upon our shores. Of these three classes — although none 
may be neglected with impunity— that which provides for the proper 
nent of <>ur naval strength and resources ought to be made 
to occupy the first place, for our national greatness owes its exist- 
ence to our colonics anil commerce quite as much as it does to our 
popular institutions and solidity of character ; the one produces an 
effect, and the other stimulates to its production. Like our national 
iem, the oak, our vitality depends upon the protection of the 
wide-spreading and leafy branches in a^ great a degree as it does 
preservation of the root; lop off the branches, and the 
is at once involved in a premature decay. lb-sides this, by 
ion of a properly or md overwhelming naval force, we 

■ allow ourselves to hope that we may be enabled to confine 
and miseries of active warfare tn an element upon 
fi are brought within comparatively narrow limits, 
Ju a former article* ou the subject of our Home Defences, we 
•ferred more particularly to naval operations, in advocating the for- 
Leam flotilla, to bo manned by a maritime militia." 
d out that, hy the adoption of such a plan, we should 
ed facilities of action to our fleets ; and we argued thai, 
rives more extensively of the services of those 
i gifted with nautical tastes and habits, 
but bo imperfectly represented by our coast-guard volcin- 

• Hoy, 1959. 



we might add immensely to our naval strength by am 
inner line of maritime defence in addition to, and not at the eswo* 
of. what is utmally considered as constituting the sum total of ov 
naval reaourceH, and without interfering with t he proper employ- 
ment of the reserves, which should be considered as h 
the more advanced lines, to which indeed they form the legfrinutt 
supports. 

It will be seen from the heading of this paper that it is notour 
present intention to go over the same ground. Though the rourfcv 
tlon of the necessity of the adoption of some such plan a* wa* pro- 
posed by ofl has been greatly strengthened bv recent eircumatamJH 
and the various statements and considerations brought ha pub* 

He by those who interest themselves in naval matters, we shall Jrtf 
to the effects of time and the natural course of events that progna 
towards the accomplishment of our views which ourcontiin 
rocacy might do but little to hasten, and, retiring somewhat faff 
cur former position, take up a fresh one in its rear ; -ind under ih 
disagreeable supposition that the enemy, from some fortuitous sne 
accidental cause, has managed to force his way through all our mari- 
time menu h of resistance, proceed to consider what we oonl 
best do to oppose him. 

If it wen requisite for ua to defend every portion of our COB*" 
line in an equal degree, we might well despair of being able tn 
accomplish anything that would prevent the landing, ■ 1 . 
pedo the progress, of au invading force, nnd our insular p< 
would be rather a source of weakness to us than 
fortunately distance and Batumi obstacles interpose 
which mutt have the effect of reducing the attempts off an enemy 
ithin eertnhi limits, so that we can apply the immense increase of 

ength that concentration affords to those points 
■ 

Besides the command of the Channel, which we hare already sup- 
posed the enemy to be in possession of, there arc two condition* 
indispensable to the successful issue of an undertaking which r 
to be favoured b\ fortune, as well as to be skilfully conceived and 
boldly fxecotcd. viz.. smooth water, and a Budden and un 
appearance upon that part of the coast upon which it is d 

barkafion m intake place: for. although the real attae 

vered by false ones, carried on at several dil! 
same time, the advantages of telegraphic commuoicati 

able us, in the evmf ojnitr beiffg tsvMi 

(positions as would either oblige the enemy to aitei 
ill the la eo of an equal or superior else bofigL. 

without being able to select his own ground, iimi 
accomplished it. 

"We have said "in the event of our being sufficiently 
Upon this nhite safety will have to depend; 

it is the very pith and kernel of the matter; but 
Utter so immensely as to the i 
1 - l sufficiently" that i 
ngto determine* it. Not that fh 





H03TE DETERGES. 



dif v tor the dangers to which we ore exposed, find the manner 

in which t b t?y should be met, are clear and obvious to most reflecting 
minds. The real obstacles which present themselves to our taking 
sudh measures as would reader our future less prob learnt ical thau it 
new is, are to be found less in individual convictions, than in the 
lamentable fact that of Late yours our political system has been 
almost entirely based on financial considerations, so that it mar be 
aud that there are but two parties in the States — those who endea- 
vour to combine popularity with a lavish expenditure, and thoae who 
would secure the applause and goodwill of the masses by a niggardly 
economy. Jn the one ease wo find a frank confession of the danger's 
We »Mi> bfi beset with : but an attempt is niade to prove that money, 
a J?' itlay of money, is the one thing needful to our security, 

MM it is made to take the place of thoao personal sacrifices which 
eve- lit to be prepared to make who has the welfare and 

wintry at heart. In the other case, the true policy 
' be age is said to consist in the dissemination of those pacific 
principle*, whioh, in developing the arts of peace, are, it seems, to 
prevent war by rendering nations unfit for it ! Occasionally a panic 
occurs, both parties combine, and a scene of unexampled confusion 
takes plate, every branch of our military system ia complicated by a 
ipi' -lion of changes, schemes tor our protection which 

juiiv \ ears and millions of money are introduced, whilst 

pie expedients which experience and common sense 
Uy suigchi-. are despised for their simplicity, or sneered at for 
v plainness. 
Thus, whilst we Knd millions are spent in building ships, and 
Uganda in bounties to seamen, our navy remains in nearly aa diBor- 
med a state as it waa fifty years ago ; and whilst millions more 
being expended in fortifying our arsenals, and in orecting 
batteries along our coasts, the defence of the country is made to 
depend upon u small regular force, assisted by a weak and badly- 
■ ! it ia ; this last detect one would naturally suppose might 
be easily remedied, but what do we do ? We add to our weakness, 
in increase our strength, by the eMOtidn of a fresh element 
ion in the shape of n badly-defined and imperfectly-con* 
: iree of volunteers ! 
' rast the existing state of affairs with the state of England 
when Napoleon had assembled his legions at Boulogne, and mark 
difference — where we had hundreds of soldiers then, we could 
number our tens now. Yet the chances in our favor then, in a 
of war, were vastly greater than they are at the present 
it, in a period of peace. Steam has annihilated time and space ; 
i-lill act as it* timely warning would be given us of our 
• — ns if the game of war required neither skilful training nor 
md we live in the vain hope that in our greatest 
man may rise up to rescue us by the spontaneous 
dividual will, or that some providential assistance 
to shelter us from that ruin which we ourselvei 
Itle to avert. 







pretended that it is requisite for us to keep up a larg* 



OIK nOUL UKFEV 






standing army, or that we should paralyze trade, and int 

the peaceful occupation of our operate uinaifo 

upon their time, in order to afford thein military i .1, but 

we must aud do iusist upon the necessity of some organization Uut 

will guarantee to the country an armed force, hirge enough t<i 

create that feeling of security which none hut foohs c;iu now post***- 

AYe may render our arsenals impregnable, our porta in 

our ihorea difficult of approach, but until v 

rapidly assembling Large bodies of troops, aud 

upon given points, we may be said, us fax as the po\ 

SO invading force by land, may lit; emu* rued, U) have doue nothing. 

It is obvious that the sue of our reguJ 
period of peace must be kept within certain limit 
dependent upon the state of India, jmtl the requii 
colonial possessions - but there is no reason why our luihtui sod 
yeomanry might not be vastly increased, an 
us a defensive army, second to none in efficiency, <>r in the pi 
itrength aud moral character of the individual soldiers coin; 
it ; but to succeed in doing tins, we must become aom 
fashioned iu our ideas, aud return to that, against which uo uijui 
possessing one spark of manly or patriotic feeling dap 
objection — the ballot. Not that the power nf rai ballot 

has ceased to exist, fur it is still the law of tin- land, vhw 

expedient (that is the word with which iu these days wc 
a multitude of sins) to allow it to fall into disuse, aud a more fatal 
error could hardly have been committed. What has been thi 
sequence? It has at the same time ruined the luilitb, 
injured the regular army. The militia, because ii 
far short of their proper strength, are composed of boys n 
inferior class of men, aud the regular army. because H loa< 

of obtaining the description of men who, under 1 
system, would have discovered that they had a loudness I'm- 11 u< 
life, and would have transferred their ■- ' ie, 1 

ditiou to this, a considerable sum would be rendered arni 
which is now wasted in bounties, 

Iu a speech made by Lord Palmerston, a short time - 
reported to have said: "lie thought it was desirable 1 
gentlemen turned their attention to questions of ua 
they should divest themselves of feelings suggested 1»> t 
merely bv temporary and accidental circuma natead of 

they ought to look to permanent arrangements." Verj mimirabfe 
advice this, and coming as it does from the WvM Miuiat 
Crown, advice that ought to have great weight. We shi 
to bear it in mind. 

With this intention then it should be our object tn m r 
militia and yeomanry — it is t<> bo fared that we can 
volunteers- una permanent basis ; and to endeavour to estah 
system, the action of which shall be less dependent on t! 

nic than our present one is. Tim "spirit 1 
eouiiiry" cannol always be relied on ; it is sometime* far f 
ad it js often as dilljeuli to control i\ . 



urn ItoMK PKrr.ji'tfcti. 



113 



into ncii< atonal periodB of agitation and hunted prepara- 

luri :ii'i' at tin- best but poor substitutes for that calm nod sell- reliant 
le which a great nation like ours h ho uld be enabled at all times 
exhibit. 

The militia of '• -mini and Ireland, with a nominal establish- 

it of out* hundred and twenty thousand men, is at the present 
itne divided into one hundred and sixty regiment.^ twenty-seven ot" 
~iifh are artillery, and the remainder infantry. Of this force 
?n regiments of artillery and twenty-four iv^hneiits of infantry, 
. total of some t iveuty-three thousand men. are embodied, 
Tin the only portion bfit which euuld be brought into the field 
the event of any sudden emergency arising • for although the dis- 
tbodied regiments are always spoken of as beittg hi a state that 
rould enable thein tu be made available tor active service in a very 
\ort spare of time, they barely number forty- thousand in their 
and with respect to all practical intents and purposes, may 
looked upon as constituting a mere paper force, or what is worse, 
upon which u certain dependauce is placed, luider the suppo- 
" flan that it possesses a military value whicli does not iu reality 
plong 1 

it we propose to substitute for our present unsatisfactory 

is one that would ensure our being able at alt times, and 

ider every circumstance, tu embody our whole defensive force, m 

ich number.-:, and in such a state of preparation^ as might admit of 

undertaking the performance of its legitimate duties without 

and of the authorities being disembarrassed in the hour of 

hat attention to minor detail^ and constructive arrange - 

which so materially interferes with prompt and vigorous action. 

aid suggest : 

1 . That the ballot should be annually resorted to, in all cases in 

the number of volunteers for the militia are insufficient to 
jmplete the strength of any regiment to its prescribed establishment, 

2. That a regimental system should be introduced, somewhat simi- 
to thai recommended in the report of the Militia Commission 

K the union of the smaller counties; but differing from it 

<vould form cash regiment into three battalions of 

treugth, 

;*, Thai a regimental depot should be permanently formed by the 

it of the several battalions ; and that to this depiit 

. appointment, and every recruit hvhethera volun- 

ise) should be attached, for such a period as wuuld 

•rmit of their being thoroughly instructed in their several duties, 

mmaud of this depot should be entrusted, iu rotation, to the 

L'vcral field officers of the regiment, 

1. Euch battalion should be called oul for training for a period 

nty-eight days in each year; the different battalions coin- 

* called out separate!} 

a to be enrolled, in the fir^st instance, for a period of 

le expiration of whicli term they might be allowed 

i, or tu Ikivc their names registered, with a view to 

■ ■. in the latter ea would be exempt from 

5. Mag., No. 37U, Sept., 1859. i 



114 OUR HOME D1SFEUCB8. 



eiLP 
per 



+ 



being called out for annual training, but in the e rbe wiliti* 

being embodied they might be called upon to serve, and Itiii 
second period of service would only be allowed to count as " n 
time, 

6. Ten yearn* enrolment, or five yearn" embodiment, or five 

olment with ten years in the n itute the 

eriod of militia service. 

Every able-bodied male in the United Kingdoms, be 
of twenty and thirty-five, should be subject to the ballot, 
of exemption should be made ag few as possible: bill rw. h 

would alwav he allowable to provide a subs? 
ibould, tmder ordinary circumstances, be permit i 
their discharge, according to a rate made proportionate t«> t ' 
of service 5 but such a discharge should nut & to fri 

from the fixture action of the ballot. 

For the artillery regiments, which would I 
from those counties on the seaboard, certain niodifi 
above plan would he necessary; for '■> , it in advUabl 

the instruction of the officers should include a con 
and theoretical gunnery, and it would he 
general school of instruction for that purpose. 

The organization of the yeomanry might be assimilated to tWl 
of the militia, the regiments being divided into squadrons insi 
battalions ; the operation of the ballot, when resorted to, heinj 
fined to a certain class of householders. The whole of the eh 
appointments should be provided at tlic expense of the ( lovcn 
and in order to give every encouragement to vuhmti 
branch of the service, in addition to a high rate 
period of service might be shortened to six, three, and nine 
respectively. 

It may, perhaps, appear, at first sight, us if the libi 

• subject would he seriously endangered I 
pulsory military service ; but when we remember that it has 
object the defence of our hearths and In iiuch, the protect i 
that we hold most dear, we must arrive at it different (-.inclusion: 
for what man is there amongst us who, whilst laying claim 
advantages of being a citizen of a great and free country, • 
possibly deny that it is his duty to participate In the dangers Off 
privations attached to its defence 

In the above remarks we have purposely retrained from enl 
into the newly established system of "Volunteers ; ' bu! W6 wouhl 
repeat, that unless every great eaic be taktn they will be found to 
increase our present complications in a very large degree. I,, 
militia and yeomanry receive the greatest development ol' which 
fchew r nft y t, e capable, and then and not before "Volt 
Volunteers to aiu extent, the more the better, provided thai they 
undertake to nrm themat s, and to drill 

- at their i-wn expense' under 1 tier conditions shouh 

untrjr could then bo alio', 

«em an amount of independent action which srot ate) t 

the '■ military force no essentially n< 

national safety u the militia and yeomanry of tne British Isles. 









1659 ; 



115 



ENQUIRIES TOlTOKISa THE ETHXOLOGY OF 
CER1A1X IETBE3 OF AFKICAN.S IXTERIOR TO THE 
GUiT OF BIAFRA. 
Bl QoBVBL Thu3. ,T. 






II utc Erenow, F.R.G.S., 

Membrt Ti/nhh-r de I' Institute d'Afrique, Sf6. y Sfe, 

Tt will Be remembered that a chart of Dr, Earth's explorations in 

Africa Had been compiled, as well as published, under the 

i-iidence of Mr. Petermann, befire the " Pleiads" eipedition 

np ; ■-Tshadda-Biuu;?, and therefore previous to the Doctors 

: tu Europe. In tb.nl wfta mentioned a tribe called " Bati," 

who were | 'puted to be " of a white colour and of heautiful 

o .live in houses made of clay, to wear clothe* of their own 

ig, and to exist iu a country from which a mountain was visibls 

e S.W., aTid close to the sea." 

From the position in which the Bari country was placed in Mr. 

Petenmmn's chart, there can be no doubt that Kameroons was the 

jtaiu referred to. 

On ruy first official visit (o the river Kameroons, in January, 1856, 

I made inquiries from the British as well asnatrve trader* if such a 

were Known, and I received infonnittorj that there was a people 

■tried Bari. not Bati, who, instead of being white, were yellow- 

oured ; who are of fine shape, and who live near the place indi- 

■ chart. Any information about their peculiarities of 

worship, dress, mode of living, doings iu trade or agriculture, 1 found 

to bi tly unattainable. I learned, however, that they were 

warlike, a** well as that they rode on horses, and I forwarded 

to Dr. Barth. He wrote to me in reply 

he did not flume Bari and Bati were of the HUM) tribe, * for, 

Added, '■ ' r and f- as Far an 1 know, ore. never changed in these Inn- 

ike rand c, j> and f, tilt, and /. and others ; besides, I 

think the a in Bari in a long vowel, while in Bati it is short. I 

therefore must suppose these two tribes distinct, but they may live 

rather. Any information which you will be able to gather 

that interesting corner behind tho Bay must evidently be of 

i> highest importance ; but a great difficult} a ill of course arise 

with regard to identifying the various tribes, as there is no doubt 

that the same tribe may be called by a verj dilli-rent name on the 

coast and iu the interior. So I am almost sure that the Ding-Ding, 

who are living in lints erected iu the branches of large trees, will 

tother name, and the same is probably the case with the 

Have you communication with Duke's town? lam uncertain 

with what country round the Bay I shall identify Alhiifu, a district 

visited by the predatory excursions of the Tulbe, 

and which they represent as in continual rse wHA the t'hris- 

he sea shore. * * * • 

'• Tours truly, (Signed) 11. Uarth, Dr." 

Lin some Information on this subject limn 
inarieu, I luu i I ■<■ I Dr. Bari It's le 

Hev. W. Anderson, am! subjoin his reply ; — 

t '£ 



"Duketown Mission House. 

•* Old Calabar, July 22nd. 1556. 
" My dear sir," I have made diligent enquiry among the Efito peopl* 
in reference to the Ding-Diugj the Tekar, and the Mbafu, 

"1st, Ding-Ding. Nothing seems known of tbcin hero, or of aa; 
men living in trecB. The people laugh heartily when told of them, 
and aay 'They muat be brother to the birds and monkeys." 

"2nd, Tekar. The people here know of uo country of that name, 
' suppose it to be the Ataka, or Atakha, or A iio live b> 

where beyond Akunakuna. None of the Aukur people are in Old 
Kalabar. 

"3rd, Mbitfu. There is a people, or country, or buih Jar oo lUc 
other aide of Qua, called Mbfdum. Some of them are so 
brought aa slaves to Old Kalabnr- 

" I have long wished to ascertain the position ami distaueo from 
Old Kalabar of a country called here Mbnktim, Mburikum, or 
Mbudikum. Many of them are brought here aa slave;*, They 
more liked in Old Kalabar than many brought from uthur eouuf 
They are peaceable, honest, energeti* ; they represent their con 
1 aa being three months journey from Old kalabar— aa being di 
tute of laTge treea, and aa being not far from some 'big watery, 
which ships are visible. Their country is much infested 
who wear trowsers and ride era horseback.' 1 suppose some Mood 
tribe, and who are called Tibiire. They may be the Tilbe, (Tulbeji 
referred to b? Dr. Barth. 

# # * • * * 

M I observe that Dr. Bar Hi has nofc found r and / intcreliangeabl 
among the tribes he has visited. They are so in many Kfito wonis 
The words in question, if communicated to twenty Kalabarese 
would forthwith be pronounced by the <mo half Bati, and In i 
other Bari. In Efito wo can say either. 

"Ku wut owo, or Ku wur ordo. (Don't kill man) 

"Emye okut osang, or okur osang. (He sees way.) 

" Tat inna, or Tar inna. (Open the mouth ) 

"Eait ayat, (or ayar) enye. (He is troubled) literally ( h* 
troubles him.) 

"A dat, (or odar) esit. (He rejoices.) 

• * • • • • 

" Yours truly, (Signcat),, Wm. A>DEnstjw."' 
I may observe that tlie word Tibiire is pronounced long Tibia 
by the Etito people at Old Kalabar, and therefore it seems 
me not at nil improbable that thia name in its being handed about 
amongst men who am entirely ignorant and unconscious of lexieo 
graphy, might have been metamorphosed into Baari or Baati wd 
dictated. As recorded by Dr, Baskie,* there are some of the Baio 
section of the Bati tribe in Clarence FeroanAo Po; and they a; 
entirely diiferent from the chuwt eristics of the 1 Satis describ 
by Dr. Barth, or of the Baris aa pictured to me by the Kaineroo 
people. 

Determined to pursue the matter further, to try and ascertain the 
• Vide Baikic'f tailoring Voyage, p. i4n. Mtttnp, LoudoiJ 



ISaD.i 



rxQrimrs Torcnnio Tin athicaw tbires. 



117 



identity of theae hitherto mythical tribes, I wrote to Bev. Mr. Crow- 
tber at Lagos, enclosing Dr. Barth'B enquiries. Tbe following is his 
answer > — 

"I am afraid I cannot enlighten you muck about Dr. Earth's 
queries. The name Bing-J)iog is familiar to me ; we have a tribe of 
Y oruba living somewhere in the neighbourhood of Barqu— some- 
times spelt Borgoo — on the right bank of the Kowara, opposite 
Bousa {so called), but the mode of living in huts erected in the 
branches of trees leads me to think the Ding-Ding, mentioned by 
Dr. Barth, must be another people of whom I have no knowledge. 
Dr. Barth's Mbafu h in all probability the same a.3 Mbofon of Mr. 
Koelle (see his map to ' Polyglotta Africans') somewhere about the 
Ibo country. The name may not be known as such to the people of 
Old Kalabar, aud ICameroona ; if it be not this I cannot otherwise 
guess it. From Dr. Barth'a information the FilatahB marched south- 
ward in that direction, and from the long intercourse the Kalabarese 
And Iboa hare had with European merchants in the Bight of Biafra, 
they might with all propriety bo said to have intercourse with 

I Christians near the sea-shore. Considering the distance of Hamar- 
rua and Adaniawa from the lbo country, the people of the latter 
wight be said to live near the sea coast. 
*' Tours sincerely, 

t( Samubl Cbowther." 
I received further information respecting these unknown tribes 
and localities from Bev. Mr. Anderson, in December. From a sub- 
sequent letter sent to me by Dr. Barth, he considers Koelle's Ndol 
to be the Mburikum, of which Mr. Anderson wrote in his first com- 
munication. And this latter gentleman, extending his enquiries still 
further, thus proceeds : — 

"1st. The Mburikum (or Mbudikura) call a tribe of the warlike 
Tibare Ding-Ding, but they do not live in trees. Tbe Tibare wear 
cloth and ride on horses. 

nl. Teka is the name of a tribe and country near the Tibare. 
" 3rd. Mbafum or Mbafnngor. or Ekoi, furnishes many slaves for 
Old Kalabar. 

** 4th. Mburikum is the name of a large territory, including seve- 
ral other countries or towns, of which the following are the chief: — 
1st. Bamum, a fine strong people, who frequently wage war with 
the Tibare. 2nd. Ndob, big water at Ndob, and those who come 
here (to Old Kalabar) from that district can ' live in water same as 
Kaineroona.' ThiB refers to the almost amphibious qualifications 
of the Kamerooninns. 3rd. Babak. 4th. Bariki. 5th. Bangwa. 
6th. Isa. 7th. Bansok. 8th. Bambo, 9tb. Babi. 10th. Banara. 
11th. Allbnsin. 12th. Bandyn. 

* All these places are to the east of Etik (Old Kalabar). They all 
1 on side where sun rises.' 

' ' Yours truly, 
(Signed) i! Ww. Andibsoit." 

On the occasion of a visit which 1 made to Kameroons in Fehru- 
liis year, 1857, on board H, M, Steamer Merlin, I inquired 



118 



ESQCTBiaa TOtrcHryo the aimcas teibe». 



- 



from Mr. Johnson, a very intelligent attache to the Baptist Mission 
community there, if he knew anything of the Ding-Ding, Teksr, 
Mbafu, Ietein, Mbudikutn, Barl or Bati races. He informed me tLai 
the Bayon people, wko are of the Mbudikum territory, design 
all the Filatfths as Barb. A man from the ; I »t 

that time near Kameroona — unfortunately, at the pi my 

enquiry, not come-at-able — who states that be met a w 
a black man (stranger) in Ins country a few yen mtttf 

down. 

I If ft Mr. Johnson a number of questions to ask ivw\u thi» Baron 
man, but he has not been able to get. any mush try to them. 

In a letter (Feb. 11th) which I had n 
"I cannot think that Mir. Anderson is right in a I hng> 

Ding to be a section of the Tibare. They may be subji » 

Subsequent information received from Mr. Anderson pro- 
Dr. Barth is right, and seems to me to settle «t once the hi 
the Ding-Ding. 

When I paid a short visit to Old Kalabar in the mouth 
1857, on board IT 31. S. 8, Firefly, the subject came on in eonv 
tion, and Mr. ifriderBon communicated to i 
intelligence which he had obtained. A man un ; then 
who informed him thai the word Ding-Ding with the Til 
nonimmis with slave ; that the story of their Jiving in tr 
seem to arise from the fart of some of Ihe Mbudiku 
stautly posted in the tops of trees, to watch for the comii 
predatory Tibares, which they announce to their people by blowing 
horns, that are resounded from one to another with the pin 
though not with the celerity, of an electric telegraph, 

Ding-Ding is no doubt auickname like Baibai (slai ila), and 

Nyam-Nyam (canibals). These last are mentioned in 
Bayard Taylor's work, " Journey to Central \ 
though reputed to occupy a district between the Blue and W 
2sile, to the south of Abyssinia and Kordofaw. 

It may be asked by those who huvts followed me So far, won 
practical utility to be derived from invest concern I 

tribes, whilst thee inquiries have tended to no ascertained 
elusion ? I answer — It may be considered i I han an im 

future attempts, in searching after fact 

whom we have hitherto been entire! at ; nod that such 

nuiries may in the end prove as useful aa the 
Lmngeton concerning unknown tribes on the >■■■ le of ( 

continent. For I believe the rivers which traverse the hith 
unknown trnct of African land are destined to lie th 
wlivh, hy which legitimate commerce, and h 
inifuenee, ore to be carried on. And even such slight inform 
as this, be it only surmised by many in the light of crude conjecture*, 
might tend to make us know something of these people, as nell as 
lead future explorers to gain clearer and mote accurate knowledge of 
the Ethiopian people, a race the lowest, m civilization of all created 
■pedes, although inhabiting a richest in the production of 

such industrial reaour*°* " *"" J *" the comforts of the great human 
fium 1 '- 




1850.] 



EDITOR'S PORTFOLIO; 






OB, 

1STATAL AND MILITARY REGISTER. 



i Py.xt \ :,— Pea* «' ox war again depends on the 

noilut" a BvovABkUTX. Tliis would be a melancholy prospect for 

Europe, even if the second empire had not proved by the whole 

thai it is founded on the traditions of the first. 

i r Jed only in the policy of Napoleon the Third 

hast trance of being tortuous, contradictory, and incompre- 

hen»ihi,-\ and this was precisely the clmrncteristie of that of bis uncle. 

In reality, both are identical ; the one object in view is followed 

thro: meandering ; and the securing vacillation only inch- 

intrigue. The difference is in the situation of the 

i in their principles or designs. Persona] mid family 

still the spring of action, and it is pursued not 

only with tin 1 same tenacity of purpose, but by the same means — by 

per >d, shuffling, and conspiracy, without scruple and 

witi The inconsistencies of the French Emtekob are 

susceptible of no "flier explanation. He made use of the Crimean 

war • Bji the old alliances of Europe, and especially to alienate 

Russia from England and Austria ; and after forcing us into a dis- 

■ut when wc were prepared to act with 

ur, b ice lent himself to the traditional policy of 

Russia, u • of a secret alliance. Austria was neit to be 

humbled, and next to be bought, peace being, as before, granted at a 

..-hen it was likely to prove acceptal.de, and ere Austria 

could r. support of Prussia, The two German powers were 

excited against each other, instead of being marshalled in one 

camp, while Sardinia was left in the lurch, aa England hnd been before, 

■.A' Villafranca, the Duchies wen* t» receive back their 

: int the Emperor Napooleox publicly declared that their 

restoration was optional on the popular will, and should not be 

rce. This, however, presumed that Central Italy would 

have the good taste to form itself iuto an Independent kingdom, as 

Jkkoue ; mid since it has become evident 

in. -neii intention, but that Italy aspires fo integral 

anion under the national sceptre of Victor Emmamuel, French 

.-.'u commissioned to speak other language, and try the 

threats. In fad, we .■*■■■ everywhere the traces of a crooked 




1 






:md minister policy, which warns us to be i>n our guard. The Fresui 
disarmament turns »>m, eg every one foresaw*** be a m 
appears to have been concerted with Lord lVi.ilEBaxoS' as a 
manoeuvre, to inllueuce the di I farliainent ; 

learn that the naval reductions are suspended, while tlnv 
army are merely nominal, comprising the cites whose bj 
this year, with a three months' furlough to those men 
the support of their families— in short, the arrangements u 
when the army is only at its ordinary strength, are nlw»\ 
this period of the year. Everything, indeed, indicates that 
many mouths will elapse before - again in the hdl 

the event of another localised war, we trust that England will 
pledge herself to neutrality if the object hi' to humiliate Prussia. 

The Pistol Puisteu Ate the Hb&BX oi vd. — A 

months ago an article appeared in our pages on the fortitii 
Antwerp, eipoun ding the project of Captain Biu\lmo:vt, 
aa the plan decided upon by the Belgian Government ; and points 
out the imperfections of both, The eminent authority from wlx 
those observations emanated gave the preference to the 
Bbtalmont, hut looking at the results expected from n 
non, he eipressed a doubt of the policy of fortifying Antwerp *t » 
inasmuch as no defences could long hold out againat artillcr\ 
a character, and Antwerp fortified would not receive morn an 
that consideration which, according to the usages of war. it n 
claim as an open town. Whether rilled cannon w>ilj T . 
such a revolution in the science of defence, has, v.- 
be proved, and certainly the recoil of the French 1< 
Quadrilateral implies some misgiving on the point « but, be that 
it may, the Belgian Government has resolved to carry out the WOT 
Antwerp is to he fortified — that is, its osisting fortiiication* are 
be so extended and strengthened, that, in case of an emerge 
the event of the present diaquietu.de of Europe twminatin 
convulsion, and a violation of the Belgian territory, then- 
remain one place of safety, in whirl] the Gove nunent can take refu[ 
This is only a natural measure of precaution. Recently the Einpet 
Napoleon, at a moment when there was m iu Eurof 

and when ml the powers wen- exchanging professions of 
not only confronted our coasta with a port degression, but invit 
our Sovereign to he present at its inauguration. No one 
questioned his right to construct such a stronghold, though it 
undieguisedly designed, not for the purpose of defence, but of i 
But. while expecting England to take this menace in good 
our imperial ally proves to be very thin-skinned himself. 
journalists have received orders to proteai against the fortifies 
Antwerp, which, by a curious logic, is construed iuto an aflront 
Prance. Belgium forfeits her neutrality, and. as a consequent 
passes out of the pale of Europe, directly she throws up a rampart. 
Now, if any one has a right to complain of the fortification of A 
werp, it is smvly the King of Holland, whose dominions alone it can 
be held to threaten ; but there is reason tobelieve that this Sovereign, 
far fror* " ^untenajicing, is. an abettor of the undertaking. The 



XWAT, ^m> mT.TTABT TtEOTSTEIT. 



121 



iirst from France, and then by a sidewind from 

sia — the two countries, of all others, that, unless tbey meditate 

attack on England or Germany, and propose to make Antwerp its 

ivotjcan have no possible interest in the question. But it is on re- 

>nd that Nafoieon pronounced Antwerp a pistol pointed at the 

t of England, and here lies the secret of all this disputation. 

n not afraid of Autwerp being made a tite-de-pont byEng- 

• the invasion of the continent; but she is enraged that a 

sition so eligible, fonnin ; another Cherbourg, should be rendered 

open to* surprise. For our part, we have no apprehensions of 

pistol pointed at our heart, so long ns it remains in its present 

■ ut neither Bnalattd nor Germany could view its seizure by a 

it military or maritime power without alarm. Ab regards Belgium 

srself, Antwerp ia the palladium of her independence ; and we believe 

*t neither the threatening attitude of France and her army of the 

iort.h, nor the cajoleries of Russia, will divert Leopold from taking 

rrry pn rnutiou to secure it. No one knows better than the King 

the Belgians that, since the struggle must bp, we may as well 

our stand now as later. 



SlK BOBEBT GaKOINEB'S MlITUTJE OST THE OuDlTAWCE DEPAttl- 

est, — The retttarkabte articles whi.-h bate, from time to time, ap- 

" in our pages on the position of the Royal Artillery — not 

it producing a deep impression — have been ably seconded by 

if Si 11 RoTiEiir Gardiner, who has not only urged the 

me statements on the attention of the authorities, but has brought 

jcsii repeatedly before thu public, with all the weight attaching to 

is name. The latest of these publications is a " Categorical Minute 

the Motion of the House of Commons for Inquiry into the Effects 

the Military Changes in the Ordnance Departments, with Obser- 

on the .Reconstruction of the Royal Artillery/' and presents 

with a mass of information which every one who desires to under- 

ind the question, in all its bearings, should diligently study. We 

the more interested in this exposition from so high an authority, 

miueh as Sir Kuulrt. as he here avows, was favourable to the 

jf 1^-3."), which broke up our old Ordnance Board, and placed 

ic Ki'vai Artillery under the control of the Horse Guards; and, 

ith that frankness which forms tm honourable an element of his 

muter, lie now tells us that tho consolidation has proved "an 

i dure," So many are concerned in keeping up the present 

stem, and it adds so largely to the jatronage of a polity al Minister, 

it we can hardly believe it will not be persisted in ; but all mili- 

round to the opinion that we must eventu- 

ly retrace our steps. How the House of Commons and the public 

to be convinced that the great Duke is u higher authority 

aueh a question than Lord Paxwure or Sidxet Herbert 

we confess, a problem we cannot solve. Good men 

ill true are undertaking the task, and the result is 

rith time. Sir Robert Gardiner points out the gross injustice 

sne to the Artillery, especially as regards the inadequacy of the 

Staff, the exclusion of its General Officers from holding 

command, which bos only been broken through, by tlis ve- 



122 



editqb'b poetfolio. 



cent appointment of Sir Feitwiok "Williams, and the rradm 
slow promotion. Tbia last grievance lie elu.'ivs to be the r 
imperfect organization. In ma evidence before the Parliamentary 
Committee, the gallant Gen oral goes fully into the whole staid 
of the corps, fts defects, requirements, and capnoi 
that no officers of Artillery or Engineers have bee 

Staff of the army for n period of' except fot 

pexiou under the admiu of Lord i ttiatj i 

systematically exclude' officers from tli*- 

they aro best adapted few. How different is the , 

im Sir Boukrt Gamjiketl shows, by ad<l 
pies, Even 1 he Erint India Company follower! 
we air reminded that three of their Artillery officers 
Poxioclt, General WirrrE, and Sir AuMfiDALE "Wl 
respectively at Ihe capture of Cabul, Mooltan, and Delhi. Th< 
launuut of the Artillery, its strength, the recruiting 
tary administration generally, are suqeeasi 
Roburt'b comments, rmd cm all he offers valualj 

013 a thorough acquaintance with their workin -h$t$ 

tvinda nj. wild an addenda, comprising observations on the forti. 
nmi training of Volunteer Artillery and KifiV Cor] h, r*H»ing 

from Biieh :i quarter, are particularly acceptable at the prewitBa* 
mini, and will produce good fruit. 

Tin; Oi.p Su'i'i.us. —Quartermaster Coh Ulster; 

tal Sappm tmrt Miners has communicated to for 
\ull OB t'i tin' English public, the meritorious services n 
ami us<>fn| corps, fn the Sepcettrteur MiHtaire fur Au 
Vi 001 \t Iu-js grren an admirable summary of the work, cat 
tlic salient points with great felicity, so that the hououxable aeh 
mentl Kd8 peculiar charaeh iristii - of the "Corps di 
BCinsun Uuyaux. " are now as familiar to Lhe French . ■ 
nwu. At tlic oonclueion of his article, Colonel Ai 
■ I/Hint. Sapeura et Mineurs a el*'- ai 

im. i'uvnir tun i itre par t«H! Ue la preaso anylaiwe. la. 

.jiiuiii ito" con i'P 09 * *• 

I'ordre dni I i!s tout 

ue du doin qu'ii 
•<:ij.'.r. We believe this History is tin ■ . :--h a 

; undertaken In an individual, at I and 

■ I It'ii entirely tritbout recognition. The 
el Beamish, win 
tm ua j iinili-i'i || similar 

ii not i>nl_'. seem . fat 

tldtrt rem: «"ith 

value of fKKH). 
return in m store for Quartermaster < 
arm* been able t 

research have, up to Hi it, received 00! tber 

from the autl rp* of which 

Hun is n teproav ) BssAMUBB^ 1 ^' ,ue ^ MW believe no 



cr 



123 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 

A Life rem a Lmv By the ainhor of John Halifax, Src. 3 vols. 

Perhaps it ia natural that ladies should be the most successful delineators 
the tender passion, as developed in their own sex ; for who can so fully 
lerstoriil its influence over their nature, and the sensibilities it awakens. 
?n< tale exhibits its operations in three different forms, represented 
■ ; and thus a field k opened for showing the lights and shades 
Sr in a most effective manner. It is cm the youngest sister, how- 
l, if it must be told, the plainest — that the interest concentres; and 
' her lorar that gives the hook its title. As a voting man, 
it wn* very ntiiohcd to dissolute companions, a party of 

i met him on one occasion as lie was proceeding to visit his sick brother. 
was induced to join their revel, one of them undertaking afterwards to 
wey him to his brother's residence, but, instead of fulfilling his promise, he 
in an opposite direction, setting him down in the middle of Salis- 
1. This practical joke, wliieh he would have treated lightly another 
was provoked to resent, mid in the scuffle that pnsued, dealt hi* 
id an unlucky blow, resulting in his instant death, From this moment he 
an altered character ; he resolved to devote his life to the good of 
in expiation of the life ho had taken away— a life ibr a life. Fortune, 
riled by his steadfastness, at length mnde him acquainted with Theodora. 
tod gentleness attoned for her want of beauty, and as their 
itauee progressed, he became more and more charmed. But an insur- 
»bl'! bar to their union presented itself; Theodora, who alone could 
pineass, was the sister of the man he had killed. Such are some 
elements of this highly wrought story, and, in the hands of an authors 
died, they afford scope for the finest effects of fiction. The hook Is 
way inferior to John Halifax, and will, we doubt not, make as deep an 
memntrnt 



Femm,E fenrfccBsCB. By Lady Charlotte Maria Pepya. 2 vols. 

Female Influence opens a very wide field, affording materials for inquiry 

id economist and the philosopher, and, of course, tu the 

uovt-i n these latter days, leaves nothing untouched. Its operation 

is unlimited and a>- old a.* the world itself. Where, indeed, cau we go, that 

mot be traced, or where that it does not prevail ? In the regal court and 

the f among high or low, it is alike perceptible, and most frc- 

i«t. There are few of us who do not owe aomethirg to its 

her from tiie endearing relations with which it gtrrrotrads us, or 

action on society. This is the text which Lad y Charlotte Pepya, the 

1 Lord Chancellor and the niece of a lJi«lif>p, has here used to 

moral and adorn a tale. The result is n very pleasing narrative, oceu- 

; two volumes, and which we cuuld wish had been extended to a third, 

rards opportunities, no one could be more competent than the 

re the effects of female influence among the hjgher classes of 

1% and though she ha*, to n certain extent, stepped out of that sphere, she 

010 fat regret. The story is chiefly laid at a fashionable aani- 

tbeaouth of France. We are introduced to a lodfcty of English 

acters are cleverly sketched, and sufficiently varied to be 

Oriole, tin' popular favourite, is a beauty, and the model of the 

it. But we soon grow iterested in AileJn, who, though less showy, 

wins upon all l>y her gentleness and sensibility. The author spends all her art 

upon Julia, who is indeed a charming creation, but, to our mind, less 



121 



I'KITI 



natural than Adela. In all, and throughout the l»ook, there art rmetoeebol 
womanly feeling and pre;.' of treatment. 11 

itself, but its progress is never lost sight. of, find we rend on wil 
interest. The diction is fluent, the situations we effect i\ ^ 
tiiuents striking. The book no doubt, will derive prestige tV 
of it? author, but it also claims success by its own i: 



A Familiar History of British Isdia, fro! 

I 'i -.uister of th» Government of Tndin tt> the British t 
J. H. Stocqueler. Esq., Author of the "Handbook o! 
of the Duke of Wellington," &c. fee. 

Here we at last have n book that, has lon«; Ltc-ii reqni 
India in » nutshell, compendious without being i 
esting works produced by Mr, Stucqueler. this will, we ti 
least useful. The author's personal acquaintance wil h 
greater advantage in writing such a work; ami the long 
engaged in training candidates far commissions, with euol 
enables him to supply exactly the hiibrtuation that i 
be better adapted lor colleges and schools. Though » y 
brings down the histon* to the close of tbeTcceiH 
lacts and events wholly omitted in larger works, sueh n* i 
Vellore, the Burmese War of 182l-.>, the liamukj 
recommend it not only for students, but as a valuable audition 
libraries, and for all who desire to be well informed on the history 

Military Examination fob Junior Officers of Ikfatntk 
600 Questions and Answers on Discipline, Drill, Interior f. 
Prepared by direction of Colonel Sir James Edward Alexander K 
14th Regiment. 

Sir James Alexander has here presented us with a practical manual on ik 
organization and routine of the army, and those brand 
knowledge in which every officer is now expected to be profid 
work is designed to assist the Board of Examiners, as well as ibow wbohsw 
to answer their interrogatories, and anything more complete floald li 
wished. The field exercise and evolutions of infantry, the mutiny act w* 
articles of war, warrants, circulars, &<:., field fortification, ttnd rv">cmoitainfc 
are some of the subjects which, in the shape of guestioi 
James has grasped in this little hand-book. We nave looked through if 
pages, and can honestly testily to the care, ability, and judgment 
its preparation ; and, us it. appears under the high sanction of the Co"" 
mander-in-Chief, anil with the prestige of a name so distinguished as (" 
Sir James, we doubt not it will obtain a wide success. 

Among the literary events of the day we mav mention thai 
preparation u, very curious work illustrative of the mnuners of il 
century, being the adveiilurv >>l Master Owlghiss, a famous German j 
with the story of whose deeds Germany rings to the present time. The m 
is by Mr. Kenneth R, H. Mackenzie, a Fellow ot the Society of 
fmns, author of several antiquarian volumes, and i^ Illustrated bv ihe fa 

HofMr. Allied C'rowquill. Messrs. Triibner & Co., > 
Row, we the publishers. 




XUTJCE TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
Cup tain (t,, Matt*, in our neat. 



12-5 



GEXEBAL CORRESPONDENCE. 



6 cptoionB i 



i of tli<! Service, rlili department of the Magazine it open 
therefore, ilie Editor c^nnut hold himself responsible for 



To the Editor of the United Service Magazine. 

-My attenti in was attractedrjy a Litter in your last number, bearing 
Might makes Right," on the subject of the Barmckmaster. 
>ur of a small' space, wherein to oiler a few observations 
several months have now elibae*! since it was reported 
imiiit" wa^ Immediately to be issued, whereby the pay andpo- 
•.ekmaster wen 1 to ho materially benefitted. Is this ; ' lYar- 
'* n thin* of imagination only, or will it, in truth, become an embodied 
If ii doW make its appearance, will it increase the Barrack master's 
. commensurate with ilia responsibilities lie undertakes, and 
par with the Army Chaplain, as regards house allowance, 
1 per annum, instead ot* 40'. «s at present ? Last, though not 
II ir at ftttee, and for ever, abotisn that outrageous absurdity, "Re- 
tk" substituting fo¥ it, that Which is '* nominal * or " honorary ?" 
nrerfiil advocacy, sfo often employed to expose defects in oar military 
would do much towards these dealrabJe ends. 

I am. Sir, Tour Obedient Servant, 

'* IIo.ht BsfrOBH Might." 



•UK MEDH AL AND COMMISSARIAT SERVICES IN INDIA." 

T" the Editor of the United Service Moguiine. 

!-■!■ the abpve heading in the United Service Muguiine for 
*t, I SOD, you have widely circulated Lord Clyde's despatch to his 
>acy, ' Honourable, the Coventor Genera! of India, tinder 

of I'ebruary, Irta'J, and general order of the latter No. 1, 
Itb of March, 1859. 
former, Lord Clyde "warmly recommends to the protection " of 
■ovemor General, "two great ilepurtmeuta of the military adiiiinistra- 
which the troops and ameers who hate commanded them, are under 
,- ;" and he adds •• ft lias been remarked throughout 
the army, that from the time of the slender forces taking the field against 
nd Allahabad, intAd summer of 1857, the system of the Indian Com- 
missariat lias been found cimtil to the tasks imposed on it, in spite of the i .v- 
traordinary circumstances id which it w.ik suddenly placed, and of the actual 
Iom of the resources, viz. : the ^reat contractors and agents with which it 
the enjoin to work. For this system the army is in a great niea- 
to die late Commissary General, Coloiml Ramsay, and his suc- 
. i (I Thompson. The latter officer being in personal charge, 
•npplicd the held fhroa ot Delhi under unexampled circumstances^ when 
L Wilson stool before that uify almost cut oil' from the rest of India. 
Thr l '! hiis been nohly supported by his subordinates ; 

and I do but apeak the truth when! affirm, that no department has ever 
possessed a more efficient stall of officers than those forming the establish- 
Commissariat." 
In his General Order the Governor- General endorses Lord Clyde's des- 
to Colonel Ramsay" and others, " the cordial 
■ota w rw l edgmrats of the Government of India fjr the important services 
they bare rendered." 




126 GEITEBAI. CORSMPOlTOKirOI. [fa% 

The credit and thanks accorded to Colonel Thomson and the junior office* 
of the department generally, were nobly earned ; never was the efficient* 
of any public department so severely tried, or more satisfactorily establishes. 
But how the army could hare been indebted to Colonel Ramsay (who to 
not in India for a single day during the whole course of the rebellion in 1M7)i 
for the new system introduced " in the summer of 1857," the lwaM *f*ri! 
effects of which were felt, according to Lord Clyde's own statement of the 
case, until February, 1859, it will be by no means easy to explain ! 

On the 21st of March, 1857, Colonel Ramsay made over toe charge of 4s 
Commissariat Department of the Bengal Residency to «ie, and nrccMOjsi 
to England on medical certificate, and he neither directly nor udirtflb 
in any way whatever influenced, or was concerned in, or connected «j£ 
the system of management established during that year. / was chief of pi 
Bengal Commissariat from the 21st of March, 1857, until the ttTpnaprif 
the 15th of February, 1858, when Colonel Ramsay relieved me aalpj 
return from England ; and whatever were the arrangenwnta from the CffJi 
inencement of the outbreak at Meerut on the 10th of May, 1857, ontM 
tew days preceding the fall of Lucknow (to Lord Clyde), on the litfcaf 
March, 1858, for which Lords Clyde and Canning have bestowed the ens% 
upon Colonel Ramsey, they were organised by me. 

I ask you, in common justice, to do me the favour of publishing (kit 
statement of facts iu the United Service Magazine for September. 
I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, 

T. J. NutUVia, Colonel 
Late Officiating Commissary-General, Bengal Prestdeno/. 



127 






V\L AND MILITARY INTELLIGENCE. 



ii. 



wlit 



GENEEAL OEDBES AND CIECTTLAES, 

PACKING OF ARMS. 

Meworantjwm. — House Gvavoh, 16th July, 18o£), The 

asnri Commanding-in-Chief lias reason to believe that sufficient care and 

attention orr not paid to the packing of the arms when Troops proceed to 

1 1 itduiQH accordingly calls the attention of Commanding Officers, 

commanding 1 sit portu of embarkation, to the directions on 

pages 296 and 315 of Her Uajesty'd Herniations, and desires 

Iditional instructions, be likewise strictly adhered i^. 

tentri, Or aimed Detachments, are warned (or euibaikatioti,.if 

na-cheats — properly fitted with nicks to prevent the 

en packed, from rubbing against each other — should not be iu 

ppliearion is to be made for the same to the nearest Wu Office 

eeper. 

the amis are put in the cases, they ure to lie thoroughly greased, a 

oft wood, saturated witWoil (or some tallow), is to be put into the 

p-cap i-: tri In' on, and the coek let down upon it; and care 

Id be taken that the muzzle -stopper fits closely, so ns to render the 

barrels as nearly as possible air-tight. 

These details should not be ten to the Armourers alone, but be superin- 
tend or Officers (.'"imiinndiiig Companies, who are responsible 
the anus are always kept fit for service ; and any Officer who shall foil 
In attend to these particulars, will subject himself to serious censure, and 
also become liable to the cost of repairing any damage which may have 
Bd from his neglect. 
When the Troops go on board ship, arrangements must be made with the 
"irthe arm-chests being stowed in a dry and convenient place 
of acce»M : and arm? which at the periodical inspections (which are not to 
BUtted) mnv be found rusty, an not be replaced in the cases until they 
,ve been thoroughly cleaned und put in order. 

By Command, 
Gr. A. Wethkeaxj., Adjutant-General, 



I: 



THE STAFF COLLEGE.— GENERAL OEDER. 

i Guards, tftth August, 1851J.— The following Regulations, regarding 

" lation of Candidates for admission to the Junior Division of the 

Staff College, for a residence of one year only, under paragraph 13 of the 

:orandum from this Department, dated 17th December, 1857, are pub' 

lished for the information of the Army- 

The application of any Officers desiring to compete at that Examination 

•rwanhd to this' office with the necessary certificates, in conformity 

paragraphs 3 and 4- of the Memorandum above referred to, not later 

On their application being sanctioned! Candidates will present themselves 
the 2+th November next, at 10 o'clock, a.m., with the 
being tested in field sketching, previous to attending the nn- 
intttion of the Junior Division of Students on the 1st December. 



128 



KAVAi ASD MILITARY IXTKLMOESCK, 



M.fT 



Thare will be fivti* f4c*ifties in (lint Division, for widen Officcn «f ti 

Cavalry, Guards, or Line, will be eligible; and <>rw vacancy 
Officers of the Royal Artillery nnd Royal Engineer* may conrpete- 
SDBJECTS OF EXAM 1^ AT' 
Obligatory. — Arithmetic, Algebra, Eidic. Plane 
mration. — According to the Syllaiius ofMnthei «t tt 

which will be forwarded by the Council of Military 
didate on application. 

Fortijiciithnt.^-'nw principles, const ruetiuu, and applical 
Works. The principles and construction of Permanent ■' 
plificd iu the lii»t system of Vauban, and tin modern I" 
defence and attack of Field anil Permanent TVoi 

Military TojMgmphy. — A sketch done on 
or compass will be required from each 
finished plans (should be have them in hi 
work). 

Military Ism: 

Military Art ami Hiitarij. — The principle's of tact 
a critical nbstrael of one or mure campaigns, and of one or v 
evidence of the Candidate's knowledge of those subj< i 
Prettt/i, 

VuLpstabi. — Ge/taaiu Ilitntuxtttn^ C hi' luirtrt/, Geo 
'JTie following will be the nim 

Maihemnt ':>. a 

Fortification ...... . f» 

Military Art, History, and Geography 

Military Law ....... 

Military Drawing and Surveying .... 

French ....... 

I..T1I1UJ1 ...... 

Hindustani 

Chemistry ...... 

Geology . .^ . . 

In the iibligaitiry Subjects a Candidate will I 
of the Marks allotted to each subject, as a proof that lie i 
upon the course of the Senior Class of the Colli 
By Command of His Rural Ilighi i 

'J 'he General roinmamliiig-iii-C'ldct, 

\Y. F. FORS'l ! 

Deputy -Adjutant-! ■ 



A I inirliii MiiiKitwidiim. dated Jlnr-i (■ li August, 1&.5:> 

il,:ii i| is the dttfee of (lie General Gommanding-in-Cbief tliat the Dejholttr 
iiii'l < 'ourt -Martial Sheet* of Soldiers who tako ttnir ili 

miiialiou of I heir engagemtttl for limited >rrvirc, shall far tin 

lull period, in', tw© yi-nr!" — ni tli la trhioh such iu>'ii, OB ffnfljfcrl 
farther term, tire allowed to r< vb . n former sirviiv. 

TlIK (iMKAT QWK BxmCiaE. — GKNEftAI. OSDlllt, JloBSU GlAki 

Aiigiwt, ]8-j!J. — ] [Ih Rnyal Highness ilio General Coin man d bag -in-i 

dee i H expedient ihiit oilieerH and soldiers of infantry should In 

ItructOfl hi ih«' yrent jyun e\« rei-< , desires that gt neru! oflicors couuwaT 
di»lri<"t* and stations will make the neooswy arrangement* in con 
oiniXMtndiiia pffloen of nrtilhry in fort* and garri.-on?, lor tan 
ihnl measure whenever practicable, 



i». A. W 



oii i man i.l. 

ETHEKA1X, 



Adjutant-!.. ■ 



JfAVAL AND MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, 



I2d 



Wxu:. *;ioe Pat or Pensioners, — An Admiralty Circular, dated 

nlt„ has juat been issued, directing that in future all Pensioners 

*ing all i;it on and aft tribe 17th May, 1S-5D, are to be paid the continuous 

of tin.' rating in ivhii.li they i^ro actually bomo and doing duty, 

- will be entitled tn receive the amount of their pensions, and 

. pensions have been calculated iritii due regard to former services and 

no Pensioners arc untitled to badge pay in my rating, Marine 

lets arc to lie paid as Able Seamen, if not netually serving in higher 

*at I' '.iveMEBAKiKs,— Circular, No. 377, dated the 

Ol* June, directs that all Supernumeraries borne for wages under their 
" ir. Xo. 352, when discharged into other ships, shall be simply discharged 
i'hoiit transfer list or other document. The existing regulations, 
frig the pay documents ol" men and boys invalided, or iu any way dis- 
d out of the Service, are to be rigdjdry adhered to, and the above 
ons strictly limited to the ease of .Supernumeraries borne under Clr- 
0. 352, and discharged toother ships. 
A Recruit Barrack is proposed to bo erected by Colonel Frame, Com- 
ding in Scotland, in that part of Edinburgh called Castla 

The object of die budding is to avoid the necessity of btlletting 
men. 
Signal Lights. — A series of experiments were lately carried out at the 
factory deportment of Woolwich Dockyard, tor the purpose of* testing 
efficiency of a telegraphic signal light, in tended for the trans mission of 
messages or orders, timer by olbeers of an army in the field, or the vessels 
fleet. The telegraph consist a of five oil lamps arranged in the form of 
diamond, and each letter of the alphabet is represented by the exhibition 
a red or white star at a certain point of the diamond, a3 indicated by a 
Uj of instructions, which must of course be understood bv the party re- 
ceiving the message. Two of these telegraphs were erected, and uotwith- 
ading the disadvantage of daylight several messages were transmitted 
the inventor, and the receipt instantly acknowledged with the utmost 
acUity. 
The authorities at the Horse Guards have decided on despatching several 
ildiers' wives to Bengal, Bombay, and Madras. The women 
• ill be sent out from time to time with the Indian reinforcements 
ig from this country, the first detachment to embark during the 
oath On joining their husbands iu India they will be employed 
■ us duties connected with the regiments which are now undertaken by 
who are thus withdrawn from their usual military duties to the pie- 
See of the service. In making the -election none but industrious women 
d the sc of good character will be allowed to go. 

TbB Lm llAJi»ooTAif\ Fi£i.i> Force. — In communicating the detail of 

uions of the troops under his command, Colonel de Satis thu,s 

some of the officers— i have to thank Major Seager, commanding 

Majitr tlit" II<m. K. Ma-si'}', 95th regiment: Captain Car- 

Kegiment, commanding detachments; Captain Hichards, oom- 

_ detachments lOlU NX, and my Brigade Major nd Cornet Golds- 

llussars, for their zealous ablo assistance which enabled nir, 

dq1 along marh in a dark night ; and secondly, to attack with 

plan, through very thick jungles, where the eun was the ouly thing 

t could be seen, I was much pleased by the spirit and intelligence shown 

ipUig Parkinson, 95lli Iteginient ; Captain Hichards, aiid Ensign 

Oth N.I, ; and Cornet Palfiser, of the 8th Hussars. 

it Tin Aiiji> '•■■■" rni; Aistkians in the late Wab, — The 
bati publishes n table showing thu respective losses of the allied Armies 
" the Aujtrians in the different combats and battles which took place 

Mao r No, 370, Sept., I860. s. 




during the campaign in It 

killed 'm>d w nftded, Austrian:?. 13,000 engaged. 1,1*} killed and ii fl M 
and 150 pri-itiors. — Fale*tro: Atlle?, 51,000 eneag-ed, K400 kilW *< 
wounded. Austrmns, 24.000 en; I0O killed and wwwided, Wert* 

*ener«, and 6 pieces of cannon. — M;> 

gaged, 4,400 killed and wounded, 209 | md l nmon : Amtdm 

7(5,01)0 engaged, 13,000 killed and wounded, 7,000 prisoner*, and I cam* 
Melegnano'; French, 18,000 engaged, 900 killed sod wounded. Antrim 
18,000 engaged, l t +O0 killed a«d wounded, 900 prisoner*. SolfcoV 
lies, 146\000 engaged, lfi.soo killed mid wounded, 350 . AnrtrlWL 

170.000 eriL' a ^-<1. 31,000 killed and wounded. 7,000 prisoners, 
non.'' According to fhi- statement the rotnl lows it. \ l<d« 

the allies was 24,350, find of the Ausri v diffcnaft 

against the latter of H, 300. The nrnnher of F] it* 

..nly 300. whil.Mhe AMMrinn* lost 16.000, The French i -.* V 

cannon, nnd the Anstrians unly I. 

Encboacues or Foreiox SnTrrtso. — In 1 *? f-+ t 1 •« *f 

<'lcnr:incef of British shipping amounted t> 7 

2,846,4H4 ton?. In !«+9, when the change in ill • •'»«¥ 

the British total kul advanced to 9,669,638 to 4,tll 

tons — km increase of"J8 percent, in the British and 58 : 
in live veir?, In IRA'S the total British el 

18,891.400 tons, and tin- foreign 0,418,376 an Jnarea* tf JB ft? 

cent, in ttm* former and 118 per cent, in the [fitter case. '!*Mr 

more ckarly, 'lie annua! increase in "British tonnfi i$wn 

fl-G per cent., and in foreign 10'6 per « 

British increase 1 wna 30 per cent., and the foreign. 15-1 per ceti 
entrances tend clearances of British shipping in baflayl w 
1,808,005 tons; in 1849, I, SI 7,081 tons; and in 18,58. !; 
tluif riie cefrnpai the rwtnal bnri:. 

more unfavourable* as li^twceii 18-19 and IMS ; lmf 
rienced greater rltfTk'ttlty in nbtflniing freights in 1858 than in l> 
waseTawere in n still worse illative position, the 
£¥0,764 ton* in 18+4; 9l?fi,iae ton* in ]$tfl; and 1 ,77_' - 
The stati-stk* jitsl nil CT both to sailing 

hitter lire hn,ti':lit into a d&tinet class from tin- I 
ordinary British Bttips httvc obtained but a poor sit: 
neat done. In 1844 the total .mil clearances ,,t u, 

amounted 1o 998, R64 tuns; in 1H4!I the total WIS 1,498,807 
I 858, ft, tS-1,391 tons. The entrances and elearanwis of h 
171,893 tons in l»U, 808,18;! tons in 1840. am 
uetuiil Increase, therefore, in 1859 in the clearances and 
•tilling vessels wns only 1,166,183 ions as compared wit 
same period the eiitrnmes nnd clearances of foreign sailing v. 
1,038,780 tons. Til MBplalnts made on the subject hi -t rear ' 

probaMy induced !>> the Ikct that while the entrances and el. 
lalling and itfram vessels with cargoes fell ofi 591,997 t< 
entrniK e« Utd clearances of foreign vessels with cargoes increasi: 
tons, 

s1 ' v Superintendent of the Rifled Ordnnnee I)e| 

lit al WrH.tivi.il, has niece eded in accomplish ins the met 1 1 
whole nr my 
prManl 

kftT 

«omc of the fp 




It. 



pii 

■ I.' n her of tl in tin; S 



with 



QOVMic the metanvorpaotti or transfor 




HAYAX AJT» M1MTABT 1N T TIL1T«B1T01. 



1*1 



•mooch to the rifled bore, hitherto considered impracticable. The 

i gnu submitted to trial was an 80-pounder on Sir William** original plan ; 

wow! an ordinary 82-pounder service gun, rifled on. a, plan of Sir Wm 

ustmn i For elongated on?t iron shit or shell, fhey were trans- 

partment in Woolwich Arsenal without preliminary proof 

wit confidence is placed in the judgment of Sir \\v,. 

i?, and ware fired wver a range of 3,400 yard* The result exceeded 

r;il anticipation. The target was sU foot square, into which every 

L— -svunely, six rounds from each gun— penetiutcd with terrific and certain 

)tji»c Lights.— A cecond furies of experiments hare been carried out 

Xltamea, off Woolwich Dockyard, in order to test the indestructible 

Iparatus invented by a Freoch gentleman, Cwnnvidore Druiamond, 

eroua officers and eci ntlemen, embarked on board the 

: tswnressel, at eight, p.m., from which the apparatus was thrown 

i« water; and the cutter of the FiW, fully manned, was also engaged, 

i of Captain Bruce. The practical utility of the invention 

Sfavj in demonstrated by the means which it affords of Surveying 

:r3, or a coast niter sunset, with a sumll boat, in order to aacer- 

the presence of buoys or other obstacle* to the progress of a vessel, 

ulit its advantages during u period of warfare on an enemy's coast would 

I of the utmost importance. It ha* been stated in error that the invention 

ught be applied fo- purposes of destruction, but we have been informed 

lat the flame proceeding from the apparatus, although affording an intense 

jht, would be harmless for the ignition of any material usually destructible. 

Damaged Aram. — It having been found impossible to account for the 

Eiagfl which, in many instances, arms, issued in good condition from the 
■ Ofncs store?, have sustained, in consequence of the delay which has 
their reception by Regiments, and the assembly of the 
::imitte them— the General Comnmndiag-m-Chief, 
Secretary of State for War, has desired that on all occa- 
and other stores supplied by the War Oifice may be examined 
alter th< v are paceivad — th? packages being opened and counted 
of the Board— and any damage they miy have suffered is to 
tried to the Military Store or Barrack Officer who issued the 
twine whether the damage was caused by the 
he carriers. 

■ >o. — Of 127 years, terminating in 1814, England 

in war. and i«'2 in peace. The war of L$8<1, after ladling nine years, 

enditure in that period to thirty millions, was ended by 

uv of Ryswick, in IG'J7. Then came lite war of the Spanish sue* 

n 170$, concluded in 1713, and absorbed six ty-two-and- 

ma of our money. Next was tho Spanish war of 1732, settled 

iu 1 7a -4, after costu g m nearly Hfty-fbur millions. 

war of 1 75<j, which terminated in the treaty of 

in 1775, in the course of which we spent Hi million*. The nfjxt was 

art war of 1 TV.j, which lasted eizht years; our national expendi- 

lillions. The Frencli revolutionary war, begun En 

ind exhibited an expenditure of 4t>4 millions. The 

ipoleon Bonaparte be^an in 180;J, and ended in 18 15. During 

nt 1,159 millions, 771 of which we raised by taxes, 

revolutionary war we borrowed 201 millions; in the 

en years' war, liU millions ; iti the Spanish 

m, 32 J millions; 

.',?. J:i the fame iin I IW 

total expenditure of 2,028 millions. 

a 2 



182 



NAVAL AND MILITABT 



MimtAbt CMUnSSiosFd — A commission h as been firmed in India, tmflT 
instruction* from the Supremo Government, to iiKjuiTC Into and report ot 
the Military expenditure of In lia. Sir Charles Trevelyan has nominated 
Colonel Bflir-mr i- tile member for Madras; Colonel Hum will t 
Bengal r and Colonel Jsmieson, Bombay. Tlv> com mission is to assemble 
once at Bots 

The FormTicvnoss of Doves. — The fortification* of the! citadel of Do 
an: aliout to lie enlarged, and the estimated cob! of Hie work? is £]5O,0CO. 
The wefta round the ramparts, insido tind ontside, wiil be rai-ed tneny 
the dilehes will be considerably lowered, while on the sea front will he eiert*« 
,t htrge bastidtt of Officers* quarters, on the top of which will be 

battery, heavily mounted with first-class ordnance, la 
fhe citadel will be a signal-tower, while lower, and over thftre> 
placed all the neeeatary bnildmgs required lor such a pi 

•lie i.'iins facing outwards will he ti covered way to proi' 
pushing to and fro. The improvements «'il! extend front iTn- 
i, ;it which places, nnd at the head of the Military-road, will 
new draw-bridges of great strength. 

Fnesrtri Camp Lirr. — A letter ftom the Camp at ( 
m < tal vtay of life i? this : — At three o'clock in the morning the di 
f->r (hf> men to get tip ; at Jour the manoeuvres commend 
about eight. At nine is n pta-ade by Corps; at halfptel nine the men 
fa,st, andafterwiirds the officers take coffee, smoke, and read the net 
at eleven the names of the men are called over, ami from half -p 
three wc sleep. The manoeuvres then recommence and continue to 
hilfp.i.sf eight the retreat is Bounded. The officers are treated with 
strictness, the General-in-Chief alune according perrtns«ion to 
Camp, and without one tbfty cannot even go to Chalons. 
TitB Mimti v Unx. — Thti new Government Bill enacts Hurt nil 
ifter TTii-i'il and enrolled in and for the regular Militia of thi 
Kingdom under any Act now in force, or winch may hr Icreafi 

whull be liable to serve in all parts of the United Kingdom during all 
part of their terms of service in I i, and as respects - 

aeoHon 8 mid 9 of the old Act of£l, George III., cft|>- 1 18, are repeift 
Queen hiay employ beyond the period of two years mentioned in 
m of the said Act, or before the expiration of six or four 
i in section 9, such part ol the British and Iri*h MiKtia as m;ij 
vobitit ii -v ' ]>' i, no ns tfl extend their services. The Militiamen who yi 
may be employed in addition to the proportion now limited. MDitiao 
-' 'mi v.iliini. . in the Channel Isle.*, anil may be there emplc 

ucii. Oilers inn-l In,- purely voluntary. IWetet of uniting the 
led by clause 7. Volunteers absenting 
annual training in , or during any part of such time i 

■ ill be liable (,. lerve for an additional yt ry mutual 

oft ml i ndrich they to al i '■•■-. fraudulent re-en 

will be deemed and punished as desertion. Deserters may be tried bvCour 
Martial nr Btummarily dealt with by Justices ol Peace. The civil punUlnne 
in the latter Case, -will fie a Sue, ringing from 2/, lo 20/.. with the option 

ing it out in the eoroa prison, t<u t period of not less 

two nor more than six in. keretarj al War will direct how i 

ried. This Bill i Mr, Sydney Herbert and 

' Hon. the .; mi, 

..red and brought in 
. . li;is in t been laid on the tabic 
'he li lidatc the la* 

ts it nutboris 
' = I married woe 



>-i 



i-l, AXD MIIITaBY INTELLIGENCE. 



be a mffieiept discharge. It then enacta that deposits axz to I e- applied 
public expenditure nod payment- made out i>f grants frim tl e public, 
dilutions for dir-e bfftka ar* to b* ntade by the Secretary -at- Waif 
'th the c.ncurrenciJ of the General CDimunnrlinir-m-Chief, 
Rotal Mcmobials at Cnjn^BA.— A graceful tribute bas fust boon paid 
Her Majesty the Queen to tie memory of the Officers and crew who 
ished the Birkenhead troop ship. Her Majesty, desirous nf re- 

ling her admiration of the heroic consistency and unbroken discipline 
i board that vessel, has caused to be placed on the colonnade at 
elsea Hospital a, tablet in commemoration of the event. A tablet has also 
been erected, by command of Her Majesty, to the memory of Lieuteuaut- 
Colunel WIMoughby Moeve, who perished on board the IZtirapa. 

"~rvb Voli'ntjjkb Naval 1'Virce. — A Government bill empowers the 
y-officeto raite and keep, from time to time,, a number of men, notex- 
iing 30,000, to be called tbe " Royal Naval Volunteers," such <orps to be 
d by purely voluntary entry from among searftrina men and others 
ned suitable for the service. Tbe term of service will be five year*, 
longer. Tbe Volunteers may be trained ami exercis^rl twenty-eight 
iu oaeb ye.ir, both on bonrd ship and on shore, and tbay may he called 
into actual service in caw of need, by command of the Queen, Winn tbia 
treine measure is resorted to, the Volunteers must serve in the Navy for 
years, hut the service of Volunteers m actual service may be extended 
ira by proclamation. Extra, service will bring with it extra pay. 
e Volunteers will be victualled (when called out) like Seamen of the Fleet; 
rjr will be exempt (rum the Militia service, and will be under regulations 
eligible to dir Hospital of Invalids at Greenwich. They may be also pen- 
sioned by the Board of Admiralty. Masters of merchant vessels must make 
notations on their rolls respecting any of their crews belonging to the volun- 
teer C«»rp3, and report from lime to lime. Volunteers absent from training 
ml drill will be punished by a Una of 20.'. The preamble of this important 
U recitea the expediency of keeping a Reserve Volunteer farce of Seamen 
■ iu Her Majesty's Fleet in time of emergency,. 
Knii Armv.'-A l'li filamentary return gives the actual strength of 
md the East India Company's forces in the three presidencies 
i lie Fuojanb, at the date of the last returns received from thence, 
classified under four heads*, of European Commissioned 
missioned Officer?, and rank and file, Native Commissioned 
ned Officers, and rank and file, and totals. Bengal 
ie following totals:— 11. M 's army : Royal Artillery, 2,.s:i] ; 
ry, 48,475. 1 1. M.'s Indian forces : II dim Artillery, 
(European), 3,311; Foot Artillery [ Native ) 690 ; 
(European), 3,207 ; Bengal Yeomanry Cavalry, 264; Cavalrv 
Infantry (European), 3,Cl 9 ; European Invalids and Veteran 
r, 2sl : Sappers and Miuera, 1,0.) 1 ; disarmed Detachment, 400 \ 
(native,), 1 . ilrv (Irregular), G,014 ; various den o mi nations 

Puujnub : Artillery, titiT ; Cavalry, 5,927 ; Infantry, 27.813. 
Artillery, 324 ; Infantry, 19,75.! ; Lahore Light Hone, 151 ; 
lercqrps in the civil department in the lower pro 1,880 J 

rth-west provinces (military), 30,324 ; Military Police, &c., in 
civil troops under the Chief Commissioner of the Pun}aub, 
.v the abstract oJ Her Majesty's Indian Forces, Bengal, which does 
not include Queens Troops, >liows a total of 6,255 Artillery, 36,852 CsWt 

Y ; total, 1 19,692. Modi ■• I ' ' y — Her Majesty 's army : 

Royal Artillery, 913; Cavalry, 1,308 { Infantry, I0,0t?t. Her Majesty's 

Indian Forces : Horse Artillery, 732 ; Foot Artillery (European), 1,583 ; gun 

Lascars, attached, &c, 1,182 ; Foot Artillery (native), 1,1 S7 ; Cav.iliy 

.*), 3,013: Infantry (European), 3,019; Infantry motive*, 52,294; 



vol rv 



iM natal a*d xnuviiT DTU&roni,! i - ■ [8m, 

Infantry (native), extra Regiments, 4,571 ; Sapper* and Miner** Ate-, 4£0H 
civil corps, 1,937 ; the abstract of Her Majesty's Indian Forces, Madras ?M 
sidency, not including Queen's Troops, 74,390. Bombay Presidency— Hsr 
Majesty's army : Royal Artillery, 1,584 ; Cavalry, 3,833?; Jnfrntty IMfl- 
Her Majesty's Indian Forces : Horse Artillery, 904 ; Foot Artifltcy {&r* 

pean), 1,412 ; Engineers, Sappers, and Miners, 103 ; Infantry (El 

2,350; Cavalry (native;, 1,515; Infantry (native), 28,295; Gol 
Artillery ; Gun Lascars, Artillery Drivers, and Sappers and Miners, 
Marine, native, extra, and other Battalions, Lascars, &c, 9,725 ; I 
Corps, Cavalry, 4,656 ; Infantry, 647 ; Civil Corps, 5,746 ; Salara_ 
Corps, Police Corps, &c, £0,684. The abstract of Her Majesty's fikK 
Forces, Bombay Presidency, Bhows (not including Queen's Troops, MR 
including 4.970 undisciplined men) total, Artillery, 4,495 ; Cavalry, ^HW 
Infantry, 65,828. Grand total, 77,473. £?« 

The Defences of Cjstlon. — Pending the approaching meeting of CpfltJK 
when communications were expected from the Governor r ps p c ctasf » 
railway, the extension of the telegraph, the state of the colonial finances, 'Iflf. 
his Excellency's proposed schemes of reproductive expenditure, public atlas 
tion had been very much directed in Ceylon to the exciting news from At 
seat of war in Europe. The general wish in Ceylon, as in other portions m 
the British empire, was that peace might be preserved ; but anxiety was M 
to be prepared for contingencies. 4k It is natur.il (says the Ceylon ObattHfr 
that we should wish to see some of Armstrong's new guns mounted in CoIosUak 
and the magnificent harbour of Truvwmalee placed beyond the ilsiifT m 
surprise. Two war steamers have left our shores for Australia, ana M| 
steamer Oriental, with the 61st Regiment for Mauritius, has touched at Gka|k 
We have here proof that other British colonics are eared for. Meaasasn 
there is a rumour that three more regiments are to be stationed in Ceytaa.' 
At present the military expenditure in the island is about 200,000/. per as* 
num, of which about 80,00' 7. comes out of the colonial revenue, as contriba» 
tion to the Queen's chest, island allowances, repairs of fortifications, fcc.fifc 
1859 wo expect the proportion of the colony will be fully 100,000/., in eaa* 
sequence of the expenditure on new and splendid military quarters, and % 
consequence of an augmented scale of island allowances. 100,0001. i* sa*» 
sixth of the revenue, and about as much as we can reasonably be expecNl 
to defray ; so that if more troops tre sent for the defence of this ' £■* •! 
India,' we trust the additional expenditure will be defrayed out of T Tp^ 
funds." 



DISTRIBUTION OF TIIE BOMBAY AEJIT. 



>tltrtring is the distribution of tbe Bombay Array, corrected to 
the 1st February. 




... 



n* - - 



STY'S HOME TROOPS. 

tit Wabv; 

AIiulEiliuigifur 
Wee 
,Snt I nr.i 
gliolnparc 

Seepfc* 

Gwnlta 
FlcM Scrrk-e 

- . - Kirkci; 

- - - Mhow 

Iran AnciLLi-Kt. 
Mhow 



and 



u<|0 
ipMljr Ulh Battalion f.';il| 
UOi BnttALtors Knlla 

Dhuru'iir 

iL Co nr* ow Lhotwilbs. 
IifMty - iLnjii.Hir.ii. 

Force 

- GwAltor 

f'.inilWljVlBld 
Hombny 

iwut ..... Nasilcll 
nctngdonshirc Ecgi- 

- . - Pocnft 
le Dutle of Wclling- 
H«-ifitHfi>< » - - • LLurod* 
!i?hirc.lHL%-i- 

KniTtciiw 

Mooltm 

: Him 
Mnt * - - - • KuilmlKhte 
MM ..... iUiuLipprc 
, - . -Sai.tr* 

- Field Scrvlec Khan- 

tleudt 
icol *l liuuunt nntl 

DIiwIIa 
- - Aden 
tlinenl F«rt • • - FuUeghur 
. ...... Belgium 

blander* .... Owjil!cr 

fhtandcr* - - - FleM Service, IW- 

paotut* 
lihutden Detachment Dhuri* ur 
jhlMOrr^ • - - - linn, ill., 
...... - I'ooim 

ItanolFeat - « - ICjOlhhiCiuis 

- --..-- Drv-.t 

t Unci if Foot - - - Owalior, undei or- 
ders t» Fauna. 

- - FooHn 

Ifmau- .... KjtJrHHtiLiiia Field 

Fore* 
thUiulwiw - - - Mliow 
*nt - , - - . Indore 
Of - . Netpree 
- ► » ** Detfitt 
.... tuona 



ajesfys LVDiAaN' britisii troofs 

lutouum or Aetii-ubt. 
•lg»<U. RciJ ^TLnrten Poona 
LMlit'tj Troop. Head 
■» Jhonal 



RsjjiootaiUI 

Cenmal Lttdl* 

Uoorpnpor 

Abmcdntttrjtiir 

Aliroedabid 

Hyfli i 

I'rMMl'.ilV 



C<v< uliuL 



JpdTtCOp - 

3 ill TrWp ------ 

Jtli Truop 

Milan, Mend -quarters 
I*t Company - * • - - 
Srirt Coin; 

■ |- i : i >' - - • - - 

<tlt Cnmpany - - - - - 

'jrjtf battAUnn, Bead-' 

in Company - - 

Xnci Po, - - 

ari Co, - . 

Itli Do. 

itLSi.. 
l*t Cdlnpanv - . - - - 
ilii! Do. - - - - - 
Detachment ..... holloa 
3rJ Oojnp*nj .... - Knlapaor 
ttli Do. ..... Knnacliee 

POSH OF EXGTJTLvERiJ. 

He»d tiuiirtcin .... J'oom 

IXEAMTUY. 

IslKui-ypoon Regiment (FurI- 

lk«r») Head Quarter* - - MduJcui 
Detaabgteai ...- - Vnultwcr 
------- Kun-aelii-e 

'.'in I Earopwin l'.i-'^iiiieiic L. 1. SVltfaum 
Whig »_.-... Kniiijmre 

llL'tdcllIDtllt SllHRlt't- 

3rd European Regiment - Jluuirf 
Depot - - - - 

UEi: JIAJLbTT'.S NAT1YK TUUUFS. 
A, , l/I llri - . 
Srd llallullun, Uead-fiunrtera Ahn ■ 
l»l Coiupiuij' ..... AhmcdHliarl and 

Itujtiiiu 
"nd Do. ----- Ahiimdabad 
3rd Da ..... itTOiii 
DutacrtiL<fit .... IkldSerrke 
itli Comitanj- ----- Bttpnotan* Field 

6th Do. - . - - - AliTiiedio#| 

«th Do. ----- Ailcti 

ItL [Saitalldii, itctut ytiiirtcn AJua^nuggur 

lift t.'onipwiy ..... iiiii-iimiiooi' 

Detiitkuient ..... C'tioiirn 

'.'ml Orrjj/dny ----- AtmieilniiBSW 

•Ith Do. .... - Ainew 

'III i Uo- ..... IkioninpOIv 

Cliri>s or $Aer£8S a>d Misf c.h. 
[lend QdATtert (Bombny) - Fnonu 
l«l CorapRny ..... I'uorwi 
taS Do. - - - - Aden 

Detachment Jinnai 

3rd Conip«ny ..... JiajpaoiiUit 

4 th Do. ..... Foam 

ith Do. .... - pm 

DL'tai'hmeiiL ..... .limns i 

l.i out Cav U 
'2nd llcglmcut Mu'lrfli Light 

C'uvnlry .--... Stiolflpor* 
1M. SagtOVl (Lantera) - iJMalior 
Wing - - Ninstrabdd 

iinecil Light CiivnJiy IcaJpoOUD* 
Dutwliineiif. ..... Dees* 

i'rd ItcglmsLit Light Cavalry Jtutuii 

I it Bwlwmrt S I- Ciji-eoa- 
diers) ------- Bomlj'j.v 



iftid da. do 
'iyi Kegituent K. I. 



Detnehaient - . . . . 
*U) do. do, (Rlflejj- 
4th do. N', L, I. 
lib ig.X. 1. ... 



Ahmeinbad 
JSboUport!,njidjrti* 
dors in Uhow 

Mp.lliganm 

Sebora 

AhnisinuggoJ 
Pe«B* 




13fl 



l>13TR£BrT10N.<W;JirrWE JJUDHA8 ; ARHT. 



Sn*, 



Detachment - - - - . Jaulii* . . 

Tth An. do. - - ' Bombay . 

stli Jo. da - - Burodn 

9th do. da - - Central InOta 

lOtli iU>. do. - - Gwalior 

llth do. do. - - Ahmedabad . "■- 

13th du. do. - - Nusserabad 

13th do. do. - - Rajpootana 
14tli do. dn - - Knrracee ■ 

Detachment .... Ahmedaba 

15th do. do. - - Kolap d 

Left Wing ..... Kulludgheo ■ ■ 

16h do. do. • Sural 

Detachment - - - Broach 

17th do, do. - llnjkote 

18th du. do. • Rclgaum 

Dcrachincm ... . North Canara 

19th ilih dn. - Miilwa Division 

20th do. do. - Dharwar 

22nd do. do. - Sattara 

Detachment - Mahahlc>hwur 

Detachment - - - l'underpnre 

23rd dn. X. LI. - Uhow 

24th Regiment M. 1. - Jnansi 

Depot - • - - - Mhovr 
2">th do. du. - Gwalior under or- 

deri> to Pnoiia 

Depot .... Poona 

26th do. do. - KhunJera 

28th da do. - Sholaporc 

29th do. do. - Aden 

30th da do. - Dholla 

Detachment - Assuerglnir 
:!lst do. do. - Dee<a 
1st Extra Battalion - Kumu-hec 
2nd Extra Battalion - Ramda 
3rd Extra Battalion - Belgaum 
1st Beloocu Extra Battalion Allahabad 
Depot .... Hydrabad 
2nd Belooch Extra Battalion DceraChazce Khan 
Dcp°t - - - - Shikarpoor 



.<..,.£VJtfiLIXJ»JBl&-»H«W». 

DetscltmeM - r- : . -. .- .T*un» 

Dctacluncnt - -,-".. Itooiapet 
Do. . - . . lUni 
Otw ■■ - - • :.. . Ahnil _. 
.. lintcauLAB jwd Locaj. Cosh. 
. Mitm>y- ,.■ 
Poona firejrelar Horse - Field 



Ht Regiment Sednde Irregular 

Hone - - «. 
2nd Regiment ■ Da ' - 
3rd Regiment Da - Jacotkbad 
1st Regimew Sautiiern llah- 

ratta Irregular Horse JtiiHadgbor 
Detachment - . - '. - Beejapnre. 
2nd Regiment Sontkcarn Mat- ■. - 

ratta Irregular Horse Knllsdghae 
Detachment •» Speda] 

Mains FiiM Bffiff* 
Marine Baltalliia - - Banrbay _■■•-• 
1st Regiment Jacobs Rifles. Jacobated 
2n_l Hjqrhnmt Jacobs Biflcs Jambabad ■•■ • • 
Native Veteran Battalion DapaoUa • 

Civil 
r.azem Irregular Howe • Ahmodatakt ■ 
Kuteblrregnlarnorne - IlhooJ 
Kuteh Legion j Kutch 

(iuiserat Police Coirs ■ - Kairsv 
1st KhandabJi Mice! Corps DhumunsjHsi .. 
2nd Khnndelah Bhee4 Corps D buiiiu gasas ■■■■: 
Cihaut Police Corps - - Tanms 
S.wunt Wares Ijocal Carp* Savant VMM ■■ 
KoIai«re InAuitry Corps - Kolaper* . .' 
Huiuaguerrjr Hangers rmiaulmij - - 

Uuzerat CooUjr Police Corps Ahmedabad - 
Aden Police Troop - . Special fo*» 
Ualwa HtM Ran 
Sind Extra Battalion En route to Dean 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE MADRAS ARMY. 
The following is the Distribution List of the Madras Army, corrected flj> to 

October, I8.18. 



Cavalht. 

Right Hon the Governor's Body 
Guard Madras 

H. M. 1st Dragoon Guards . . . . Uang.iloro 

H. M. 12th Royal Lancers Head 

quarters and Rt. Wing Secniiderolmd 

Left Wing— Field Service— Gen. Wbltlock's 
Division 

1st Regt. Native Light Cavalry.. Trichlnopnljr 

2nd du. do Sholaporc 

(under orders to .Scuundcr.ibad. 

;ird Regt. Native Light Cavalry, 

Hcail quarters. Left Wing Bangalore 

Right Wing llelraiy 

4th Regt. Native Light Cavalry-tonga ]Kleid 
Korea 

6th do. da Bellary 

Oth d<>. do Bengal i'irld 

Service 

"ih dn. do ...Kampteu 

1 squudion Secundcraliad 

AnTILlKItV. 

II Troop* Royal Horse Artillery. St.Thns.' Mount 
Head quarters Madras Horse 
Artillery Bangalore 

A. Troop, Field Service On. Whlre'ocki 

Division 

B. Troop Sccunderabad 

C. Troop Bangalore 

D. Troop Kamptee 



I".. Troop Bengal FMd 

Service 

V. Troop Held Seme* 

lien. Whltclock's DIrliM 
So. r,. Comji.lst Bat. Royal Artil- 
lery, and No. 1 Field Battery... St. Tho*' MoCJil 
No. -i Cump. 3rd Bat. Royal ArtU. 

Icry. and No. 9 Field Battery— I'-dlary 
No. 5 Comp. 14th But. Roval Ar- 
tillery. A- Na 8 I>ld Batui w.Fleld Service 
(len. Whitclocks DMslos 
No. fi Ci.y.'Jth Bat. Ryl. Artillery.SManderasas 
l'n:-r Batiai.ion Maubas AxTiuutr. 

Headquarters St.Tltos. 'JIosul 

f Head quarters & 

K Coinnmr A S-*"'"' 1 *^. .. Singapore 
A toinpany -\ HR , f Compa „ v „.|. cnans 

v Detachment Masidipataa 

11. Company Mnulmela 

('. Co (Nu 7 Horse Lattery) Ucllary 

D. Coin. (No. 3 Horse Hatter}-;. ..Rangoua 
Skcoxu Battalios M.vi'Uvi AariLLtar. 

Head quarters - Kamptee 

A. Cop. (No Bullock Battel?) Tririilnopoly 
U. Co. Heati quarters and { Co...Tunghoo 

Hiilf Company ...Sliuaygbeea 

C. Comp. (No. Hoise Battery) Baagidore 

D. Copy. (No. 4 Bullock Battery) 
Head quarters and ball' Kamptee 

Half Company „ ScoMPllMM 



mSTRTBFTTOy &F TTtB MADRAS ARMT. 



137 



i Btnuios Kami* AnTittinT. 

irter* .l:nnu<wn 

ny (\'o, 1 Harm Hat} Bengal Service 
my (N'a 4 Horse Rat.} Tongho 
toy i Sa 9 Bullock But) Thavetmcw 

i. 5 Jlullock Bnt.J Field Service 
Gen. Wlittelock's Division 
u BAStauoa IfaMUa AartLLKBir. 

.Sei-llflpUTiifcurl 

mx fXo. 1 Horse Bat.}.. .Field Service 
Sen. WhitL-lnvk 
10 Rnlk. Ddi.) Ditto 
iny (So. ft Bulk. Bit.)...Sceitnaarabad 
*nV [Ti'.iil nuAiHn and 
Into ...Jlniiponii 

I ....... , , , &L-4CI1) 

ilt Ovun&ACSI (Native! DvrrAMOS 

M AI'RAg AUTILItKT- 

arUr». m/I'Iio* 1 Mount 

ion y Head qnarur) nivJ 

>mpany .......Pcnan^ 

1 linnpaiiv ..Stall 

sincttpnre 

•ny (So, L Kulfc. Bat. I Bengal Service 
any (No. TlinlU. Batj...(nmianori;nnd 

M million. 1 
*ajr<Xo.ft Hulk Bat.).,.Cutt*ck and, 
Sum bill pore 

•ny ..............Mueoditj 

Ictnenin.! Company ,,.„.St.ThoH. f Mown 

do. Ylztanaffram 

if Kevenl Compimlc« ...lahttan 

.M. I lik ah Enoiwekra. 
arter* ,...„. fort st George 

** 841TKK1 AJfp MlttliRA — NaTIVE. 

mmn ...... Dowl* i nh we rain 

^r Df «° 

ea. Whitlocfc't Fieki Service 

Xerbndda 

(Bombay) I 

any „,„.,., ..Bengal Service 

..Rangoon 

Muiy ....,, Licwlaishwernm 

ftlon with «><m, WhitftlmV* Division 

uny ubad 

rum ... paowbttm 

»ny ..p»^.....1 > ftd0ot!||ftn)"A 

pmf , ...Ttiayc-(ii|i'w 

toy ■ Tonclva 

^^K. . Dtmrlelshwernm 

Meld Division 

Oen.Wh!t*1ock 

Dowlslihwcium 

s ritr. 

t Royal Reirt- tint H«r.)..?w<:iin:lrrst>a4 

SH luiunirj t«.'n. WW! olooVi 

Division Field SeiTU-e 
. , . FOIt St Oeorf e 
i;M«s tad, hit.) Rungalore 

. ... • ...Betfiry 

,,.,,„,,,.,.. .Mynore 

HurryhUJ' 

lltl ISffilnienl nannanor* 

... ^IjiiK'iliil' 1 .' 

Srceo 
•th (vcl'iii>''ii! ,,..,.., ..Hangoon 

Tcnghim 

Maudcf* ...UcrliarnpoT* 

Sholaporo 

Field Service 

Soul hem M ilivntt* Country 

Jnu Fiw*)lef» i,«... ...Benffal on 

Field tierriee 
iipean Light MBsMtfy . Ti b liinnpaly 
Ira* European Regiment. Field Division 
nn.lLTi.cn- Whltlnek 

AitnYE iJtTASlJlT. 

fm«nt \M. (Rlfl* Conip ) Service lien. 
W hi Mock's Dhdalrjn 

jlmtnt ft I... ..........Qnllon 

L or PelamcoHali Ughl 

I,.,. ...^.., CenflaMri 



Mi H. I. (ttitle Company) Head 

qnarri'rs Rifrtit Wing..,. ,. Manga lore 

Left Winn Sttnnuulpere 

c.th N.I. ..■-.... Rangoon 

TtiN. I Stfcimderiibud 

B tti a- t. „,..... Ton ghon 

9Ui S. 1 ..,,.....,,,, ,.,,.,£ocun lernbid 

tOtiiK 1. .... Secniidenit<Jid 

lltliN*. I BeHnry 

Villi X. I Ttificoon 

13tli K. I. ....„ Maiilmein 

14th N, I ...,,,„,,,.,,,,,„,... .SmK4|we 

Iflth N. I , Thayetmew 

lfith S. I. (Rifle Ootnpuny)..,.„Man K aldf« 

17th N. L , ..Bengal Field 

Service 

IRth Si I .,..,... BeUurj- 

19th JT. I , ..Service Gcr.. 

WhlEelock't DItUIoD 

ioth K, 1, ...,, ,,.„,....„.,.„„. Bangalore 

SI St N. I Tri.-lilnnpo!y 

iaml S' F, ,.,.,,...,,,,,„,.,.. IVdaaj 

S ;:r.i X. t. (or Walajidibiirl Light 

hifuntfy) ...................... ....Rangoon 

■Mih V. 1. (Rifle Company) ...... Hon Jt'dali 

'JSth N. r. Madnw 

L'fiih S. 1 Kamptee 

2?th N. I ,.....,., Bengal, on 

Seo-ice 

■38tb N. I ....I(oo*lngatiAil 

2£»th N. I. .... .....Mftsuilpatain 

3*»th S, t. Relliiry 

aid >. I., or TrleWnopoly Llgnt 

Infantry Vlsdansjrrom 

tS»4 N" 1. .Kmnptee 

■ i::rd S. I , Kuttiptee 

»4th ct ff 'Idencale Lt Infantry) Trichinopoly 

SSlh H. I. ..........TTurryh'iT 

38th (Rifle Coinpaav) ...Knmaol 

87llt K. T„ (Qwnafilcraj Head 

Hiiarteni Sbuiyghean 

I^-ft Wing Totlghoo 

SMiti N. I. (RW(! C'ojiipmny) ...... Vtznaapaiiini 

SOthN. 1 Tliayetmew 

tort, IT. I. .„..,„.... .............CutiacV 

fj« S" 1 ...Bormalt 

■tihid S. L Haleboor Field 

Scrvlte 

■l:lrd\'.I . „....,.,..,.,..Ru*S!!leomlah 

44th. N. I Thayetmew 

lith Kl „..„..„„.,..,„...., Madras 

■tllh \*. I Vfaafcapatam 

47lh N. I. ....Bellary 

■l^-tli N. I. Monlmeln 

49th S.I (KlfleCnmpanyj Hi-cnndfrabad 

■Villi v I. ,,,,.„.„,,. Service Gen. 

Whltlork'HiivW 

•M^l X. 1. Palameottan. 

•Vind >', I „.„.,„.,.„.,.. Mercara 

Left Wing ..French Recfci 

lit Extro Ke/riineat N. 1 .Snmnlrattoh 

Jnd Exrra N. I Trichlnopoly 

!rd Extra X. I ...rudihipuli 

Snppem* MlHtia .,,..,,, .... -Madra* 
Uwh Rtflea, temporarily Tormeil !iir Servlre 
111 liengal by the R1He> Companies of the lit, 
, ii. Mtli, -J4tk, 3Sth. 43th. lieflmenu K L, 
und 3 Drnipauk* 34flt N. 1.— Service Dcnj^nJ. 
VETERANS' ESTABLISHMENT. 
! timontM VcrnHAsa 

Artillery Company j*iitavurani 

Infmitry Company .... ... Vljtagtfpatem 

N.lflVL Vt'TFKASS 

Ut or Madras Xiktlve Vet Bat. .Madrat 
L'lu.l n AmuX-ulve Vet. Bat .Arcot 

DeroTa. 
Forll.M Ru^uunti ...... . Poonamalla* 

EitropFim Inhntry Arcot 

Kntive Infantry ..Tidaveram 

Sum LvriNiaT RitcisuiTrKo Darow. 
So. 1 Recnilthia Depot.. .......... Din digui 

No, 8 do. „,..Areot 

N o. I do. CMc*M>\« 

no. * «» m, <sm% 






138 



STATIONS OF TEE BRITISH ARMY. 

[Cortvctid vp to 27th August, IS 59, uduiec.) 
[Where wOpbi«s ore mentioned, the lut -named li loaf at wBJcl- • 



UlLlfe Gtiardi— Aldcretot 

3nd do.— fieffent'* Park. 

Royal Elorie Guard!— Hyde Park. 

lit Dragoon Guards — Madras: CflmfrhiifT 

'Jail da— Bengal : Canterbury. 

Jrd (ta-'-lkunwy ; ratitert 

4th do.— Brighton. 

ith do.— Aldci 

«th da— Bong ill : MAl&tone. 

Ttb da — Bengal; CiinterMry. 

lit DragouiiS— Cn|-ragfi, 

Slid do. — Kowbrtdge. 

3rd do.— Dublin. 

4tll do.— Birmingham, 

5th da— Newbridge. 

6th do — Bombay : MindAuue, 

7th Hussjiis-UmiimI: Canterbury. 

Mil do. — Bombay : Canterbury, 

Wh Luneer*— Emb. for England : Malistona, 

10th HuMaj'H— Jloiuislo*. 

llth Ifttssars— Alrtenhot 

Uth L.iiiLcri— Jliidraj: Malditoiie. 

13th Light Drug-wit*— Dublin. 

Hth do.— Bombay rSfuldftotie. 

15Gt lluBjiira— I'nbliii. 

tilth Laaeen -Edinburgh. 

1 7i 1 1 do. — Bengal : Canicrbnrjr, 

18th Dracijuna-Aldenihort. 

Military Tvitlfl list but ]— SliorhcltTTi-e 

Do. t2ud bat,]— un paatagaj hMM 

DafSrd But.]- Woolwich. 

Do. [4th hutj— Aide) ■ 

-Depot atAldmko* 






Da L' ; 



mt.l— Wellington Bar. 



tin-in idler MrU [K«t 
Do. [iwl bur. J— lower. 
Do. [did »«.]— St George'* Bamiekn. 
Celd<trcnm Guard* [1st bnt,]— WelUugiuu Urn- 
Do. £Itld tat]— Allli.'Jri hill . 

Sect* Fun. yuard* [1st bit.]— Windsor. 

Fa*, find &UJ— CniTaglt. 

lit Foot [Int.] — Miulras: Colchester. 

Do, [»nd but ]-Chlna : Birr. 

?od do. itt [i.4t.]— C. ut 0. Jlojmi W aimer. 

Do. ['J nd but.]— (Turin : Walmer. 

ard 1« th*L]— Bengal : Limerick. 

Do, do. Malta : Limerick. 

4th. do, [1st bat)— Bombay ; ChicliMier. 

Do. ttml bat.] -Corfu: Cukhestor. 

Otli do. (1st but]— Bengal : Colehestor. 

Do. [2ud but]— Mauritius, Pembroke 

6th do. [lot bat.J— Bangui; Colchester. 

Do, [iu<l but-]— Gibraltar: Cork- 

;ttido. lUt. bit]-Uengitl : Chatham. 

Do. [Hud bat}— Gibraltar: W aimer. 

Itudo, [l»t lint.]- Bangui: Chatham. 

Do, [3-ml bat]— Gibraltar : Temiiluaioie. 

Vtb do, [lit, hutJ-Aklurahott: Limerick. 

i Limerick, 
imii do. [1st bit— Plymouth. 
Do. [tfudbatJ-Cunagh. 
li m, Jo, [t»t Wj— Aldcrsbot: Fennoy. 
Do. [itml ULJ-Aldenhott. 
IVlli da [Ut bat]— N, & Wales: Waimsr, 
Do [jnd iwt]— Alderahot. 
lath do flat li.vt |— Bengal: lgrmo)-, 

. ol BKL H>'I* *»d F annoy 
I4tii <i,i [lit t,m,]-Oeiibalonl»t Fannoy 
JJatiBdbatJ^utT^u. 
lata to— Jaraey > patnhroke 
Do. 9M hatV-Mmta, Pom**** 
I Olti do. — Alavaboi . letuv l* Qtfff * 
uo. (ted Ulh-Cunatfi. 
ITlb 8a,-Caulda: Lluierkik. 



Do.[8ttd baLJ— Aide 
l«th do.— Bombay : Rnttrrasrt. 
Ho. [2nd bat J— Curragfe. 
10th do,— Bengal : Chatham. 

i i-af.]— AldenhiXL 
!dth do— Bcngvl : Chatham 
Do, [2nd bat]— Dublin. 
)ll«t do.— Molt* 
Da [2nd Mr.]— Aldtirahoit 
SSttd do— Dublin : ParUmrpt 
Do. [Sod bat}— Malta.* Parkhur*. 
SSrd do»— Bengal : Caath 
Do. [tad but.]— Walmer ; U«U» 
S*th do.— Bengal. Clutliam 
Do. [iad bnt.]— Aid* I 
39tb do. Gdkoaltar: Atldrair. 
.:•■.■.— Itc-niinda : Bcllaat. 
S7th do. -HciiiniL: Euik-. 

■.mbayi r'waitijf. 

.rked t<v KtiaiaaJ l 
Mth .to.— Dublin, l'srkh 
SI st do —Bombay ; Pemto-ak • 
Jfnd do.— BvukiiI. I' 
MrddO— tKuobay: F«no»T. 
ii4th do,— BcDgal: Cakh«*f«r. 
33th do. — fieri go) : i 
Jfltli do.— Plymouth : Athlon* 
■t 7th do.— Bengal: Coltiihst«r 
3*th do.— Bcuaal: ' 
;oth d«. — Canada : Temiilciner*. 
40ta do.— X. 6. Wale 
lltt do,— Jiin, port. 

t.'iii] do. Ben . ,' >■..,,, 
43rd do.— Madraj : Chair 
«4tb ilfi.— Modru: Colehnter. 
•tJth do,— 1'reitou: rarfchant. 
4Gth do.— Bengal : T«ujplatnon. 
4itb, do.— Shorntlifie 
titli do, — Itenjjal : Col k. 
iL'thdo.— Harbadue*: helfart, 
501 li do,— CeylOJI : Futkhnnt 
Slit do.— Ueugal: Chlcheater 
Jltnd do.— Bengal : Chatham 

-ilitto: ditto 
11 tii da— Bengal ■ Culchciter 
o*tli do,— Curxagb : L'cvonport 
4*itli do. — Bombay ; Colelie»t« 
47 th do.— Bombay: Cork 
A&tb do. — AldCNkott i Uirr 
AlJth do.— Cape ; Athlone 
cfltltdo.— [l«t bat]— Bengal t Win 
Do. [lad bat)— Bengal . WlncliMiar 
Do [3rdb*t,V-Maoj-ot: WlncbwlK 
Do, [4th bat.]— Aldersliot 
61st do.— Mauritlu* : Chatham 
•tfnd do,— Nova Scotia: U«Uatt 
liord da— ditto: Belfait 
Mtb do. — Honibay: Cinlerbuiy 
ilith do.— Kow Zealand ; t 1 U 
dGtli dc— Madras Colchester 
UTth da.— Bengal : Athlon* 
tiith do.— MnJrss : t'eiuioy 
liMh do. — Madras: Fcni>oy 
70th da— Bengal ; CuiilerLmy 
Jlrt da.— Bengali Perth, 
T2n.il do. — Bombay ; AUcriiw 
73rd do. — Bengal : Devoapott; 
74(b dn Mllrn i Aberdeen 
7£Ui do.— Bengal: Chatham 
7(th do.— Curragh : Belfait 
Hth do.— Bengal: Chutti»m. 
7»th do. — Etobarked torJuBgdaad A 
7 It tli do.— Beagul : bilrllng 
»oth do — ditto i BhIWojU 



*r 



STATIONS Of TUX IstBODIED MTLITIA. 



180 



lav— Bengal : AttyUfcaoi 
do. — Bengal :Ca*nerMry ' 
do. Uombay : Chichester. 
do . On passage home: Chatham 

tf i r ""8 eap6it:Biitteyant. 
lav ■ Ben gal : Battevaefc. 
do. — Bengal: Colchwwr 
stay B ombay : tomioy 
So. Bengal : Canterbury 
lay Madraa ; Pembrok* 
dot— Bombay; Stirling 
■«jh Bengal ; Aberdeen 
to ditto: Chatham 
a W B o m bay : Fermoy 
■a) Maachesw : Parkhont. 
iav - B engaj:. Colclieatec 



100th dp —Gibraltar [Parkhnrt. 

Rtfle Brigade (lstW.f— Portsmouth. 

JJovBoAbatJ-Jtaagal; Kiaeheetar, . ,.■». 

Da [3rd bat. J- bengal: Winchester 

Do. [4th bat}— Malta, Winrrhaarnr . 

1st West India Regiment Fahawaa 

2nd do — Jamaica 

3rd dV- Barbadoes . 

Ceylon Rifle Regiment— Ceylan 

Cape Mounted Rifle*— Capa of Qood Be** 

Koyal Canadian Rifle IttgUnant— Canada 

St Helena Kegiment — St Helena 

Royal Xewfoundland.Caipa^ewtaw*?ltai 

Royal Malta Kenclbjea— fialU ' " ' . . 

Uold Coaat Corpe-cVpo Coast CaaH* 



STATIONS OF THE EMBODIED MILITIA. 



apaV^w eymout h. 
JHjh\r-i Fnntm-nTli 
MaTZttUlery— Ooaport 



asJhire 
Kant- 



Artillery— Pembroke 
it— Portamonth 



EXGLAND (18). 
Norfolk Artillery— Shjseraaea. 
Korth Linooln— Cnrragh 
Cth Middlesex— Du Un 
Jfnrthntniwrland Artluery— 
Tynemomth. 

Okturu— uoYtT. 
l»t Stafford— Aldersliott 



■lh* — * >»m«.>j— cfc»-~.n«a. 2ud Sta/turd— Curragh. 

burgh Artillery.- Edinburgh SCOTLAND (8). 

IT Artillery— Sheernew Sud Lanark— Dublin 

IRELAND (12). 
Dublin (city)— ShorncUffe 



•xtUlexy — P»"d*nnla 



Suffolk Artlllery- 
Su»»ex— Glasgow 
1st Tower TTaiulata Port 



2nd Warwick— Plymasth 
Wilts— Alderabot ~ 

1st York, <W. B.)~SoliU«ri* 
8rd Yora>^eMrnatto«1yM 

Stirling— Snoeadfcfc 



bn Rifles — Aldershot 

bn Artillery — Curragb- 

b Cork — Aldernhot 

UpaV— Yarmouth and Deptford Kerry— Bradford 



. .. Limerick (County) Ptamooth 

Dublin City Artillery— Colchester Louth (JUfle»>— Criele* Bury 
Fermanagh— Chester Tlupenry Arttl — Goeyoct 

Wnierford Artillery-***** 



140 






[taft 



STATIONS OF THE 110 TAL NAVY IN OOKMlfiBIOS 

( Corrected to 17th A ujjiut.} 
With tht DnHt ttf CommUswn of the Officer* in Cammaid, 



Aboaktr. M, sc, Capt. C. F. Schomoere. 1881, 

Channel Fleet. 
Acorn, t't. Com. B, B. Pearse, 185fi, East 

Indius. 
Aetawn, SO. Coin .J. Ward (b), 1888, East 

Indies. 
Adventure, ic. troop-sTilp, Com. E, La*)*, IB 56, 

East Indies 
Agamemnon, SI, sc, Capt. T. Hope, tpSS, 

Channel Fleet. 
Alas, M, screw, Captain J, McSe'l, Boyd, 1S1C. 

Const Guard. 
Alarm, ?<>, Capt, D. Curry, 18«, Faclne. 
Alert, 17. «-» Com- W. A. R. Pcttrre, IBM, Pacific 
Algertne, Be. gtmtiuat, Lieut .Com. W. Arthur, 

18M, J- oft I ndles. 
Algiers, 91, acTCiv, dipt, Q, W P. 0'Culla.jiliaii, 

1848, Channel FK-et 
Amethyst, 36, Capt. S. GrenlWi, 1650, I'nclflc, 
Arupl-loii, SiS, sc. T Capt. T. Coehrnu, TS57, 

Slicemcss. 
Antelope, a, rt:-rebcl, Lleut-Com. J. W 

IMA, Coast of Africa, 
Araemte, 18. Com. J, E. Mtratgnnierie, IS.Vi, 

North America and West In Ilea, 
Archer. IS, screw, Cnpi. iT. Sanderson, ISM, 

Coast of Africa. 
ArgU*, fl, st-ves**i. Com, 71, 1", W. Ingram, 

1856, Mediterranean. 
Arrogant, 47. screw, Capt. W. Edmonatirac, 

Portsmouth. 
Asia, Hi, Opt. <;. T, Gordon, lfttfJ, Perrsmnnth. 
Anslstance, screw troop-ship. Com. W. A. J. 

Heath, 1S56, East Indies. 
Assurance, 4, screw, Com. CM, Aynaloy, 1956, 

Mediterranean, 
A Ulan M, lfi, Com. T, It. S. Pauley, IBM, Surtli 

America and West Indie*. 
AtholL 4, Com. EL Wilson, IS 13. Greenock. 
Banshee. 3, it-vessel, Com, C, A. Cftmphell, 

185B, Mediterranean. 
Banterer, sc.-gunbt., Lieut, -Com. J. J 

1863, East 'ln-li- -. 
Basilisk, B, st-vessel, Coin, G. A. Pliayre, 1S54, 

Kirtli America and West I 
Bittern, tender to Calcutta, Ea* Indies. 
Ulack Eagle, kL- yacht, Hast, -Cum, J, E TeUey, 

1M4, particular serTlce. 
Blenheim, tif), icrtivr, Capt. F. Scott, C.B., 1&4", 

Const Guard. 
Roscawcn, 70, [tear Admiral the Hon. Sir F. 

W. lirey, K.C.H-, Capt ft. A, Towcll. C.B. . 

lw>-'>. Cape L ,f Chwd I 
Brisk, 10, sc„ Copt, A. i\ tt rprjorwr. 1*07. 

Cape of QOod Hop". 
Britannia, TMtalni Sliip, Opt, I!. HarrK 

1S49, Prjilsmuntli. 
flnine, st-ves., IJcuL-Coin. E> F, Ladder, 1864, 

Coast of Africa. 
Brunswick, HO, ac .Captain E. Ommaiuicy, 1 1 It, 

Modllerrniieaii, 
UufTulu, screw, JfascCom, A, Crown, IS", 4, par- 
ticular service. 
Bustard, 3, ec - S unbt,, l.t.-C.iii. 1'. W. Ilallowcs 
„ 1&66, En^t ladles. 
niMxanl, o, st^vcsieL Com. f. Puel, UBI 

Coast „f A 
(.adrni-i «, w . Cnll , „ s Juilvsr, L P., l J .t 

«ei|,it. Mi ,, 

Cwar ,*0. screw, Capt T. n.Ma*oii.lM0, Chafl- 

Del Fleet, 
Calypso, U, C^t P. n.Montrrwr, Idil.Paclflr. 
Cunbrian, 40, Laptain J. j, M'Cltvmr, C.U 

1>4$ East Indies, ' 



Camtii-idge. C-un ntrir Ship, C»pt- 

Iiam, 1851. Devon t 
Camilla, is. Coin. G, T ',\ l» 

!:i Ilea, 
Curndoc, % it.-ves., LSoaL-Coai. C U.BllsO 

i"ir. can. 

Centerlnn. So, sc, CapL C, a. £.. liitv, I 

JfrilitciTnncan, 
Chesjipeuke, 51. #ere 

CD,, Cipi. 
■ 

Clown, Bt-Bunitt , Lieiit.-C-.-ni. \\,t. Lm, I 

1M2. East Indlev 
Conflict, 8, se., Cora. 51. W. '"(Tor*aM(iLJ 

Coast of Africa. 
Conqueror, 10L Krow. CApt. H 

C.B,1947 r M-tli>ri«c: 
Coquotto, 1, ic. Cora, the 

1850, MedlterraseaD. 
Cordollii, 11, sc„Com, C. E. IT. Venom, la 

Austv. 

Connorant, 4, ic. Com. 

1 ;.s[ InfllWL 
Coinvrallis, CO. K"., Cay tain G. G. Ilamt.. 

18*4. Coast rji 
Coroniamlel, st,-ve»- I -titer HT. 

A'iue (nctlny ' 

America nntl V 
CreMV, so, i.'i , C. 0. J 

i:iu.,(, c.u., )• 

Crocodile, i, ret -sir 

Off the Tower, 
Crnlier. ] 7, jc,. Com, J , V.y ib*. 

Coast or Auv-rka. 
Carncoa. 31, screw, Capt. ,\. Phlltltnerfcl* 

particular sel 
Cyclops, 0. »t v., Capt. W. J, S. Pallaii, : 

Eait India 
Dasuer, 1, tt. vcvseL Coin, t. G, Ho re, 

Portanoutb 
Dftontlcss, 81, sc„ Cflpt, L. O. He. 

Coast Guard. 
Dec, 4. ti-oapiililp, ^f.'MI■Coln. 

18-H, purtlcular si-l 
l)evsststlon,ii.at.-vea. tiMu. JUL- Balrd,] 

N'orlh America, or.i Wi 
Diadem, S2. sc, Capt. f. W, Moorsom, 

Channel Fleet. 
Donegal, 101+ sc., Ca] 

Uevonport. 
Doris, 32, screw, Capt E Heath 

Uedlterrane 
r'uvr, screw Riinlji., Lieut. C J, ' 

East Indies. 
Drake, sc gUubL, Lleut-Cooi. A. V. hi* 

i Post Indies, 

Eagle, SO, Capt E. Tatham, 18,54. Coast •laard. 
Edgar, Si, sc. Ren- \ l« I. E F.nalne, Osfl, 

.I K, linti-.n, 18M, Channel . 
EdlnburKti. 58, *cre«r, Capt E. C. T. D Bp- 

court, IMS, Cirtat Guard. 
Elk, 1?. Com. H. Camjiion. 1844, Austral! «, 
Emertild, W, ic Capt. A. Camtfitnj, 111* 

Chiinnel Heet. 
Est. M, KL, sir, II. J. Le M, M'Clnrei K-CJl. 

|$B0 Eust Indies. 
Eurynliis, M.K.. Capt. J. W T.xrleton, C.B.,1W«, 

Medttenwieaii. 
Eiccllent. 40, gunnervsiiip, L'spt, E- 3- IK 

C.B, l«<), Portimoutli, 
Exawisti ft J. J. Siopderd, UMl, 

Mfdltemtnewi. 



BOTAX NAVY IS COMMISSION. 



HI 



, it vacht, tender to Victoria and Albert 
acht. Portsmouth. 

n, 17, »c.. Com. A. 0. frit* Roy, 18JJ, Coast 
f Africa. 

«, 8, Com. W. E. Flshex, IB-Mi, particular 
Brrlee, 

ranil.fi to, J, Dayman, 1SSB, 

articular sendee. 

, «e itunbt., Liaut.-Coai, Yf. !;. Uoulton, 
IM. K«l Indies. 

|y, 4. st.-v['«el, Mjiit.-C'um. T;iii.. 
icnUr n 

tart, «. Comnioilorothe lion. J. I!. Pnim- 
jnd, C.B.. VVoalwich 
Fish, fl. c, Com. C, W. Hope, 1864, 

act Fleet. 
, 2, sc. (rnnbt , Limit- Com. A. J. Innep, 
J, En»t Indie*. 
«ole, 64, J. C. Fitzgerald, 1_]HD. Slice r- 

.!,«.. Licnt-Com. C. R-lRobsoii, 1S5J, 
nnpfirt. 

, IB, at- re*., Cipt. O. J. Jonus, C.R., 1855, 
l Indies, 

Coraracrri I, !»,'■.'. F.. 
sdies. 

84, Reif-Adm, ft. L. ftiynci, CD., 
, J. Fulford. 1848, Pad 
II. Com. E. H. G. Lambert, IBS-i, 
,csn. 
0, st.-*es«ol, Commander II D, 
EEkUry (185S). N. America, anil W. Indies. 
•n, fi, iL-re* Com. B. C.T. Pirn, lafla, Porta- 
ge gunpMl, Went-Cnm, IT. F 

ill lllllU 1 , 1854, Mediterranean. 

VS., UtnL-Com. A. P. H. Helty, 
MS. PeToiiport. 
tlba), 'Jl, •&, Itear-AilmiruJ 0. ft, Munfljr, 

epL 31, Connolly, 185S, Mediterranean. 
rew, Com, Sir M. MncGregOr, Bart, 
It America. 
lOB*. 6», screw. Captain W, R, Jfcnds, C.B,, 
,»42, Coast Guard. 

[hty, J, tc. gunboat, Lieut -Coin. G. lv 
tread, t«l. Fait Indie*. 
aiub, IS. Capt T. fWnrey, IS48, Faelflc. 
«, 60, tt, Capt W. Crispin 185il, Coast 
Juard. 
Id, ft, survive.",, Capt II. M, be na am, 1343, 

..lands. 
:ci. ». «.-v„ Com. W. E. A. Gordon, 11154. 
,'ipo of Co.nl Hope. 

jw, Copt. 0. H. Scrtuour, C H , 
■ unci Fleet 

E. .Mast -Com. J. I.iiitno, ls4<f, 
■t ladle*, 
ruin, Tcc.-»lilp. Bear-Adniiral II. .1, < • "'■■ 
Captadn >". Wwuen. < ,li.. 

ipt C. f A SlwdweU, CIL 
i i>i Indies. 
Isjs, so, itctre-alitp, Com, J. SecoomEm, 

Cart, If. .T. J. 0, iiaetonald, 
1 1 ,mrd 
,M»ci, Com. it V BinlHon, IWJ, 
>eTOni, 

m, II. C, Hattton, IftlS, 

vMi nil 

Jan IT. Halted, « n., Com. 

I. J. i •'.■■liJ|>, ,lji1il:iiL-:L 

Int. Sir B. IluMioliI.t, 
W, II Stewart, C.U., 183i, 
> wu o port . 

. , Cflpt R. Slagukc, 1SS4, 

, r.lral Sir H, Stewart, ELCfi, 
11. CB.,186*. Ni-rtli Aiii-il:, 



Induftrj', at-Tt«., -', st'iHlp, Mjit.-Com. ',. I. 

Tltiign, 1941, Soutli America. 
Iitllcxtble, U. nt-Fcs., Com. O. A. C, Brwker 

IBM, East Indies. 
fotfepld, a, ««■«»■, Com. J. H, Warrj'at, 1*38, 

Mediterranean. 
Iris. 3E, ComrnahilcrW.Lnriiig, CD., Aiutralld, 
Jftekal,t,«t.-ve» , >el. Ltetit.-Coni, A.G. E, M mra,) - , 

IS4C. piirtlculur servlca. 
James VV'fttt, 91, screw, Cjipt. E. Codd, 18S1, 

Channel Fleet 
Jaqua. bc (Tuatiottl. lJ.eut-Com. H. P. Kneyltt, 

IBM, En«t Indloi. 
Jinpar. st Buntxiat, Uettt-Cotn. W. H. I'm, 

IM9, VV. iHilles. 
Keitn.'l, bc. EHiiboit Lleut,-Com, G. n. BaTin. 

lH5;i,tast IsiIU.t. 
Upwliw, 4, (screw, Com. SI. F. O. Rellly, 1946, 

Jleilttcrmnr .in. 
Leo, «t Kiwtot., Lleat'Com. \Y. II. Jones, 18S2, 

Emt Indies 
Leopnrd, IS, Bt.-ves., nuar- Admiral Sir S. 

Luslilngton. C.B.. Capt. J. F. & W*bi- 

wrlght, IBiS, S. F- Coast of America. 
Levea. sc ewtlmut Ueut-Coin, J. P. Hudson, 

1SS4, East InJius. 
Llffey, «, fc-rew, Copt, fi. TV. Prwdy, CB., 1S.5J. 

Mediten'antsn. 
Lootut, 3, st-ves., Lletit.-Com. J. C. Field, 1S46, 

paitlcttlsr service. 
London, 9r. screw, C4pt, n.Cluds, 184S, Mediter- 
ranean. 
Lynx. 4, «rew, Llout. Com. H, Berkeley. 1954, 

Cuiiat of Africa. 
LyTa. 9, sc. Com. R. B. OlJOcId, l95r«. Ciipo of 

tioud Hope. 
Madagascar, rteeivluR alilp, Ccsromainlcr E. H, 

LcFcester, 185G. I£lo JanctrO. 
llojitclemit 16. it-vessel. Cap«. N. Vanslttart, 

C.R., 1314, E. Indies. 
MftrlnorounTi. 131, «., V1m Adm. A. Fanihawa, 

C.B., Cnpt, ttio Rt. lion. Lord F. H. K«rr 4 

18VJ, Mediterranean, 
slsrs, 80, aa, Capt J-N, Strange (l&Ht, si,«r- 

ii---. 
-Me<linn, st.-ves.. t, Capt, T- A B. Spratt C.B. 

185*, Mediterranean 
Medusa, I, steam- vessel. Com, 'W. Bowden, 1854, 

Coast of Allies 
Melpnmcor. 6d, screw, Capt. C. J. F. Ewart, 

18-16, pnrtLcalar errviee. 
.Mersey. 40. screw, Cnpt. H. Cald*rcll, C.B., 

ISJi^l, Pottsiiionih- 
Miii.uiir, Capt. E. P. Ilalsted 1842, Sheerneaa 
Mouawk, 4, screw. Com, i«. R. NSaB faciinp) 

East Indie*. 
Mutikcy. itemn tup, Set >(»«. G. Syndvreamb, 

dieting). Woolwich. 
Naiad, 4S, store-ship, Ma>t.-C(Mti, "'. \V. DUlou, 

l«4SL CaBao 
NmitilBi, 6, Ucut.-Cotn. ff. B Graril, 1832, 

apprentice ship. 
Xeptunc, !H, Kiew, Cnpt Blr W, HfJ*(e, Bart., 

1446, Channel Fleet 
Sereus, 11, utoredeprjt, UasL-Com. J. & Bar- 
low, 1835, Valparaiso 
Niger, 14, «.. Capt, C. P Mends, I&58. 

Kast Indies. 
SUb, 90, to,. Itear-Ailtn. C.Talbot. C*pt, A r 

K Wllmot, CIl,, J8S4, Clianncl Fleet. 
Xlmrou, S, sr., Com. R. J. Wyiinlutt, iielinc. 

East Indies. 
Ooeron, 3, nt.vessel, Lieut-Cutu.F. O. C. Paat't. 

IU1, Sontn Coast or America. 
Opossum, 8, sc. (nmboat. Went.- Com, C. J. 

Balfour, 1180, Kast Indies, 
Orion, 91. anew, C*pt J, B. E, rr«o 1S5*. 

McditonmiciUJ, 
i i-twiraf.st.-ves&sl, Mas. Com. G. II. K. Bo^tt 

l-l-V l'ottsmoutlt. 




Oiprey. 4. KB*. Cow. H. J. 

MciUtcrranesn 
Pearl. 31. iwrew, ;Cipt. J. Borlnae, C .8., lift, 

Portsmouth. 
Morns, «. if.. Copt- F. B P, Serww, iSKH" 

Esst InaiAs. 
retntifiiXe, 60, Capt E. P. Cbarlewood, WJ(, 

Cnast Guard. 
Persrwrcinw, 2 troop ship, Com. E. R. Power, 

Haft, particular service 
Persian. It ComrnMlfiefE, Ilawliltira ! lSSfl, 

Ctps f>r firwii Hop*. 

Pioneer. tf. swt-w, Com. G. tt Kay, lft-H, Porta- 

month, 
Plover, q. sc, tfniitin.'it, LleuL-Cora. W. H. Sasun, 

IN. 1 **, East Indies 
Plumper. 3, screw, Copt G. It Rlcfcard*, 1M4, 

Paettle 
Plato, 4, »t,.»CMcl, Lieut-Cora. C, fl. Simpson, 

I (MR. Coast or Africa 
Porcupine, 3, st-^e-. Cap! H. C, Ottor, 1S54 , 

particular service. 
Princess Charlotte, 104 )l»sfc-Com. U- U 

Thomsett, 1*54, ItoflK Konc. 
Prmiieaa Boial, fl, h,, Capt T. BaWIe, 194A, 

Mediterranean 
Pylathra, hqhsw, itl, Copt If, ae Courcy, lsfe'. 

Pacific 
Quit! 2. te, cnunoat, LleuLCom. N, Osbc-nj 

ifttn. 
Queen Clunintt..', 1*4, Vkc-Adm, K, HarTer, 

Cant :i. FL r»cy, i-~- 
Raecr. 11, screw, Uoin tlifl Hon. T. S, Prittfflbsm 

165G, Xoitli America «n«t tt r s*f Indies. 
Racnnp. »t,.«er«w, Captain J. A. Paj'flter, l$& i 

MeriStemm 
Recruit fl, *t,-*., Corn. D. Spain, «»<, Medi- 
terranean. 
RetiOMrn, f)l, ■cre»r, Copt. A. Forbes, J.S4G iludl- 

le-T.mean. 
Retrtlmilon, lis. tt- vessel, Coin 

KdgeR, Ea»l Imllaa, 
Rruwlaniaiithu*, *, it. res., Mrtster-Ciiin. P. II 

Srnrdee, 1M3, particular service. 
Roatmck, 1, *c, Oui. E.C. Sykiana, adlng, East 

Indlr*. 
Rolls, 0, Lieut -Com. C. G. Jfelaou, 1«J54, Fovt»- 

moudi. 
Boyal Adelaide, If], lir.-Ad. Sir T. S. PjisIbj*. 

Bt: Cnft % .' wnihimr, 1H41, Duvuii- 

port 
Royal Albert l2l.«.,ftaiir-Adinirnl3[rC. H. 

1 i-eemantk. K.C.B., Cupt E B. Wee (!*■»), 

Chan r. el J->ct 
RMsell, cn, se_, dipt, G. IVnilelwiine, IS' i, 

Guard. 
St. .Tcuii P - Aire. ID), serevr. Capt T. P, Thump- 

■on, 1647. Mediterranean. 
St Vincent, J02, Hear Admlriil O, t»V 

T. Wilson, IWW, Portiroontn. 
Simpson. G. ■*.■*. Capt G. & 11 anil, l«61, S.i: 

Coart of America. 
Saraoon.4, Mmt-Com. W. Stniit !-'• 

Indies. 
Satelltc. it, 21. Capt, J, C TreTOst, 1S-W. 

Paeiflc. 
Sitnm, 72, Capt O. RamMy, CD., 1843, 

Pembrnkf. 
Scourge, 0, tc , Corn. Prince of lADgenbor^ 

Itltt, Metltterrhncnii, 
•com, 91, ic, Cint. J. Corbetl, ISS7, rorln- 

»cyil*, *>, «c, Capl. It. Lamljwt, l£>W. 

pen, 
tetgull. »f. etinhi., Lieut -Com, Vf. ClitotBo. 

IRiu, imni<iu!sr »•■: 
Snarptliooter. 8, i^rew. Llm 

ISiS, COMlof Afi-U-a, 



Cora. J. 

Sarrdack, ae, 7ttnbL. Llfwl.-Con J. 1 
1B4S, p«Ttiout*r 

*, 

1 Si$. Ens t tft.i 
Sparrowh*' k. a, . 

Eti.it 1 . 
Spifra, E, <t-»., L.»fn 

Spy, .1, l.Ksrjr. C' -n. T. H. <~olli: 
East Coast • 

sh"ri, ifat. r^,t ir»ii«L. 
StantiOj. s_ fc-pTinboar. Ul-C,v 

18W, East Irnllea. 
Styx, ft itFpa . r»ni. C. Vwi, I aM S. ami 

n.ni5 AV. Fadla*, 
BbpMt, •'.-!!.. ManL.CnoL W. H MkB 

Ifijj. W.inl ■ 
5nrprls»,4, K.C(iin.Litril 

Africa. 
Tart.LT, 20,ae.,Cspt r ir Panlop. 

Olill N, Air-,-. 
an*™*. (, at, foRi. A L. 5!««:i. H\i, 1» 

tcrrnnean. 
Term n g*n t. '16. *• )i JJail li* 

Mil, Vast Coast of America, 
Terrli - : igkaa 

C. B,, lain. Mc.lUvmvn- 
Torror, l'>. C-npt. 1 . tSsrwafta. 

Topnr.' 

1*44, I'll..:. 

Tortolea, IX Bt^rc... -st-. 

, IK.1t, Aac«ni.lnii 
TraMjfiir. til, w,. ( 

PprUm.iLUl, 
Tttbnnh SO, scrow. Captain G T P SvAr 

1S+J1, ; 
Trident. I*. *L-¥, C- «. O* 

of Africa. 
Irlton, :t, »(. vr.. U,»«t- r.-ni |t. |1 aV=^ 

lsisi. Coast nr A( I 
Urgent, ae tm,ip <»litp, Coos U 

particular servirr-. 
Valurn.i", 1' AlJ)M«C9 

\ esnrius. 0, stfam-v-tKel. 

Ctws(nf At. 
Vi.t !■ Finniinr], lli.siv, C»pt. J, \Vmna,CX 

JS-'ft. Med. 
Victoria ra4 Aliwrt. t. «t«aai v... I 

II. -r - 

Tlciury, 101. 

VlgDimt, i. - Irmytaara, U> 

terranean. 
^'Ipcr, 4, screw. Com U X. W 

LI1 
Vlv.ipo, 0. IL-Vea., Cum. II. B. Donn. 1S< 

i'.nlftc. 

• oniptwHW 
Wan-'. 









H'atclirul, 'J, «■. i 
■rii It I 

WeliiriKtor, r;, c« 

Deroji] 
lToftdcork, ». - 

•UK) 




•tot 



IT OF H. M- [NDIAN NAVY IN COMMISSION, 



I 



<CorrMt«l to the 23rd J sue, 1SSS.) 
»r//A /At t/oife* o/ Commitaion of the Officer* in command. 






, Fl»* -sJitp of Coimnoiliir • ■ ;.<;. WTrt- 

, C-tk, K.N. ConnniHi.ljr^Fi.(;!ili-f 

CfL J. W Yoanc C.I*.. 18**, Bom. 

fat-Oat. It W. Qruwi<K l«S8, Oun- 

0*BCW. 

, •% p*«'tt>. C»ui. J, Stephen-, 

Red Sf * 
L p».in<\ Muter-CoMa E. Dmm, 
RJ»i>r IiiilK 

I, p«44U. Cuwmatid«f J. V, .Idumv 
ti.>iul_.,i;. . 
0. »il>.-> acht, tender to Acbar, Bom- 

J, acre* troop ship, Master-Corn. — 
, l*v*. B«npil. 

2, ji*.!.lie truop sliip, lAe-uk-Gom 
. Chltty, 1*47, Bombay. 
, flat, ilasler.C.jni E. Null, IftJI, 

loilaa, 

I +, Lkit.-Cmu. W. Col llnff wood, 
PeraUnGuIf. 

i an. J. Sddhy, 13*7, Tm«- 

I, Liunt-Com. J, U. Wckion, 

ISfx 

JIa frnnboai, Com. W. B. Selbj-', 
' Eiijihmtev 

Maater-Cniiiraanrter T. 
■fndafc 

nnri[i ship. Ileitt.-Coin 
.. ti.iy '>f Hi-Haul 
■-. M:tit«:r.Cont, T. flonrloy, 
SNOT lij'lm 

■' latvCotn, 1 Indus, 

«. sailboat, l.k<at.'Cuiu. J. G. Nixon, 
liiiinliJi" ■ 

■ shift, r,,uL v, iv 

•y. Via!, M.i«lri--I.'.iin. ( Rtver 

l.Icuc.-Culn. C, B. Br*onmn. 

f J,U.jli.t , . 

k Hat, JJajtdr^Coin, W, Walton. 
lilrtt Irnlua. 
Flat, Marttr-Om. t .rone* IftSS, 

ll.Jl.V 

u, saddle. Cnmmanrter C. J. CniU 

Bombay, 
paddle Master C.Jmmuiidtr.l. McXci:, 
liidHs, 
NMttOdOM <i, drill,, i 

in ciuif- 

paddle yae!ir, Master-Caminamlei 
mnellr, ISSO, I' 



OUw, 




a «M|tan», J, llqpL-Con. F Wm**. l«* 

-Andaman*. 
ladii*, ? p^idle, }fMHT-Cotam.Bd?r E, A *. 

' . m ' ■$ Pa«t'"e, »airter-Coui. R t. Uw- 
•r J f" 1 ' 1W ™- "ivr-r Indus. 
KoLlyMrtrrec, enird ulilp. 

UWJ, Ton ti(n>i?r, Km ■ 
l-nny FiilkJnnJ. paddl. r.-rt,! 
L*dy Ciinnlfip. i, f,adrtK I,i«iit.-rv>m. E. Peevor, 

; . Red 9t«, 
Mahl, 3. Lleul-Ctmi. R. W. IVTli.k, JR49. 

Perslftii Cinlt 
MrtTiii, 3. Lieut -L'nm. C. <*!, ConsUblo, 1B45, 

Suu-ej1nit V ' !«!f. 

Mnotrcc. 1. jvmrl ml vui., Ciji!, E. W. Iliinlcll 

1857, KDtre*. 
^■pler, J, piuMI 'ruro.mtliT J. 

l-'oreier, 18.M I 
NirniT,,! -CtnnmiiiidLr 

riiittt- r, ISM. nkcr Fndns. 
NltocriH. I"l:vr. IfMttr-OOrt. A. Harrlton, 18»B. 

Ontmnv 3, psudlo. Vaif.-Com. W. Brer, lift*, 

nU'i'r Irdti". 
PUnCt, .'. jrtdAJe, Mi*tcr-Crtnj. T. K. 

ntttihtt, IBM, INtM Tfllii, 
Pivnjasib. 10. paddle, Comiiiini.lcf A. Voulcrtoii, 

18S7, Calcutta 
I'linti- .VHlllir, w'few tfaop-rtlp, Crttn, ,T. 

Tronaon, 1SJS, BmnlvajF, 
Plelid, % si-rew, MM,-Ciim 1>. Wlnto, 18*?. 

Bwnbar. 

Itavrp, Flat'. M , RiTcrHBa. 

Sotledge, flai ' ■ HlT^r Ind'i? 

r-QOm, \ miking, 

185S, Plvcr \ ■ 
S^mlramK in, twiddle, Co :a \r. Halionr,' M*>. 

lid [lib IV. 

Snukr". pndrfli-. tender lo ACbAr, Bomhuv, 

air U. Ilayelock, SI. ji^ldla, Mi-tftr-Com. 1>- 

Mni-ri.,-,11, is-js, (liver In : 
Sir II, IjmriMlLi', 1, pail.tlr, )t« 

Ttakcl, 181.5, River Indiu. 
Syilin y, screw trrtnp vldgi, MMtet'Oom. 

, BftvoTBeneal 

TlKrii, 5. Liunt.-Coiii. (1. T, RabltUOtt, 1*»!, 

Pprsljin Oulf. 
VletofU, .'.. iHi.iilK', Liout,-Com. T, 3- U 

IVynlima 184S. Bo:nl)iiv. 
V.en.hUla, 10, pMdla. Cum. K. E- Mitniieri. 

IS-jT, I'ertla' 




BENGAL NAVAL BRIGADE 



art era, Cjtftutta, CapL C. D. Camp- 
l»J7_ 

Furt VRIlam, Ll!!iit,-C<jra. J. 

,,. ,T. IT. ll. 

II, l.leut.-Com. C. B- 

tlMjIIII LlrirCiin R, Carer, 



taoj. Dnmduin, litwi C<wi. R W 
u-np». 11 



144 



INDIAN NATAL BlItfADB. 



Ptat, 



FKAXATIWS AKD AITOIXTHEMTS. 

Commander to bo Captain— John Stephens, 
1848. 

Lieutenant to be Commander— It A. Strad- 
dling, 1844. 

Mates to be Lieutenants— R. B. Leefe, 1854; 
H. J. Edwardes, 1836. 

APPOumresTS. 

Captain— J. W. Toung, C.B., 1856, to Acbar, 
Flag-ship. 

Lieutenants— L. G. Lewis, acting, 1856 ; C E. 
Beddome, acting, 1859; C. Forster, 1858; 
A. D. Taylor, 1847; R. Williams, aotlng, 
1855, to Acbar: J. G. Nixon, 1847, to com- 
mand sc. gunbt, Clyde; C. E. Brooman, 
1848, to command Elphinstone ; F. W. 
Shottowe, 1856, to Semiramis; J. Brebner, 
acting, 1859, to Semiramis; C. V. D'Arcy, 
acting. 1858, to Elphinstone; B. Ch. S. 



Claris*, acting, 1859. to EtphhMtoaei 11 
Beaton, acting, 1847, to Ferae; J. Oafta, 
1857, to Auckland ; J. B. Dickson. IBS, to 
command Constance ; C E. 



acting, 1859, to be Inspector of the Baa. 

bay Steam Navigation Company; B. A 

Leefe, to bo Superintendent of Patthaam 
Acting M a e toi a P. Wbfte.iBIB, to oaajjai 

Pleiad. 
Midshipmen— J. D. Bndd; B. W. laMfta; 

H. Hewer to Acbar; W. VarskalilA. 

Kettle? to ElpMnatoue; C VBBaMit 

Richmond to Semlnunb; A CaatMto 

Assaye. 
Clerks— F. W. DaaieO. to Indna Flotlktil 

Barrett to Aaaaye ; A T. StoattkmB* 

1855, to Clyde, In ihwjn A & IMBM 

to Semiramis, hi charge. 



145 



■ H < i \ I < i T i ( J .\ s .\X1» A PP0INTMEXT8. 
NAVY. 



dUAiiTV, July 2t>. 

— Second Lieut, i . !'. 

ml uu. Half Pay, 

i" lie 

r — Mr. Htsnry Puller, 

«s Lot-Icy, gout., Mr. W. 

?r, gent.. Mr. J. Maurice O'Coii- 

»\l i It. hrewTully, getit. 
PROMOTIONS. 

i«t— Nicholas 

tnant to // — W, II. 

M&, for icrvices ia China, in 
nl of tin: Lee, guiitjunt, 

to Ik Ai'iin'j LituUnant — Lord 
T. M. I>. Scott, in consideration 
aem with the Naval Brigade of 

ship Pearl, in India. 
J mi*fr tut* tobt ' ''' ief Engl a ten 
f Hewlett, George Parka, P, 
t, Henry J. LaylAail, C, Cbam- 

iirr. 
ant 1' >bc Pagnvuter — 

. l'm>t' .-r, 18.')i. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

f ; m -William K. Hull. C.B., 
upereeded at 
request; William Edmonatooe, 
>m the J) tuHtlfsf t-> tin. 
irljwtf, C.B., 1855, to Dautttfett. 

ririutt — (I. Iiiviii^tuji. 1S56, to 
. M. Smith. IMii, G. T. WU- 
mil A.T. Denhm 
W. -f. H. Orut.be, ISJi, 

.'), A C. Adam*, im 

-:>:, c . .1. 

.."-, tn Man ; 

Twin*, I85ti, to Neptune j G. 

5, t.> Asia ; C". C. 

I : Henry Wal- 

i W. F. Gregory, 

p b'eptuue ; C, i:, l». Wileor, 

rj — John D. Rogers, 1 

t.. Mil* E Heodfimore, 

- John! C.Webb, 1858, 
John D. Siviteer, 1859, 

ktci Miii'tmo- ; Henry H. 
,M. Im f '■.-, . 
Uolxtt 
rill l« .ixnt , 

1654, to Gladiator ; E, I ■, 
I M ,i ,"0. 8*iT<, 1850. 



B. Williams, lSSS, to l>r-y. j UKn.ij, 
lvil.tr hn'uitlvx*; J. E. Hciuiamore, 
I 339, tn .liM-^nit! j ^itui J, T. C. Webb, 

'Surgmu— W; Loney, M.D., 1845, to 
An'i"*: H. Giiulett, M.D., lv 

I.I'. Mormui, 1852, to P«w7; 
W. S. I;..,!,,.. A(.Ii.. dX, 1851', addi- 
tional to TofU/me t Q. JJ. Hill, 1S55, to 
Alert : A. Klli.iti, Rff, ])., 18B1, to /«- 
''-■ : Gcnrge H. Ryan, 1654, and 
Franciu B. Pritchftitl, I85B, to TwtOtM; 
Clarke A. Ducket, 1S5:* (additional) to 
Afyier**, Hart Gimlett, M.D., IS.W, to 
Pearl: Edward Pearee, IS 55, to Tor- 
toise ; Cecil Craudell, 1865, to ,V 

Attestant Surgeon* — Jamtw R, An- 
u, 1854, to Intuit ; Pierre Mans- 
field, B.A., 1*J<5, to Donegal; John 
JetfursMi, M.I),, 18.M, tfj Axin ; John 

'\ confirmed in ' 
.). \V. Dobbio, 1836, to Ihtnuttea* ', M. 
W. Cowan, M.I*., 1>~>\ bo Emeniti! ; 
E . M*C* rtby , 1856, to I p wfory ; E. B . 
Broeter, 1S57i to Imperittue ; C. H- 
Slaughter, If^oC, to Cambi ,■ s T. H. 
Taylor, 1854, to Agatruautoit ; \i. llat- 
oHae, ISSS, * .. M..lliiv. 

1857, to Dathcr; 1;. F. Briogford 
{Aotang), I' drroffanl ■, T. Kipliug, 
(Acting; to Atroffant] E. W. Dabnc 
(A.-tin^ji, <,•/(.;.; John Hudson, 1833 
(additional) to ricftwyj J. W. Dobbin, 
I850,to Ari^aair< j A. Tumbnll, (acting^ 
tip Topetn ; JoLii Noble, 1855, to 
pregnable ; . j Vlen Crtwbie (acting^) to 
Xtfiii'ue ; Adam It. Messer t acting) to 

l''iftiha*tef«— Jobu M, Forater, 1859, 

tu Madagascar \ li. < . 'mgenven, 1 852, to 

w. H. Eichards, isr,:!, to ,b- 

•: J. l'\ Phiili™, 18W, IJ, IS. Col- 

liuM, 1818, W. E. Kolly, 1Sj7, t. W. 

Wellrt, 1858, aadT.Qoodaia&j to&utmi 

la ■■ QtOtgB Love, IP.VS. t<> l>e Secre- 

tary to Hear Admiral Dflcres Rirh.kr.l 

James B. 

Hay, 1646, to / V '"• in 1 fi 1 hi li 

A/iff*— B. H. Key, 1858. tu Bmerald, 

Mala (Acting}— A, Wiuiasu to Ed- 

p«r| 11 1 i-v S 4 ,ininiid. 1*6U, 10 Inifnl- 
<j«r ; W, B"11, to I 

DaniclJ. May, ■ 

to !> ■•• -1 • •' [ W, E. MoGrath, ro'ttlirmcd 
: Philip Sjri.i. Up Tt-itJ'rtttjtu-. 
1 mi Hngi inter*, First < 

Wllt-Jl"' 1 



146 



PROMOTIONS AKJJ iPFOlKTUZHVfl. 



[Sni, 



Assistant Paymasters— JohnE. Skin- 
ner, 1859, to jErf^or ; Henry E. Kitchen, 
1857, bo Hastings ; W. W. BIaney,1859, 
to Cossnrit} Derisly Martin, 1859, to 
Pearl ; Francis Oliver, 1855, to Daunt- 
less ', D. Martin to Arrogant ; F. Olver, 
1855, to Pearl; Thomas Goodman to 
Arrogant ; John N. Harvey, 1858, to 
Aboukir. 

Chaplain — John B. Harbord, M.A., 
1855, to Donegal. 

Acting Second Matter— W. Mont- 
gomery, to Clio. 

Midshipmen — R. D. R. Farquharson, 
to Aboukir ; F. S. Vandcr Moulin to 
Melpomene ; Basil E. Cochrane, to Ed- 
gar ; W. G. Scott to Melpomene ; E. 
Drummondand B.E. Cochrane to Done- 
gal ; A. E. Hutchinson to Nile ; J. Cole 
to Mars ; E. R. A. Law and t. J. Kent 
to Neptune ; R. B. Croft to Camr; H. 
F. Stephenson to Emerald ; A. War- 
rington to Sidon ; A. E. Hutchinson, to 
Cossack ; W. C. Shuckburgh and II. T. 
Skeffington, to Mdnn ; H. T. Claucdy, 
to Donegal ; Hon. II. H. Molyncux, to 
Itnperieuse. 

Clerks — George B. Westoott. to Asia; 
Henry P. Houghton to Melpomene ; 
John Chambers, to Dauntless; P. W. 
Rouse, to Pearl ; W. P. Albin, to Nile ; 
D. Bayne, to Brisk ; J. Chambers, to 
Pearl \ P. W. Rouso, to Arrogant; W„ 
Crump, to Dauntless ; R. Drury to 
Terrible. 



Assistant Claris— E. G. EDhtoAffc; 
0. L. Wynne, to Oosmek ; B. F. W. 
Soady, to Sidon ; A. A. Lyne, to Ks- 
gard ; C. L. J. Underwood, ioNtftmf, 
W. Clay, to Imperieust; T. E> ~ 



to Ceesar ; H. Langworthy, to Imfsm 
noble i W. B. Jennina, to 4rrog«af t £ 
Mitchell, to Cornwall* j G. a GeddM 
and R. Oliver, to ^4npAum. 
Naval Cadet- -R. H. Byron toA^s 

Masters' Assistants— J. T. HoaWa 
to ^irogroai ; B. J. Suns, to CSa; W» 
W. Anderson, to Ampkion ; H. Huhk 
to Fte/rti» ; T. J. H. Rapeon, to Semi; 
and W. P. Hayncs, to Donegal j K C. 
I). Phillips, to SiriVm ; W. I. Graa^, 
to J/ar< ; James Fisher to iSeyfti. 

COAST GUARD. 

Ai-poiNTitKirrs — Comma n *r»— VT. 
R. G. Palliser, 1855, to be Insnekhf 
Commander of the Dartmouth DrrUoe, 
vice DeVere; J. W.D. McDonald, 1U3, 
to Ihj Inspecting Commander of Co 
Guard at Banff, vice Diggena, 
time of service is expired. 

Removals — Chief Officers— Caftan 
William K. Shoveller, R.M., from KB- 
more to Ballycotton ; Mr. John A. 
Wallingcr from Shorncliffeto Newhareni 
Mr. George Wrakc, from Rocnlveri to 
Shorncliff. 



AltMY. 



WAR OFFICE, Juta- 26. 
Commissariat Department. — De- 
puty Assistant Commissary Gen. A. C. 
Colquhoun has boon permitted to resign 
his Commission, July 20. 

WAR OFFICE, July 2\>. 

(The follmcing Commissions to bear dah 

July 29.) 

3rd Dragoon Guards — The second 
Christian name of Lieut. Costobadie is 
"Hugh." 

7th Dragoon Guards — Captain R. 
Clarke, from the 1st Dragoons, to Ik.- 
Captain, vice Nicholl, who exchanges. 

1st Dragoons— Captain H. Nicholl, 
from the 7th Dragoon Guards, to be 
Captain, vice Nicholl, who exchanges. 

Royal Artillery — Fitz-Thoroas Lan- 
ders, Esq., late Paymaster of the Turk- 
ish Contbunnt to hn Paymaster, July 
16, * ^dflHh, 



from the Staff, to lie Assistant Surgeca, 
vice Head, deceased, July 20. 

Grenadier Guards • Lieutenant «ai 
Captain Sir W. T. E. Wallace, Bart.,* 
Ije Captain and Lient. Colonel, by p»" 
chase, vice Diglty, who retires ; Ensign 
and Lieut. J. J. Johnston to he Lieot 
and Captain, by purchase, vice Sir W.T. 
F. Wallace Bait. Ensign H. 11. CH* 
ton, from the "1st Foot, to be Enrijt 
and Lieut., by purchase, vice Johnston- 

Coldstreain Guards — Assistant Sor- 
geon R. Fanpiharson, M.D., from tat 
Royal Artillery, to be Assistant Sur- 
geon, vice A. Spittal, M.D., resigned. 

lird Foot— Major J. N. Sargent, to bt 
Lieut. Colonel, by purchuse, vice Somer- 
ville, who retires'. Caj itain F. W. Gore, 
to be Major, bv purchase, vice Sargent 

10th— H. M.*Sproule, gent., to be En- 
sign, by purchase, vice Snooke, pro- 
moted. 



PBOJCOTIOff* ATTD APP01HT5IEITTS, 



U7 



i— >F. Wat*an,g8nt., to be Ensign, 
chase, vice Jordan, promoted, T, 
nlerk, gent., to be Ensign, by pur- 

I — \v A w - r Uard, £ant,, to be 
l, by purchase, vice Home, pro- 

i — Major F. Yard, from Half Fay, 
to tie Major, vioe 4tattledge, 

[changes. Csvpt. and Brevet Mftjor 
Major, by pur- 
Y&rd, whci retires. Lieut. 

Vorsturms, to be (.'apt., by pUr- 

vice Rrnbawm, pr o mo te d, bypur- 

to an Unattached Majority. 

jutiint A. Robs, to Live the 

f Lieutenant. Ensign H. Burnett, 
Lieut., by purchase, vice V>r- 

k. John Mufeh, gent,, to be En- 

by purchase, vice Wedderburn, 

itad. 

i— W. H. Herbert, gent., to be 
cheat purchase, vice J. 1' 

it. W. [>. Nutm, to beCau- 
>t purohane, vioe Garden, who re- 

&ttign R. Fran*, to be L 
rchaae, vice Nunn. 
, — The second Christian nninc of 
pointed mi the 24th 
1$6», i» "Talbot." 
d— A. f>. Fiww be En* 

by purchase, \ioc Dillon, pre- 

A— E, B. K, Lacoti, gent., to be 

a, by purchase, rioe Malvueux, 

>tod. 

s— N R. WUtor. geut., to be En- 

«ithnut piuduise, vice Hinnfrev, 

•ted. 

h — W. S. l>?nt, gent., to be En- 

>y purehas . 

F. Fit* William T. 
i, to 1*> Captain, by purehas 

II. W. D. 
" purchase, 
[abbs, 

a — Lieut. W, D. Horn! to be Cap- 
Tnitbout purchase, vice- Rrevet- 
H. Reynolds, deceased, July '2' 1 [ 
a G. Onslow to be Lieutenant, 
ut pen Bond, July 2('th. 

'l — F. I nt., to lie Ensign, 

] >yke, promoted. 
h — A. Hume, gent, to bo Ensign, 

to be Lieut. 
RrevctCn!. 

■ pur- 

un t<> 



D. Beaumont to be Lieutenant, without 
me, vice Sullivan, May 4 ; Ensign 
J. H. Oreen, from the 89th Foot, to bo 
i, vice Beaumont ; P. -T, Cownn, 
genC I by purehafi' 

Lee, appointed Quartermaster, Depot 
Battalion. 

S~Mi — C. S. Dicken, gent., to be En- 
sign, by purchase, vioa Xhxnokstarton, 
promoted. 

93th^C, W, Burton, gent., to U En- 
sign, without purchase, vice Green, ap- 
pointed to the 60th Foot. 

9 let— T. 0. Elriugton, gent., to bo 
Ensign, without purchase, vice Baillie, 
prtini' 

94th— J. J. Blake, geut., to be Ensign, 
by purchase, vice Hall, promoted ; J. 
uj, gent., to be Ensign, by pur- 
rien Godfrey, promoted, J'>' 
!.'Gth— F. J. .Tosselyn, gant, to be En- 
sign, by purchase, ■vice Ayton, pro- 
moted; J. II. Strong, gemi., to be Ea» 
'•y purchase, vice Houghton, pro- 
moted, Julv SO. 

89th— Cornet G, W.V. Gotten, hem 
the 5th Light Drugoonq, to be Ensign, 
vice !"»nyce, promoted . 
REcm-mso DustbIot. — Lieut. E 
nan, from the 1st West India 
Adjutant, vice John 
1. promoted, without purchase, to 
an I'nnltnched Company. 

CoWWlBBAKtAT DePAKMEST. Deputy 

:Lint Commi5Sftry*General J. M. M. 
Gaudet, having completed the required 
service iu* Acting Assistant CommiRaary 
ficncral on die Western Coast of Africa, 

confirmed in the rank oT A-- 
CommiKsarv General, July 7. 1S58 ; 
! (Irk W. H. NewlaniL 
lifts 'ing eotnpleted the requ 
as Acting Deputy AsaistWlt I'onimis- 
gary Genaral on the Western Oant of 
Africa, to be oonftrmed in the rank of 
Ik-mtv AMbtant Commieaiiry General, 
June H, 1S53 ; Assistant Conunisaary 
1 1. W. Wflodley, open Sail 
Pny, has been allowed to retire Brow the 
■ ■', receiving a eoninuitiiti':! >J bit 
CominUMnn, June Id, 1859. 

Hospital Staff. — Burgeon-Major 

T. Boater, M,D,, who retires on hatf- 

pny, i i honorary ruuk ol De- 

tos-General ol Hoepit«J» in_ 

ari'niij.iiicc with the Royal Warrant of 

T-t Oetob* r, 1858 \ Staff-Surgeon H. 

Mapletoa, M.D., having completed 

i •'' full.]tay ■• 

■ niiilrr tin- !!<■ 

win tb, li lit., to be A 

to the Forces, vk< TothiU. : 



ritOHOTIOKS A3JD APFOrKTMENTS. 



[tot, 



the 18th Foot, which ap|«ared in the 
Tomtit of lSth Jtdy, rend John A. 
Bingwurth, gent., &o. 

Chaplain '.- Dii'viMMKNT — Tlie Com- 
lisaion of the Rev C. Green, M.A., M 
Chaplain ti Che Forces, <jf the Third 
Miu-a, to bear date t i ■ ■ 1-t LYbrunry, 

e -.stead of the 1st February, IS \%, 
stated in the tfiurfte of Che 251ft 
\[ ,.n li. The Commission of the JlfeV- 
F, 'i'. Twining, D.D,, as Chaplain uf the 
"Tiird Class, to bear date the 1st April, 
1856, and nol the 1st April, 1842, as 
stated in the (?Metfc of the ©th March. 

BaEVEi 1 . — Dipt, and Brevet Maj. 

N U g. Turin)-, uf the Royal Artillery, 

to be Lit ut. Colonel in the Army, 

April 2G. Tlie undermentioned promo- 

ti[)H8 t<) take place consequent upon the 

death of Gh oe al Charles Murray, Earl 

JutLcart, G.C.B., Colonel of the 1st 

Dragoon Guards, Jolv 16th; Lieut, 

General sir H, J- Mane;., C.B., ' Inland 

uf tin; -iinl West India Regiment, to he 

General July 17 ; Major General \Y. 

hamberlayne, Lieutenant Colonel Upon 

ill pay Unattached, tu have the rank 

f I ieut. General, July 17; Major 

eueral J. Taylor, Colonel of the Syth 

; 4 oot, to be Lieut. General, July 17 i 

'revet Colonel 11. Law, uf the Eli 

Newfoundland Companies, to be Major 

ml, July 17 J Brevet- Lieut, Colo- 

Si he, I aptain half pity Unat- 

l. to be Colonel, July 17 ; Lkut. 

Colonel J. Lriml, C.B., Bengal Attil- 

ery, to he Colonel, April 2?ttL 

Majors to be Lieutenant Colonels — 
D, UuJhon. 3rd Madras European Ke- 
giraeut, July 20,1858; J. L. Barrow, 
Madras Artillery, July 2 '. 1868 j J. D. 
Mein, Madras Artillery, July 2ft, 1858 j 
1 1 r, 1 !Hl i Madras Native Infantry, 
Ipril 26; W. Middleton, 17th Madras 
Infantry, April 2c ; J. L. 
ii, _ i • i i langal Native Infantry, 
"Lory 2fJ ; H. Hair mood, Bengal Artil- 
lery. April 2U ; L, Banvw, (.15,, ."Lit 
dry, April 26; II. Buice, 
C.U., 2nd Bombay huropeau Light In- 
fantry, April 26 ; C. A. BttweU, 71st 
Bengal Native Infantry. April 26 ; S. J. 
"rowne, 40th FSeugal Native Infantry, 
k-priJ 26; C Cureton, 38th Bengal 
Native Infantry, April 36 ; I,. CadcH, 
Madnu Artillery, April '16. 

tabu to — l r ". Ti 

'■■■"i. 6th iVngnl Fliiii'i • .in R- 
! I N. Ed 
stall, 3rd II 



fiuitay, July 20, 1 £58 
Madras Native lnf&u: 
C. II, Harrison, Madras Artillcn 
L t7th l>. . 
tive Infantry. July 
Lane, 3rd Bengal European LitfA 
Cavalry, July 20, I I 
Btngwl Artillery, Jul 
Mite), 88rd Bengal J«*T, 

July 20, IS58 ; M. I 

Bengal Native Infant n 
B, H. Sankev, Madraa Engineer 
%}. IS&£; A. ! 
Native Infantry, April t6 \ 
arth Madras Native Infatii 
K, Patton, :Jrd Bi i • .: 1 
itient, A pnl 26 ; 1!. i Kudw. 
Native Iuf.u 
OBth liewgal NaiJ 
II. B. hteven.-, Il-L Pafrrl :■■ 
fnntrj', April 26 ; J. M 
Madras Cu-idry, April *2«lth; 
^uiitb. 24th Bengal Nati . 
April iG; T. Wi l^ngal Ini- 

liers, April 26 ; H. Fi _«1 Ar- 

tillery, April 20 } C. \Vnrd.\ 6Sdi B» 
gal Native Infantry, A pri! . 
■Stafford, 4tb ]]>. ir^'rd h 
April 26; L. Clerk, Hit Ma.i. 
April 2nth; <i. G. lY-aw^ Madiat . 
tillery, April 26; VY, i)..»,||. 
Artillery, April 2fi; I 
Artillery, April 26. 

M KM oRA S Df M. — The cicJiai tgr 
twee ii Agei?taiit Sui . Mat 

fjoiu the Staff, and Aasuitukl Surjpai 
L. O. Patt.) -ii, fioiu th-j :;, r .ti 
wliieb appeared in the lluzrUe of IMk 
July, to bear datu M*j 

WAi; nl'l 1CK. J i , 
The (Juoen has horn plaaac 
ftiul eriiut to thcuw nftieern ami men of 
tie kite Turkish Colli . milll 

the «anetiua of Her M 
allowed to receive tlie Crimean medi 
conferred by Hu Inip»n i! 
Sultan for r' ivieec during the m 
Kii^ia, Iltr Mnjeaty's Royal pemuaait 
to wear the same. 

THE MILITIA GAZI 
2nd *»r Eaatern Norfolk — W. 
Townabend, gent., to be LU-ut^eant, 
July 1'!. 

Boyal South Linotlu — Enngn & 

("inekl'onl, to be Lieulenaiit, vice T. !»• 

gram, stniek off, July 15. 

Hoyal X..rlh Lint'olu- K I! 

i in, vice U. (.', Klwoi, 

J. M. Ptysatt 

tu I e Kutign, Jul 



l'ROMOTIOS'3 AXIJ APPOINTMENTS. 



ll:i 



■gan Light Infantry — 
n.Tvnte,tobe Lieutenant, 
1. 

pnhire— Lieut. W. Tmirsbv, to be 
a, vice R- C. B. Owen, resigned, 
i. 

Royal Surrey — J. C. R, Weguolin, 
u lie Captain, vice J. Dingwall, 
d, Joly 22. Lieut. W, F.-ntifcx, 
"iptaiu. vice Godinau, resigned, 
2. 

[OWTRO". — Th* Queen bis liceu 
ia!y pleased to accept the resigna- 
C»pt, J. Godtn&n, which he held 
»bove regiment, 

WAR OFFICE. Aic. 5. 

Regiment of Dragoon Guards— 

Genend Sir J'. W. BrothertOn, 

, frum the 15th Light Dragoons, 

1, vice General the Karl of 

R, deceased, duly 1 7. 

i 'f Light Dragoons — 

General EL W, Bouvetie, to l« 

I, vice Lieut. General Sir T. W. 
rton, transferred to the 1st Dra- 
uanl-, July 17, Memorandum — 
General Bouverie Los repaid the 
ice between the full price of a 
r and Infantry Lieut. Colonelcy, 
ng been upon Half Pay of In£an- 
iti promoted t«i the rank of Major 

KICK, Ai'Q.5, 
ommistivnt to txttr datt 
A ng. 5.) 
r it of Dragoon Guards— 
.1. A. Bohortion, from 
ay Unattached, to be Lieutenant 
i, p»yiu'j ill" difference between 
yAnd Cavalry, vice Brevet Colonel 
(' R, who exchanges, receiving 
■ 'revet Lieut. Colonel W, C. 
, to be Lieut. Colonel by pur- 
rice Robertson, who retires ; 
I" Jooee, to bo Major by pur- 
ice Forrest ; Lieut. J. A. Bragge, 
ttjiUiiu by ! 

II. E, Bridge*, to be Lieutenant 
base, rice Bragge, 

Kkmi G Hards — Cornet E. i'. "li- 
the 18th Light Dragoons, to 
Ice Molyjieux, promoted. 

-Major E. Sea- 
be Lieut, Colonel by purchase, 
who retina ; Cspt, F. E, 
ighten to be Major by purchase, 

R; Lieut. II. Montagu to be 
■mnghtcu; 
iitr to be Lieutenant 
bate, YicoMxmtagu. 



PtJi Light Dragoons— Surgeon J. J. 
Clifford, M.D., from the Staff, to be War 
gecn, vice; Franklin, who exchanges. 

10th Light Dragoon*— & H. Child, 
goat.) to be Cornet by purchase, vice 
Bill, promoted. 

ISth Light Dragoons — Lieut. W, 
pjaDiser to be Captain by pttrehajw 
Staccy, who retire*; Cornet and Adju- 
tant R. Saunders to have the rank of 
Lieutenant ; Cornet W. H. O'Shea to 
bo Lieutenant by purcliaie, vice Palliser. 

Royal Artillery — Second Cajitaiu W, 
J. (!rmi=tiiu to be Captain, vieu Anson, 
placed on the Seconded List ; Lieut. R. 
Hodson to be Second Captain, vice Grim- 
ston, July 21; Surgeon Major J. Bent, 
frotn the Staff, to be Surgeon Major, 
vice C. Deuipsey, who retires upon Half 
Pay? Surgeon Major Charles Pemjisey, 
retired upon Half Pay, to have the ho- 
norary rank of Deputy Iusjtectur < innj- 
ral of Hospitals, under the Royal War- 
rant of 1st October, 1 $58, Aug. 2. 

Grenadier Guards— Lieut, and Capt, 
F. C. Keppcl to bo Captain and Lieut. 
Colonel by pui\ base, vice the Hon, F. 
Egerton, who retires, 

2nd Foot— W. W. Bennitt, gent, to 
be Ensign by purchase, vice Hercy, pro- 
moted. 

4th— F. A. Wright, gent., to be En- 
sign without purchase, vice Fuller, 
appointed to the 83rd Foot. 

. r >th — Assist. Surgeon G. S. Cameron, 
from the Stall', to l*e Assistant Surgeon, 
vice Collin*, appointed to the Staff*. 

ftth — R. D. LTarc, gent., to lw Emdgn 
without purchase, rice M, A. Scott, 
whose apiwiiitiiiiiit. ilat(:(l the 18th Nov., 
1857, iius been cancelled. 

1 oth— Lient.T. Scott, to be Instructor 
of Musketry, July 25. 

1 Ith — G, Theobald, gent, t.> b Ba 
sign without purchase, vice Miles, |. •■- 
inoted. 

17th — Ensign II. C. Wilkinson, from 
the 95 th Foot, to bo Lieutenant by ptir- 
chase, vice Bunbiiry, who retires, The 
f.iurth Christian name of Ensign Ben- 
Bon, appointed on the 10th July, is 
Groves, and not Gore, as then stated. 

13th— H. 0, Heath gent,, to be En- 
sign, without purchase, vice Lipscomb, 
Iiromoted ; Lie at. E. A. Noblett, to be 
nstructor of Musketry, July 26. 

22nd— Lieut. T. C. Hinds to be Cap- 
tain, by purchase, vice Little, who re- 
tires; Ensign G. H. Burt to be Lieu 
tenant, by purchase, vice Hinds ; II, U, 
Pitman, gent., to be Ensign, by pur- 
chase, vice Burt. 



150 



rnoMOTioKs axd Apponmccra. 



!>OT-, 



'J It It l 'apt. \\ . I'. linnkoll. from tlie 
J'-tlU l-Wl, lii In. 1 Captain, vice lVacocke, 
wlin i'\rli.in<:i"< : Lieut. ■!. Johnstone to 
1m> Captain, In purchaie, vice Goodision, 
Him i-iiiivs : Kuxi^ii K. H. H. Saw- 
lii'i.li;i' in lio Lieutenant, liy purchase, 
\iiv •IhIiii-Ikiu*. Lieut. T. I*. Hutlcy to 
bo Instructor of Musketry. May 24. 

-"•"Hi Major II. Stapylton, to lw 
l.ii'ul. Colonel, without purohiiHc, vice 
Itrcvcl Ciilmu'l I'mIuv Williamson, who 
rctircK ti|Kin full pai . 

:UU h I .ient. 1 1 . Wood , to lie Captain, 
bv puivhaM-, \iee Williamson, who re- 
tire.-; Ki\si;,'ii Frederick II. Williamson, 
t«> In- l.ii'iiti'ii-mt. liy puivhiHc, vice 
Wno.l ; l'i»i-.;ii David Matthew La 
Touch.-, from I hi> . '11 n t Foot, to Ih.! En- 
i.i^u. \i,v Williamson. 

•Will .1. It. Sparki's, p'«t., to U' En- 
mc.ii. without purchase, \ico Hoilgeo, 
pioiuoicd in tlii> 7iitli Fih.ii. 

I'liil Henry lirookc, -rent., to lie 
l-!ii>i--.ii. hy purchase, viiv tin- llmi. IT. 
T I'lii-.i-r, promoied in the Scot) Fusi- 
lier t! turds. 

Iltli II. ill- I 'amy Wviiniok. ifcnf.. 
jo In- Kn-.i",n. liy | m iv i i ii so, vice lloauc, 
promoted. 

.•Stli Lieut. A. II. Uussell. to be 
Captain, liy purchase, \ ice Tij;ho, who 
h'lii'i'i ; Kn-.i-jii .1. Oiitram. lo In- Lieii- 
ti-iianl, liy puivhav. \Uv llusscll : K. 

D.IIIO O.csil.. to In* Klli.i /ll, liy purchase, 
\ioo Ibili.iin ; II. N. |{. Storks, sli-nt., 
to lu> l!ii! i U 'n, without purchase, vice 
Onflow, |iiMiuoti-il. 

."•'.'(Ii Lieut. I. It. I :, mil, nil, o I.,' 
Captain, li\ |>ui'i:i.sc, vii'o I'-yiu, who 
retire;; Kii-ijjii I,. C. Piiii\wi, In Ik« 
Lieutenant, l>v puri'li.iM', vii-i' l.iiuifi'ril. 
t-iUli ■!■'. W. Civafclt. 1,'iiit., to hi' 
l-"n--ii ; ii. liy i'iiii'li;i -.■. in succession t,> 
l.iinli iiiinl Allen, ili'i'i 1 .;.. I. 

i'1-l (luaiicriuaslcr Serjeant W. 
Fra i-p, to In' KuhUvii, without purchase, 

\ III' I looil, prollioleil. 

iV-lli V'i>.ii:t:iiit Sui';,vi>n <;. A. Moor- 
IumiI, I'iv-iii I hi Sl.ilK, to Im* Assirtant 
Mlili-.rnll, lice I'ToIliott, appointed to tho 
Stall". 

.1-1 l.ii-ul. 1'inirtoiiay II. S. Si-ott. 
to I ■,- r.ipi.iin, liy purchase, vice Camp- 
bell, who n'lin-x; Knsitjn Ii. Kiuii-. to 
!'■■ I.ii'iiii-uanl, dy purchase, viiv Si'ott , 
II I! l»o,|.., ui'iit., to hi' Fusion, by 
pun Im-.'. »,,-,. Clinton, promoted in the 
iliviimlier (iniii'tl^. 

JiMU l''i»iii;n I-;, Harrison, from the 
liSlli Foot. In In- Lieutenant, without 
piot-tiAw, wee \V. MoIVnii'll Clarke, 
«!»«liiii\sl liy tho wiutunoo of a General 
\'««»»« "il. 



6Ut— Essiaa W. H. M. J*i**.» 
ho Lieutenant- by j>arcb»=*. T»-ae H»- 
]threv<. who reiirta. 

86th— Lieus. J. J. Bowmh, XP^iaMi 
f 9th Foot, to be Li^itsuBi ^i.-* Sp*^ 
who ex?haojt*. May 30L 

85th— Lir-Jt. >. W. SeveiL tram 4« 
86th Font, :■> >-e L:v-«=aM. vice R>^ 
ness, wh> exch»nj». May *•; Aa«Al4 
Surgeon T. Wal»h, frtm the Staff, Bit 
Amiiatant Surge-«n. vi-se R»f t appoiatp 
to the Swtf. 

94th -CapL T. G. Feacoeke. kam*f 
J4th Foot, to be Captain, rice Gnkal, 
who exchan-^'.s. 

90th— F. L. !>ti>ry. -jenuto he K""P 
by purchase, vice Coated. pfoniotrtL T» 
promotion of Lieut. Burton an-1 Epap 
Towuscnd, vice WillLinw, •l«v*«eA to 
l>oar date 16th May, 165it, inrtcaJof 
15th of that month, a* previously rtatal 

St. Helena Kejjiment— Ewi^u W^t 
Nosh, to he Lieutenant l«y purchaie, 
\ ice Taylor, proini ited. 

CNATTAtiiKH. — Lieut. T. G. B At- 
kinson, -tilth Knot. ha% in;: U-i-n apprintJ 
a Captain in the lato Land Transit 
Corps, by (ifiu-ral Onlen in the CrimM 
]K-iulin^ Her Majesty "* pleasure, tM •• 
Captaiu without purchase, April 1,_18S7. 

HusriTAL Stakf. — Sinvo'U Major H. 
Fnwklin, from the !>th Liyht I>rogoo«i 
to bo Surgeon Major, \"i«.» Snpji-on CSf- 
ford, who I'xclianjjcti ; A.-^iitant Sargeon 
N Ki'iillintt, fivm the with Foot, to be 
\--iii:int Siu-^c'iii, vice Mo-ir'.-i-ad. ap- 
poiuti'-l to tho ijtith Foot; .-V»wi«tant Kojr- 
-ooii K. Collins, M.D.. from the 5th 
I 'out. to bo Assistant Surgeon, vfc« 
( ain-'iun, ap|K>iiitod t'i the 5th Foot; 
AssiiUnt Sup^'uuW. C. Hue, f rom tht 
MUli l-'niit, to l>e AwficUint Surgeon, vio» 
Walsh, appoinUd to the MUh Foot. 

Hki.vi.t.— r.i\ -vetCiilourl IT WiUiam- 
*«.ii. Uo-.inil Full Fay 27th Font, to be 
Major (.i-.'iiciul,t'.ie rank beiu-; honorary 
only. 

WAlt OFFICE, Aiu. S. 
Mkmhkanhl'm. — Lieut J. McMahno 
E.iv?t. having obtaiiu-d a limt claw cer- 
tificate at the School of Musketry at 
J (villi-, has Imvii ap)M>inti'd by the Gene- 
ral C<iiiiuiaudi::^-in-Cliief, with the con- 
ounvnoo of the S-cretary of State faf 
War, In iu-t as Instructor of Musketry to 
the Kerry Regiment of Militia, July 86. 

T1TK MILITIA GA7KTTE. 
Ilam(whire— K. Uathurst, Esq.. last 
Caiitaut in Her MajcRty's ->3rd Royal 
WeUh Fusiliers, to bo Captain, Jury 29. 



PEOMOTrOXS ASD APFOrNTliEtfTS, 



isi 



Newbold, to be 
ioe Condell, resigned, July 

;Mtjf of Derbyshire Volun- 
Ilea-— Charhs E. Newton, I 

I : VV. Tiirpie,to 

\\ . II. i 

.';■> < )wii — Lieut. 

i u plain, vice P. H. 

i uly 2fl ; Eiuign 

nt, vice J. 

! . July 20. 

—Lieut J.J. T. Hay-' 
Ashley, Jccuag- 

: kirk- 

. tu bi Captain, 

igned, July 21. 

mm— F. H. Ffol- 

to U- Assistant burgeon, 

iian, reaiwed, July li; J.Baker, 

I. ' iU*i»u t, ?ioe liiiol, re- 

J uly J S ; ) t. F, Usuruwes, gent,, 

■ • Chisholm, resigned, 

. -II. 

I :l;>!nill, vko 

i rjict 

I. lilt, .Filly 

it., to lie 
ifited, July 

I H: -1— R. A. I!' 1- 

riiin, 

' ilj and Cnv 

: >bert«an, gent., 

B [ j j es ty has been 
the resign** 

■ 

Ac, 

' . U'aJfc, 

■ om- 

authority, 

. 1 -Mi ; C. 

i 1 Hi Royal 

f, re- 

i i. Hopkul on to bo 

i of l.'uninir- 

•igned ; Capt. J. W. Cufttus to 

nJ4I 

mut, 

'arxnrLddro — E, A. Hill.ijent- ,tu 
gn, -. " ■ i >ted, 

L Palmer, gent., to be Lieutenant, 



-2nd Royal Cheshire — G. E. E. Blunt 
iient, to be Ensign, vice T, B. Turner, 
resigned, July SO. 

iifiiT. liaiiii 
to be Lieutenant, vice II. D. Mitchell, 
resigned. 
fTh ■ following appointment i-sub-nituted 

for that which iippc-ired in the Gazette 

on tlit; 22m t July last] 

Dumfries. Roxburgh, and Si-lkirk. — 
It. I.. Gledatanan, geld;., to be Euaign, 
vice Thornliill, promoted July Id, 

skid Somerset.— R. T. Woodman, late 
Lieut. 14th Light Dragoons, t<> be 
tain, vice F. J. B. Spurwiiy, resigned, 
July 25, 

*Jud Royal Cheshire — Ensign J, I 1 '. 
Wilkin, to bfl Lieutenant, vice G. Wal- 
l, July lo. 

1st or Royal Eilat Middlesex — A. D. 
Boyd, gent., to be Ensign, vice Hull, 
resigned 1 , July 28. 

5ll» tn Royal KUhorao Light Infantry 
Idleaex — Ensign A. Horrex, to be 
Lieutenant, vice Randall, appointed to 
the Ceylon Hifle&, July ^!>. 

Menioronelnin.— 1st f>r Royal East 
Middlesex. — The Quean haa been gra- 
ciously plea [to accept the resignation 
of tin; (Auinniwjiou hold in this Regiment 
by Bnriga J. Crispin. 

iird nr Royal Westminster Light In- 

MibdlCeox — Tlio Queen ban been 

ratty pfc&sed to ucepl the resigna- 

hetd in tbia Be- 

giauat by Jjcut H. BuMtetar. 

kli or Royal South Middlesex.— The 
Queen has been pleased to aeoap 
re*tgn*tfc)S t>f the Commissions in this 
Regiment held by Captains E. K. rJli.'tt 

[The foilowi itmeot ia substi- 

tuted for that which appeared in the 
QaoH 'h July laat:— ] 

; ,\ Ijincashirp,— II, W. MaMb&in, 

gent., to be lieutenant, July !■ 

THE MILITIA GAZETTM 

1st 8tanordnhira (King's Own) — 
Thomas II. K. Fletcher, gent., to 1m 
Ensign ; John Hampden Gladatanes, 
i.i be Euxign. 

:ird Staffordeh&e (King's Own)— Eu- 
sign Alexander William Kmlford to lie 
Lieutenant, VMeGwrga Cule, resigned. 

Hum in The Hon. H, 

Stevenson Blackwood to l>e Lieutenant, 
vice Stephen R. Woulfe, promoted. 

l^t DeTgfi —Alex. Ridgwny to be Cap- 
tain, vice Rayer, retdgned ; Tl 

more ti> be Lieutenant, 
resigned j Joan C. D. Agar fc> be Lieu- 
tenant, 



IM 



IMU»MOTiO>"S AND APPOT>*TMEfrTS. 



[Sari., 



1 



Axrshiiv ^t-owanvy Cavalry — Major 
yl, .1. Campbell t>> ho Lieut. Colonel, 
xioe Sir Charles I .audi, resigned; Capt 
.1. O. Fair'ie to he Major, vice Campbell, 
promoted: l.iout. lx. Gairdncr to lie 
Captain, vice Fairlin. promoted ; Comet 
K. >1. Pollock to be Lieutenant, vice 
Gairdncr, promobd. 

2nd North iMirluim — R. F. P.urrowes, 
late Lieutenant 11th ami P.Uh Foot, to 
U' Captain. xiee Chisholm, resigned. 
[This appointment w substituted for 
that which appeared in I lie thnrtff mi the 
2*th of .Inly last. 

WAK OFFICE. An:. 17. 
Ond Ixcgiuunt of Dragoon Guards — 
A. Brett, gent., to ho Cornet, without 
l».'.i"!»M\\hv Barr.es. promoted. 

eih Dragoon Guard* Lieut. H. II. 
Max. to bo Captain, by purchase, vice 
Urcxet Major AY. InglK xvho retires; 
Cornet \\ . B. Colviu t.i lie l.ieuti nant. 
by purchase, x ice Frederick, wlio retires. 
7th Light Dragoons— Major H. A. 
Ttvxclxan. from the lltli Lijrht Dra- 
£««oiis. to ho Major, vice Flavor, who 
exchanges. 

11th" l.i.jht Dragoons- Major C. C. 
Eraser, fivin the 7th Light Didgoov.*. 
to be Major, xiee Trevclyan. who c.\- 
chan s :c<. 

ISth Light hragivns.- Conn l \V. P. 
Bu;cual to lv l.i.v.ti nam. by purchase, 
x uv Sa\ ilj:e, who vet ires. 

1 7th l.i'ijht Pr:i ; ;o iii«..— Lieut. J. (iili. 
•.one to l>e Captain, nit!. out purchase. 
\iee Tax '.or, ihvea<-i d : Cornet 11. I>. 
M:ici;i>'!;ov to be Lieutenant, without 
I>iiivI'„im\ xioe iJil'MM-e : Connt .1. C. 
Scott to Iv 1 icutcnaut. I<y purchase, 
xico Molau. pvoir.oiid; Comet I!. T. 
jiouKxxoithx (o 1-e Lieutenant , l>y pur- 
chase, xioe Marshall, pioinot i >1. 

liiMiadicr liuAVils. Fusion ami Lieu- 
teiiar.l the lion. Arthur Am:e»Ky to lie 
Lieutenant and Captain, by purchase, 
vice Kcppel. promoted : Kn*ign 15. C. 
detirev Yxuor. Iivin the IxiHe Brigade, 
to Iv V.iiMs;n and Lieutenant. by pur- 
chase, xiee Aniioliv. 

Scots Fu-ilier Guards. — Lieutenant 

nud Captain .1. It. Fanmliarson to bo 

Captain and Lieutenant Colnml. by 

purchase, vice Lord Adolphus F. ('. \V. 

Vane Tempest, who retires ; Ensign 

and Lieutenant J. F. IV Elphinstonc to 

U* Lieutenant and Captain, by purchase, 

vice Lloyd Lindsay, promoted; Ensign 

and Lieutenant i\ "Piilmor to I* Lieut. 

■aAlXutmri l,y purchase, vice Fother- 

Vna]RHa,*ho retires ; Ensign and Lieut. 

V» Bm. Ik I* Maseey, to be lieutenant 



and Captain, l.v purchase, vice Fanm- 
hat*on ; the Son. C. J. Shore to be 
Ensign and Lieutenant by purchase, 
vice Farquharson ; J. H. W. Thonui, 
gent., to be Ensign and Lieutentant, by 
purchase, vice Palmer. 

12th Foot— Ensign W. C. S. Mair to 
be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Ehrood, 
who retires. 

15th.— R. Cartwright, gent, to bt 
Ensign, by purchase, vice Coetlogu, 
promoted. 

18 th.— Captain J. C Webster, foa 
linlf pay Unattached, to be Captain, 
vine Blacker, who exchanges ; lint 
W. Kempt to be Captain, by purchase, 
vice WebHter, who retires. 

19th.— Surgeon H. B. Hassard, from 
the Staff, to lie Surgeon, \-ice Smith, ap- 
p(>inted to the Staff. 

:"Hh. — The promotion of Ensign IL 
II. Btiwlby to a Lieutenancy, by pur 
ehase, \ica Foster-Melliar, which ap- 
peared in the tiaxtt* of the 24th Juar, 
lS. r >9, to bear date 11th January, 1MI, 
but this antcilate not to carry back 
pay. 

liOth. — Ensign It. A. Massy to bt 
Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Evens, 
who retires ; JJ. II. Davidson, geaL, 
to lie Ensign, by purchase, vice Missy. 
70th. — Lieutenant J. Grceu to bt 
Captain, by purchase, vice Saltmsnaa, 
whose promotion, by purchase, on March 
_.*>. 1 859. has liecn cancelled. 

7<»th. — Ensign E. Harding to be 
Liiv:'.i'nant, by purchase, vice Arnolili. 
xvho retires. 

8Lt. — Cajitain J. Junes, from half 
pay late I„iud Transport Corps, to be 
('aptain. vice Hanley, who exchanges; 
Lieutenant 15. tS. Charlton to lie Csp- 
tain, by purchase, vice Jones, who 
retire*. 

87th. — Ensign A. Anderson tobe 
Paymaster, vice Perry, who retires 
upon half pay. 

!'7th.- Itrevet Lieut. Colonel Win. 
West Turner. l',B„ to be Lieutenant 
Colonel, without purchase, vice Ldgb, 
diceasiii: Brevet Major S. M. Hawkins, 
to be Major without purchase, vie* 
Turner ; Lieutenant I. Harmond to be 
Captain, without purchase, vice Haw* 
kins ; Ensign J. Cooper to be Lieutenant, 
without purchase, vice 1 larmond. 

l'itle Brigade. — Ensign T. L. 
Mitchell- 1 lines, from the CJth Foot to 
be Ensign, vice Xviar, promoted in the 
Grenailier Guards ; Surgeon II. M. 
Eraser, M.l>^ from the Staff, to lw Snr 
gcon, vice Dempster, appointed to the 
Staff. 



59 



PBOMOTTGJTS \,TTQ APPOISTMEHTB. 



153 



Hospital Btaw, 

■ ,.■ Pfcyrfciafta to /far 
-Sir John MeAndr ew, K.CB , 
.[>, Half Pay Inspactor i 
[[>■[. it:i!(i ; Andrew Ferguson, M.D., 
f ■] i J \ 1 1 I ,, [ r i mi ( f enefalo f 1 f 

W listen, MJ)., C.B Inspector 
I of Hospitals; John Forest. M.D., 
.. Inspector Genera] of Hospitals; 
B. Gil sou, M.D.; C.B., Inspector 
si of Hospitals; T, G- Logan, 
M.B., Inspector General of Hospital*, 

J/tr 

<<t. — T. Alexander, C.B., Director 

""tnoral of the Army Medical Depart- 

A. Melvin, Half Phv Inspector 

i:il of Hospitals 5 J. R. Taylor, 

C.B., Inspector General of Hospitals ; 

', Half Pay Deputy Inspector 

ral of Ilcmpitulfl ; Thomas Mitttyn, 

Hi%lf Pay Deputy Inspector General of 

itals 5 J. A, Bostock, M.D., Surg. 

Major, Scots Fusilier Guards ; Surgeon 

H. F. Bttith, M.D., from the !9tk Foot 

ti> I* StirRCon, vice Hassnrd, appointed 

o the U*th Foot ; Sargeon D. V. 

ipstt-r, M.D.. from the Hifie Brigade, 

be Surj^on, vice Frascr, appointed to 

H i'ADTHEKT. — The 

ud*r Heuiler<tou to be Chaplain of 
• 
Cx attached. — Major an J Brevet 
I T. W, E. Holdsworth. on Half 
Pay Stad Foot, late Deputy Quarter- 
f muter General in North America, to be 
Del, without purchase. 
BnrviT. — Major and Brevet Lieut. 
I W. W. Turner, C.B., n 7thFoot, 
in th« Army; Lieut, and 
William Henry, Viscount Dan- 
' 'itlil-trtniti Guards, t<> be Major 
itt the Army ; Brevet Major It. Boyle, 
al Marion, to be Lieut. Col. 
y i Capt- C, Iligby, Kith 
»y Nirave Infantry, to have the 
: l.k-iit. Col at Zanzibar ; 
■ Foot, to be Major in 
Army ; Capt. J. C. Webster, ISth 
to be Major in the Army ; 
t Major J. < '.' Webster, l&th Foot, 
> be Lieut. Col. in the Army ; Capt. 
Boyd, Retired Full Pay 8Uth 
l^jor in the Army, the 
J honorary only. 
The undermentioned promotions to 
take j>l.i. >• to ■ 'Uiplete the succession to 
I Cuthenrt, G.C.B., de- 
ceased — Brevet Major H. C. Powell, 
Half Pay, Caatl iff Officer of 

tiers, to Ik; Lieut. Cul. ; Captain 
R. Hughe*, of the 1st West India. 1 
U> I* Major ', Brevet Major J, K. Wil~ 



Half Pay Hoy.il Marines, Mail' 
i Ulieer of PtfuAfonei-Bj to be Lieut Col. 

in the place of l.irtvit MajoJ II. I'. 
Pen 'II,, wh$&9 promotion in succession 
to (',,], Bolton, of the Royal Engine r>, 
on the iHth June, 1851', has been can- 
celed. 

THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 

Hampshire Artillery. — Pirn! Lieut. A. 
R. Naghton, to bo Captain, vice Dea- 
con, resigned ; Second Lieut. G. Mansel, 
to Lo First Lieut., vico Kaghten, pro- 
moted, 

Royal Monmouthshire Light Infan- 
try.— W. Henry Wkeutey, gent., tube 
1 • 1 1 - i ■_• ] i . 

Oxfordshire Volunteer Rifle Corps,— 
E. Warre, Esq., to be Capt. of the 1st 
Company: J. S. Callow, Esq., to be 
Lieut, of the 1st Company ; 0. 0. Lane, 
Ewiy to be Capt. of the 2nd Company ; 
J, H. Warner, Esq., to be Lictit. of the 
'2nd Company ; R, W, Cullen, Esq., to 
bo Capt. of the 3rd Company ; C. fi. 
Purfcei', Esq., to be Lieut, of the 3rd 
Company. 

I i.i vi J N irth Lincoln. — J. Maclcenae, 
gent , to be Ensign, vice J. W. Kcogb, 
promoted ; R. U. Somervilk, gent., to 
be Ensign, vice Gibson, resigned. 

1st East Middlesex — R, Burdett, 
gent., to bo En»ign, vice Kemp, re- 

■l-llnl. 

2nd Middlesex. — C. F. Carr, gent., 
to be Ensign, vice Bynss, promoted. 

ttk Middlesex. — F. G. T. Cuiiyng- 
hann", gent., to be Ensign, viet; Horre\, 
promo teit. 

Mi iiuiaVDUM.— Itl) Booth Middle- 
sex, — The Queen has been grnciousiy 
pleased to acccjit the migDonon of the 
commission held in tin* rSgUMKt by 
Major F, A. Blachford. 

1st Duke of Lancaster's Own. — J, 
01dm on, guiit., to be Assistant Surgeon, 
vi< ■■ C. J. Hoe, deceased 

4 th Duke of Lancaster's Own — Lieut. 
W. Gibson to be Capt., ykn Sir Q, 
Preston, resigned , Eneign H. Vowcll, 
to bo Lieut, vice U. E. Hoivartb, re- 
signed ; Ensign H. W. Coyne, to be 
Lieut , vice W. U. Slock, resign 

Lancaaliirc Hussars. — Captain F. S. 
Gerard to he Major ; Lieut. I. old < ». A. 
Fitzgerald to be Captain, vice F. B. 
Gerard, promoted ; Cornet F. \V. Farl 
tojbe Lieut, vice Lord O- A, Fitzgerald, 
promoted; Aug. 8, Comet the Right 
lion. B. B. Wilbraham, Ixirii Skelmers. 
dale, to be Captain. 

Prince Albert's Own Leicestershire 
Yeomanry Cavalry. — Ensign H. T, 



164 



PBOMOTIOirS AWD AYSOTSTMXST9. 



[Sra.i 



Boultbee, late Capt. Royal Artillery, to 
be Cornet, vice Perkins, promoted. 

North Somerset Yeomanry Cavalry. 
— Cornet J. Hippisley to 1)6 Capt., vice 
J. R. Mogg, resigned. 

Royal Carnarvonshire. — Capt. E. J). 
Nares (late of Her Majesty's 97th Regt. 
of Foot), to bo Adjutant, vice Ire* 
monger,- resigned. 

Queen's Own Worcestershire Yeo 
manry Cavalry. — The Right Hon. G. 
Earl of Coventry, to be Captain, vice 
Lygon, resigned. 

Cornwall Ranger?. — Ensign R. Kelly, 
to be Lieut., vice S. N. Usticko, re- 
signed. 

West Essex.— R. O. Trover*, Esq., 
Adjutant (late Capt. in the King's 
Dragoon Guards), to serve with the rank 
of Captain. 

Royal Carnarvonshire. — E. T). Nares, 
Esq. (late Capt. in her Majesty's 97th 
Regt. of Foot), to serve with the rank 
of Captain. 

Kent Artillery.— Second Lieut. T. F. 
Bailey to l>e First Lieut, vice Lutwidge, 
resigned. 

5th Company of Lancashire Volun- 
teer Rifles. — A. S. Gladstone, Esq., to 
be Captain. 

1st Somerset.- -Lieut. H. C. Henley, 
to \hi Captain, vice .Adney, resigned : 
Ensign S. J. Barrett to be Lieut., vice 
Henley, promoted. 

Royal Ayrshire Rifles. — Lieut. A. 
M'l^achlan to be Captain, vice Lord 
Colville, resigned. 

Queen's Own Oxfordshire Yeomanry 
Cavalry. — E. S. Harrison, gent., to l>e 
Lieut., vice Phillips, resigned ; E. W. 
Taylor, gent., to he Cornet, vice Ham- 
say, promoted ; H. C. llisley, gent, to 
be Cornet, vice Elwcs, promoted. 

King's Own Light Infantry. E. C. 
Strutt, gent., to be Ensign. 

1st King's Own Staffordshire. — C. 
Moore, gent., to Iw Ensign. 

2nd King's Own Staffordshire. — 
Ensign H. Faulkner, to be Lieut., vice 
Martin, resigned. 

3rd King's Own Staffordshire. — 
Lieut. W. L. Cruder, to be Capt., vice 
Martin, resigned. 

Oxfordshire. — Lieut. II. Moody, to 
be Capt., vice Turville, resigned ; Ensign 
E. Ramsay, to be Lieut., vice Moody, 
promoted. 

Royal Carnarvonshire. — Lieut. O. M. 
Jones, to bo Capt, vice Rowlands, re- 
signed. 

Kent Artillery. — S. M. Crowe, gent., 
to be Second Lieut., rice B. Carter, 
promoted, 



1st Regiment Duke of LaBcutar'i 
Own. — M. Johnson, gent., to be 8b- 
geon, vice J. H. Brooks, resigned. 

1st Corapauy of Lancashire VohaMC 
Rifles. — G. H. Robertson, gent., to bs 
Ensign. 

Dumfries.— Ensign W. Mitchell tela 
Lieut., vice T. H. V. D. Hay, resigns*. 

WAR OFFICE, Aco. 2«. 

5th Dragoon Guards — Major Qm. 
the Earl of Cardigan, K.C.B.,to baQd. 
vice Gen. Sir J. Slade, Bart., decease! 

1st Dragoons— Lieut. C. F. Holder to 
l« Capt, by purchase, vice Glyn, vki 
retires ; Lieut F. Radford to be Cast* 
by purchase, vice Sandeman, who n- 
tires ; Cornet C. Hall, to be Lieut, Jfcf 
purchase, vice Holder ; Cornet R W. 
Caldwell to be Lient.. by purchase, Tito 
RHdfbrd. 

11th Light Dragoons— W. Brims, 
gent., to be Cornet, by purchase, lies 
Robinson, promoted. 

17th Light Dragoons — H.W. Young, 
gent, to be Cornet, without purchtas, 
vice Corbet, appointed to 16th Light 
Dragoons. 

18th Light Dragoons— J. G. Stop- 
ford, gent, to be Cornet, without pur- 
chase, vice Williams, deceased. 

I loyal Artillery— Capt. 1). A. Pat- 
tcrson. from the 2nd West India Hem- 
nienl, to be Paymaster; II. L. dela 
Chaumettc, K«|, late Paymaster, Britato 
Legion, to be Paymaster. 

Hoyal Engineers. — Quartermaster 
Serjeant G. Fringle to be Paymaster; 
Lieut. H. P. L'Kstrango St. Ceorgehis 
been permitted to resign his commission. 

M ilitary Train— Corik-t 1 1. Mc-Mabon, 
from Half Pay of the late l^aud Trans- 
port Corps, to be Kiisign, vice M. Cain, 
whose appointment has been cancelled. 

1st Foot — Ensign J. It. Palli-ortobs 
Lieut., by purchase, vice Wabon. who 
has retired ; Ensign A. fjloomtkld to be 
Lieut., by purchase, vice Willis, f*o- 
inotul. 

,">th — I). G. Beamish, gent., to be 
I .nsfgn, without purchase, vice Bradford, 
promoted. 

Cth— II. T. Briiidky, gent., to he 
Ensign by purchase, vice Citfard, pro- 
moted. 

1 2th— C. T. Morris, gent, to 1* En- 
sign by purchase, vice Fcatherstane- 
haugh, promoted ; Colour Serjeant Vf. 
Mansell, from the Bifle Brigade, tobt 
Ensign, without pui chose, vit-c Tomlin, 
deceased. 

13th — Ensign R. F. King to be 
Instructor of Musketry. 



&».] 



1'BOMOTrOXa AOT> APPOINTJLE^TJi. 



155 



14 th — E. Jcrvia, gunf , ti)> be Ensign, 
by purchase, vice Laing, promoted. 

■t. A. Grey, from Half Pay, 

ff— ttirhi I tn be Copt., vice II, T. 

wln> exchanges; T. II, K. 

to be Ensign, liy pur- 

. vioc LuldeU, promoted ; II. J, 

arti, without 

v promotion of Lieut. E. A. 
kite 9ili March, 1858, 
instead <>f 16th March, 1858, as pre* 
Is- staled, 

R. P. O'Shea, from 
A.ljt,, of ■ Depot Battalion, to he Capfc. 
rioe Flanistead, who exchanges ; Z, 
Mauaulay, gent., to be Ensign, willmut 

■i'-il, 
iiiud— Lima. T. & BobSatol I 
purchase, tice Nunn, who retire! ; 
Ensign G. H French to bu Lieut by 
pun ha-^', vice Ha.- uli, who retires ; 
to lye Lieut., by 
purcbaoo, vice Robin. 

it., to be Ensign, 

by puTnlwir. rim r'mirl ...uted. 

4l*t — E. V«>unghusbau(l, gent., to 

be Euaign, by purchase, vice 1-irook*, 

"i — Surg. T. C. QLeary, M.B., 
88th Foot, to be Surg., rice 
o»tt who exchanges. 

f I .'. W. lUmmid to 
;.t . by purchase, vice Piiier, who 
retire* 5 Eunigu C B. C. Bpeke, to be 
Lieut., by purchase, vice HaniomL 

; Shirley to be Lieut. , 
■rebate, vice Cooke, deceased, 
?. Bainl, gent., to be Ensign, 
urchase, vice RUev, promoted. 
—Lieut. A, F. A. Slaik. to be 
TiTrhani, vice Copland who 
retires, 

SlrUi— P. Chalmers, gent., to be En- 
sign, by purchase, vice Brown, pro- 
motel. 

*i— Eusifrn II. G. Cavendiali to l>e 

Lieutenant, l>y purchase, vice Sparke, 

in T. Best, from the 

4Mb FmAr to be Surgeon, vice O'Leary, 



7*rd — H. Synge, gent., to be Ensign, 
without purchase, vioe W Hamilton, 



H4ih— Paymaster W. Vaudcrkwto, 
(root the Royal Limerick Militia, to bo 
Paymaster, vice Donelan, deceased. 

Mod— Ensign G. E. Campbell to be 
Unit., by purcliase, vice Cooper, pro- 



■!i— T.T, Irvine, gent., to be En- 
sign, without purchase, vioe Cooper, pro- 



Bine Brigade — burgeon L>. 

R. Pearson, M.D., from the Staff, to faq 
Assistant Surgeon, vice Robertson, ap- 
pointed to the Staff. 

Koval Newfoundland Companies — 
Miiji i- J. J. Grant, from Half F»y Un- 
fWtaehed, to be Major in succession to 
IIji'M.t Col. Law, promoted to be Major 
General. 

DfcPoT Ba*talIoS». — Captain P. B. 
Drew, from Mth Foot, to be Adjutant, 
vice A, Maclean, appointed Stuff Officer 
of Pensioners. Cupt, G. L. W. D. 
FlnniBtoatl, from the 20th Foot, to be 
Adjutant, vice It, P. Oiguaa, who ex- 
changes. 

Hi wiitaL STAFF, — Assist. Surg. A. 
V, Robertson, from the R>fln rsiigmli , t'> 
be Aaastaat Surgeon, vice Pcurcoii, ap- 
] minted to the Rifle Brigade. 

VjJTERINABT MKDICAt L>i:r,v in \1F.\1 
— G. Naden, gent., to be Aciii kg Vete- 
rinary Surgeon, vice Dulluy, who has 
resigned. 

Beevkt. — Col. Commandant H. W. 
Barke, Retired Full Pay Royal M urines, 
to hnve the honorary rank of Major 
General, under her Majesty's Order in 
Cc-undl of The 13th nf November, 1S56, 
Major the Hon. E. C. 11. Mawsey, 95th 
Foot, to be Lieut, Col. m tbo Army. 

WAR-OFFICE, Araiw 20. 
( The fnHm'. Moat to lw 

A ttyvst 26.) 

1st Regiment of Life Guards— Cornet 
and Sub-Lieut. V. \V. Duaeombe tu be 
Li'juU by purchase, vioe A, E, H. G. 
Viscount tirey de Wilton, who retires ) 
A. V\ r . F. Greville, gent., to be Cornet 
and Sub-Lieut, by purcliaao, vice Dun- 
combe, 

18th Light Dragoons— II. P . Hol- 
ford, gent., to be Cornet ty purchase, 
vice Slack, promoted. 

15th Light Dragoons— A ssut. Surg. 
.1, i iiifiith has been permitted to resign 
his i.-nitjuik-iuu. 

17th Light Dragoon- — <icntkmau 
Cadet G, RosiieT, from the Royal Mili- 
tary College, to be Comet without pur- 
chase, vice Macgregiir, promoted. 

Itoyal Artillery — Assistant Surgeon 
G, A. Grant, from t!io Staff, to bu As- 
Ristaiit Surgeon, vice Fari|uhar»o)i, ap- 
pointed to the Coldstream Guards. 

Royal Enflinwn — He first < hristian 
name Ensign Haig, is Arthur, not 
Anthony, as stated in the Ciaztfte of 1st 
Juh.1859, 

Military Train— Lieut. W. Corbet 
to be CapUin, wiihout purchase, vice 
Brevet Major H, H. A'Court Ingkfield, 



1'ItOMOTlOXS AND APVOtSTMEXW. 









deceased, August I ■> ", Ensign J, TayliU' 
to be Liuiit. withuut purchase, vice <l\«r- 
bet, Aug, 15. 

8th— Ensign C. D. R. Mad J en to he 
Lieut, by | ii-e l'inniger, who 

retires. 

Sth— Capt, W. H, Fed, from the 
Crylun liifle Regiment, to be Captain, 
■vice Bloxsome, who exchanges. 

112th — Ensign R. E. Dawson to be 
Lieut, by purchase, vice Wither, who 
retires, H, B. Andrews, gent., to be 
Ensign by purchase, vice S. Mair, pro- 
moted. 

17th— J. H. Thorold, gent, f to be 
Ensign, by purchase, vice Lawrence ; 
F. Arguimban, whose appoint men t has 
lwen cancelled, that Officer nut having 
joined since llis appointment, 

2oth. — Ensign Maca.ulay'3 appoint- 
ment bears date 2ftrd August. IS59, not 
23rd August, 18&B, its orrsmeounly Stated 
in last Tuesday's (JmttM 

21ft — Capt. A. Beedon, from the 89th 
Foot, to be Captain, rice De Vic Valpy, 
who exchanges, 

31st — (J. M. Lambert, gent., to be 
Ensign, by purchase, vice La Touche, 
appointed to the 30tk Foot, 

41 st — Ensign J . Caul field to be Lirut. 
by purchase, vice Mac lend, who has re- 
tired ; Ensign N. Montgomery to be 
Lieut, by purchase, vice Fraser, who re- 
tires ; Quartermaster J. Simpson, from 
t ) topot Battalion, to be Paymaster, 
vice It rant, deceased. 

40th— Lieut. T. Murphy, fVutn Half 
Pay bite Turkish Cuntiugent, to be 
Lieut, vice Atkinson, promoted to an 
Unattached Company, without pur- 

rh;i-f. 

53rd — EiiM^ii C. Pye to lit? Adjutant, 
vice Lieut. Macneill, who tesigi. 
Adjutancy only, May SO. 

,">iih. — Ensign J, Chute to be Lieut , 
by purchase, vice Evered, promoted. 

60th,— Surgeon H. J. Shoo lea, M.D., 

having completed tweuty years' full-pay 

service, to be Surgeon Mij-.r, under (he 

Warrant of the 1st October, 1858, 

Jul? as, I 

Stith. Major 0, Rykes, from Half -pay 
Unattached, to be Major, vice Ornisby, 
who exchanges, Captain V. F. Stud- 
dert to he Major, by pwrrihiift, vice 
, who retires. Lieutenant II. P. 
HatcliBlor to be Captain, by purchase, 
Staddart, Ensign \". ('■■iukt t.. 
Ueutenant, by purchase, vice Batchi-- 
Eusign W, Howard to he Lieule* 
by paivkftw, vice Burro*™, pro- 
's"!!*,— R. J. Mad 1 : ,. to he 



Ensign by pUrdttM, . i> i Jackson, pro- 

86th.— Lieut. W. Knipe, to bs 
tain, without purchase, vice Boyrto, »• 
tired upou full pay. 

89th.— Captain Do Vic Valpy, boa 
the 21st Foot, to be Captain, vie*.- B:«- 
don, who exchanges. 

95th.— A. T. Holme, gent., to ba Ea- 
sign by purchase, vice Wi] 
moted in the 17th Foot. 

Wth,— F. L. G. Gj . »b» 

Ensign without purchase, vice Muitn 
who resigns, 

OSth,— Ensign T. T. Simpson to U 
Lieutenant by purchase, vice Lent* 
promoted. 

2nd West Indkn I. 
Cow&rd, gent., to b* Ensign, 
purchaaa, \ deceased. 

Ceylon Rifle Reginimt.- ' 
J. C. Fielding, to !«.• Captain with** 
purchase, vice Clement, deceased, Ane 
15; Captain B, C, W ( !. Illoxaouw.fmB 
the 9th Font, to lie Captain, hoc Pod, 
who exchanges ; Ensign J. A. Dcnlr* 
to be Lieutenant, without purchase, vtt 
Fielding, Aug, ! ■ 

be Ensign without purchase, rice Dsa- 
ton, promoted. 

Dkfot Battalion,— Major J V 
war, from Half Pay Unattached, to te 
Major, rice Rowlanda, who cxehangen, 

Staff. — Lieut. Colonel nod Brevet 
Colonel C, H. Somerset, C.B., 7 -' i • ■ 
to bo Dcpnty Adjutant < leuernl I 
Forces nerving in Boml 
Colonel E. II. tlreathi .i i, 
P<«>t, who has resigned tliat ape 
ment; Captain and Brevet 
Colynel J. W. RcynoliU, Unatt 
from Deputy Assistant Adjutant < 
ralat Head Quarter, to be Depot 
jutant General to the Forces in Jiunaici, 
in succession to Brevet Colonel T. H. 
Tidy, whose period of Staff service hat 
expired, Oct. 1, 

It'^i-iTAi, Staff, — Surgeon Major H. 
Mapleton, M,D,, to he prornotetl to the 
rank of Deputy Inspector General of 
Hospitals, Acting Assistant Sureeoa 
J. Lander, M.D., to be AseutaBt Sur- 
geon to the Fc-rcea. Dated fall March, 
1858. 

To Artec the lirevtt Rtmkof Strt/tm, — 
Assistant Surgeon J. Favrer. M.D., of 
the Bengal Medical Start Dated 7th 
September, 1858. Assistant Surg 
B, Partridge, nf the Bengal Medical 
Staff. Dated 7 th September, 13f>S. A* 
swtant Surgeon H. M. Greenhow, of 
the Bengal Medical Staff. Dated 7th 
i nber, 1 858, Amis tan! Surgeon It 




PROMOTIONS AND .VPPOlXTMKJiTTH. 



157 



tho Bengal Medical Staff. Dated 
ptamber, 1858. 

rBT— The undermentioned pro 

s to take place, eon-wrment on the 

f General Sir Jotiu Slade, Bart., 

Colonel of tli>? 5th Dragoon 

, on the 13th August, 1839:— 

General Sir F. Steven, K.C.B. 

.G„ Colonel of the 8:Jrd Knot, to 

ier»L Aug. 14 ; Major ( lenural 

' -ncl of the GJtli Foot, 

Lieut, General, August 14 ; Col 

arles T. Van Straubcnzoc, K.C. 

If Pay, 3rd Foot, serving on the 

nth the tem[H>rary rank, of Major 

d ill command of the Force* in 

to be Major General, Atl£. 14 ; 

i'. Colonel J. W. Major, on 

if, tn In' Colonel, Aug, 

Major W. M'Doiialdi SSth 
lo bo Lieut. Colonel, Aug. 14 ; 
n E, M . the Earl of Longford, 2nd 
uiu-ils, to be Major, Aug. 14. 

tain W. C. Russell, of the Bengal 
jy, and Commiasary of Ordnance 
ili. ili i.l, to he Major in tli<; Amiv, 
t, IBS8 : Captain H. Finch, 
Hist Bengal Native In fan try, [<■ 
jor in the Army, July 30, 1858, 

matter IV. Voung, of a lk|>>t 
k«n, having retired upon Half Pay 
rtenmister previous Ui the decla- 
of war with Russia, and who had 
ited in all a service of thirty years, 
which a* Quartermaster, to have 
norary rank of Captain, July 1. 



WAi: OFFICE, Aug. 28. 

K, Okpf.h.— The Queen h** 
i-ly pleased to command that 
ncd Assistant Surgeons 
r Mnjextj V Indian Army be pro- 
■• Brevet Rank of Surgeons, 
the ?tl er, 1859, in con- 

t their services daring the 
f Lacktiow: — Assistant Surgeon 
B. Partridge, H. 
irohnw, K. Bird. 

■ ni'l ■ if Hit Royal Highiiws 
neral Commanding-in-Chief. 

W, I'. PORSTEB, 

Deputy Adjutant lioneral, 




THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 

Duke of Lancaster's Own Regiment 
of Yeomanry Cavalry — Cornet J. C. 
Starkie to be Lieutenant, vice Ridgway, 
resigned; the Right Hon. E . I .'. Caven- 
dish, eouiraonly called Lunl Frederick 
C. Cawudish, to be Cornet, vice Starkie, 
promoted, 

5th Company of Lancashire Volunteer 
Killew — It. iL Tinley, gent., to bo Lieut. 

Montgomeryshire 1 eomaury Cavalry 
Captain the Right Hon. O, IL 11. C. 
Stuart, Earl Vane, to be Major, V$M 
Williames, resigned ; Lieut. D. J ones 
to be Captain, vice Bmiuor Maurice, 
resigned ; Lieut. E. Peel to lie Captain, 
vice Earl Vane, promoted ; Cornet G, 
W, Adair to be Lieutenant, vice Jones, 
promoted ; Cornet A. S. Tripp to lie 
Lieutenant, viee Fetl, promoted ; Cornet 
W, H. Adams to be Lieutenant, vice 
Williams, deceased. 

liHjyal Wdta — H. A. B. Bruce, gellt., 
to be Ensign, vice Edwards, promoted ; 
C. Hurrell, gent., to he Ensign, vicu 
Ho] man, promote 1. 

Wiltshire Volunteer Rifle Cuips — J, 
IL Jacob, Exp, to be Captain of the 1st 
Company. 

1st or Hands worth Company of the 
StatfOrdshire Volunteer UiileJCorjia — 
11. El well, Esq., to be I 'aptain. 

l.-t Company of Northumberland 
Volunteer Site— E. Trotter, Esq., te 
lie Captain ; J. Feuwick, gent,, to be 
Lieut. ; J. Fawins, gent., to be Ensign. 

1st Company of Northumberland 
Volunteer Artillery — A, Potter, bL, 
to bo Captain ; E. Young, gent., to be 
First Lieut. ; F. Filter, gent., to bo 
Second Lieut. 

1st or Royal Beet Middlesex— Ensign 
R, J. Blyth to be Lieut., vice lies, re- 
tlgaeci 

+lh Royal South Middlesex— Cftpl. 

A. < .". I'iujames to be Major, vice 
Blanchford, resigned. 

Royal Glamorgan Light Infantry — 
J. F. N. Hewett, formerly Lieut, in her 
Majesty's 72nd Regiment of Foot, to be 
Captain. 

TtitU Highland Light Infantry, or 
lavenen, Baurl, Elgin, and Nairn. 
Shires — Lieut. D. C. Cameron to be 
I 'itpt, viee the Hon. L A. Grout, re- 
rigMd, 

d Fertlisliiie ROm -Lieut. F. 
MeN. Leslie to be Capt., vice Pren.fl.-r, 
renigned. 



168 



[tei 



DEATHS. 



On the morning of the 23rd of 
August, sincerely and affectionately 
lamented, Jane Louisa, wife of Colonel 
Fitzinnyer, CB., Commanding the 
Royal 'Artillery, North Britain, and 
eldest daughter of the late Major II. 
llowyer Lnuo, «>f the Royal Artillery, 
nnil of Spring Hill, Staffordshire. 

On the 11 th .Tnly, nt Barbados, Sam- 
iH'1 Brock Alder, Esq., D.A.C.G., aged 
3d. 

(hi tlif 6th August, at Tunbridgc- 
wells, CTniifiiln T. W. Andrews, Royal 
loudon Militia, Into of Her Majesty's 
•J.Mli Itt-giiiioiit of ('mm-ionians. 

On the 11 th August, nt Hackney, 
Jane, willow oi Lieutenant W. Avery, 
aged 87. 

On tho loth August, nt Wccdon, 
aged «!», Mr. Richard Hnrrntt, who 
M'ncd through tln< wnr in the Peninsula, 
mid ii1n> nt Waterloo. 

On the I .'Mil Aii^nM, near liiuusgntc, 
Sarah, widow of Captain Boxer, R.N., 
aged 72. 



On the 11th Angnt-t, at Cnrrftaa, 1 
David Brace, formerly of _ the Bf 
Artillery, many yean Seijeaul Vi 
at Addiscombe. 

At Douglas, Isle of-Man, oatta 
Angnst, Humphrey Henry Carmtt 
Esq., late Captain and FaymarterK 
36th Regiment of Foot, aged ML 

On the 14th Angnst, at Canal- 
Shannon, Cant C. T. Clement, of! 
Majesty's CcTlon Rifles, aged Sf. 

On 'the 27th June, at Cavaf 
Licntenuit Robert W. Dent, 1st Bit 
Light Cavalry. 

On the 9th April, on his psa 
home from Calcutta, K. L. I 
Esq., Bengal Civil Smhe,onlraji 
the late Captain E. S. Ellis, H.RIC 

At Futteghur, on 19th Jane, Q 
tcrmnstcr Hamilton, 8th Regiment. 

On the 8th August, at Dover, B 
lieth, widow of Commander W. 1 
chinson, R.N., in her 90th year. 



m 



QUE LAND FORCES. 

Exglaso. — Second Line of Defence, 

England appear to be thoroughly alive to 
essity of maintaining a powerful land force — in addition to a 
il naval force, so aptly termed England's First Line of Defence, 
ftestions of even the humblest soldier as regards the Second 

Defence, may prove of value ; bo, without further preface, 
ter plunges headlong into the " troubled waters " that beset 
c at the many perplexing questions of the day, 
ig into consideration the extensive military organization of 

powers, as well us the wide-spread dominions wbich con- 
the British empire, the organized laud force required to 
the said empire secure from even the meditation of an 
cannot safely he set clown at leas than 700,000 men, to include 
..piiio army for India, but exclusive of a Native Indian Army, 
it India regiments, and all colonial corps. This force might 
irtioned thus : — 
The Army for Service 
Tin 1 Army of Eeserve 
A 1 1 \ 1 1 iaries (Volunteers) 



250,000 men. 
250,000 „ 
200,000 „ 

Total 700,000 men. 



%e Army for Service. 

ve proportions that some of the best authorities onmililary 

have laid down, to be observed in calculating the strength 

teveral arms oftbe service ascompared with the iufautry.areas 

i — viz., Cavalry ^, Artillery -, Engineers ^, Field Traiu^so 
obtain 250.OG0 men— 

( >l' Infant rv there shoidd he , , 184,000 men 

33,562 „ 

Artillery 23,075 „ 

Engineers . 6,163 „ 

Field Train .... 2,075 „ 



Total 250,005 



m iiuw examine what we have of these several arms in our 

tinny, according to our establishments, and according to 
custom counting only rank nnd file, and let us take the 
mates of 1859-00 ae our guide, 
exact strength of European cavalry and artillery specially 
Lng to the three Presideiuira in India, from want of official in- 
i mi cannot be estimated quite so correctly. 

io,, No. 371, Oct., 1859, m 



160 Ottb Iajts fobces. (OW, 

* It appears that of 

Infantrv. we have . . . 160,650 men. 

Cavalry 19,947 „ 

Artillery 82,985 „ 

Engineers 3,466 „ 

Military Train .... 1,674 „ 

Total 218,722 men. 



At first sight then, it would appear that we require of 

Infantry 23,950 men. 

Cavalry 13,615 „ 

Engineers 2,687 „ 

Military Train .... 1,001 „ 

41,253 



Whilst of Artillery we have a surplus . 9,910 

Malting total number required 31,343 men. 

The great deficiency in cavalry and the large Burplns in artfllrP 
are the two most striking points in our army " as it is." 

Yet, as almost every rule has its exception, so with this. On 
administrators appear to have used sound reason in decreasing on 
cavalry, and augmenting our artillery establishments. 

The United Kingdom is not a country where cavalry would bff 
the same field for action as on the Continent. In India the facflitk 
of raising irregular corps of cavalry are very great, and from theft 
let us draw our principal supplies of that arm, if we should wanttbei 
Many Indian officers have asserted their opinion that corps might 1 
raised in India, the men of which would readily enlist for general r 
vice. We have had recent proof how the Turcos can fight for Franei 
surely it would be well worth trying the experiment, and to cnK 
those only in India who would agree to such terms. 

Notwithstandingour cavalry is too weak — andshouldbeaugmentei 
On the other hand, artillery appears to be the grand arm suitable 1 
Europeans : it will be observed that in the statement of the arm 
" as it i«,"t that 16,496 of this arm are in India, sufficient for • 
army of 132,000 men. Bead the evidence of the eminent soldiers wb 
have appeared before the late Commission on the Indian Arm; 
Their counsel is to avoid the employment of natives as artilleryniei 
and to have none but Europeans. 

For England's purposes, therefore, it might be argued that tb 

relative proportions of her cavalry and artillery should chaii«e placet 

Cavalry to be Lof the infantry ; artillery to be 1 , thus : — ° 
8 * .-.i 

Infantry IS 1,600 men. 

Cavalry 23.075 „ 

Artillery 33.5(!J „ 

Engineers 6,153 

WiRtnjy Train - 2,075 

• VU* Append!* I. f \^j e Append, 




P1859.] 
Tlie 



jAXd foi 



Tlie Military Train, as organized for European warfare, is out r>f 

I place in India, and inight be reduced to a lower ratio than I 
Our requirements would then stand as follows : — 
Of lnfanf ry we want , 23,950 

Cvalry 3,128 
Artillery 577 

Engineers 2,687 
Military Train 1,001 
3L54S 
Our Secretary for War lately stated in the House of Commons 
that we have 23,000 militia at present embodied ; he, moreover, did 
hoi hold out that it was probable we should be able to disp 
with the services of an equal number of militia for some tamo to 
come. Deduct this force from 31,313 men required, and the only 
real increase wanting to our embodied army will be 8,343 men, 

All parties agree that it ia desirable to hold our militia purely as 
a reserve force ; and most assuredly it ia a misnamed reserve, if so 
»le a body aa 2:3,000 must be continually embodied. 
Let us, therefore, raise our army for service to what our necessi- 
ties tell us we want, 

it stress, as it undoubtedly deserves, is laid on the minimum 
"European force required for India, as elicited from the evidence 
n before the Commission on the Indian Army. 80,000 men, it is 
eaiit, will suffice to adjust the scales. Ib it wise to have ho near a 
balance 'i Throw in 20,000 men, and let the scale sink well down 
in our favour. The prize at Btako is too great to be trifled with, 

But to proceed. For the 23,950 infantry required, aa no schemo 
for raising troops has proved bo successful on the whole as that of 
f« ruling second battalions, let ua have twenty-five more of them. 
Let the four battalions of the 60th riflea be henceforth known as 
the 2nd RiHe Brigade. Eaise anew 60th regiment, and from the 251 h 
to the 48th regiments inclusive, add a second battalion to each.* To 
keep up an army of 100,000 men in India, seventy-six battalions of 
infantry will not he more than necessary. 

For the 3,128 cavalry. Leave the household cavalry us they nee. 
Let 1 11 men constitute a squadron, and give five squadrons to each 

dry regiment in England as well as in India, it would still le 
422 men below our requirements, but it would be near enough, f Of 
artillery, the number required ia too small to render a suggestion 
*sary as to how it should be raised. 
The Engineers require a considerable increase. The objection 
imonly made against maintaining a large force of this moat 
ill arm of the service, is the high rate of pay of the men; 
hnl it must be remembered, that a considerable portion of this pay 
raunerative to the country, being skilled labour that is obtained. 
increasing our numbers, tin* services of a corresponding number 
of civilians ran ln> dispensed with. There are thirty-si* companies, 
110 men form a company, it would require twenty new com 
as to be added to the corps, 

to Appendix II. \ Viilc Appendix II. 

K 2 



orn la^d Foacrs. 






The Military Train arc divided into six battalion?, according ti 
their present formation. By adding one battalion, and incra&Bg 
the establishment of each battalion, the deficient, v that exists might 
be made good. But one word about this corps. Surely it i« 
rendered of far more service, und much better suited to the work 
expected from it in war time, if it were docked of its cavalry pre- 
tensions, four horses to a waggon, and two men on the horsei 
Surely there is a great waste of power here. A strong;, serviceable, 
but light cart for one horse, one man to walk alongside, a few spare 
horses to act as leaders over rough and difficult ground, m 
officers and sergeanta — could more be wanted ? In peace 
employ these men and carta wherever Government work is going 
mi, mid do not be too particular about the military nature 
carts 1 contents. Keep up the military organization of the corps. 
Let it be officered from our cavalry non-commissioned officer dw. 
A gentleman born and bred so, can never adopt this service v 
a qualm, 

In proposing this increase to our army, those who have bad the 

Salience to read thus far, may be saying within themselves — yw 
durable; hut where arc the men to come from ? Consider the m 
required to complete even our present establishments, Thi 
should be— to obtain men is a mere matter of legislation, Thev art* re- 
quired for the country's safety. and must be had. Voluntary 
iuiiy be a grand affair to boast of, but if it prove insuffii 
t'vt t painful to our English vanity, there is nothing for it but tt 

to the ballot. There is one powerful agent that is sadly 
neglected in our military institutions," esprit de corps." It 
generally in the army for service, and is the very keysi 

tiv of all that is good in n regiment; but to keep up M 
pintoffl nation, this " esprit de corps" must expand cm 
ably beyond its present limits. No army of reserve can be k 
ohoorfully by any other means. The scheme about to be pr< 
for i tie army of reserve lias its principal foundation on the libei 
of I his moit powerful engine of ewaving men's minds. 

To gain Hii[>j)t triers to any new scheme, it is a matter uf primary 
ti» examine into all its financial bearings. Hon 
would it cost? At present let us feel our way. and try to di 
whether the plana to be proposed appear as feasible to others as they 
do !<> iIil' sanguine author of them. 

If pronounced practicable, there will be no lack of clever fintn- 

in count the coat. 
Th$ -h nil) f>f Jtr serve, 

.m ic i its will be made on the title. What! change the old con- 
ional nomenclature? Yes. Abolish it altogether, as . 
opposed tn true military esprit, There should be but one armv 
ivallj - one pari embodied on the watch, the other partdisemh 

]l\ bo turn out, equally efficient, or nearly so, at a moment'* 
notice. 

ttf equal to the best of our regu- 
attained ? < inly by embodying them for lengtl 
fifteen ' 










330.] 



OUB LAKJJ FORCES, 



163 



rmy of Reserve should be so composed that fifteen days' training 
would be sufficient. 

The several corps of the Army of Service should have told* off to 
them corresponding corps belonging to the Army of Reserve, and 
both should have a special district from whence to draw their recruits * 

Each service brigade of artillery, each regiment of cavalry, each 
battalion of infantry or military train, each company of engineers, 
should be represented in the Army of Reserve — the same araia, samo 
dress, same devices — silver lace in place of gold the sole distinction. 

There should be that perfect unity of feeling between the district, 
county, or town, which gives its name to each separate corps, and 
the corps itself (Service and Reserve bodies, both), that whilst to the 
one it should form a matter of pride tlrat from no other sources were 
the ranks of her regiment filled, to the other it would serve as au 
iriomd stimulant to the performance of those great deeds that 

re not only as the boast of every Englishman throughout the 

rid, but which more particularly would be cherished from the 

honour it would shed on ita own individual birth place. Again, 

re is a class of men peculiarly adapted to the Army of Reserve — 

trained soldiers, who have completed their term of service, or who 

Eurchase their discharges before their time is up. These men should 
ave strong inducements offered to them to join the Reserve. 
In due course of time we might hope to see the Reserve for the 
most part filled by men who had been trained as soldiers in the ser- 
D battalions — men to whom fifteen days annual rubbing up in their 
old military exercises would prove ample. Another source from 
which the Reserve might receive supplies, is from men found unfit 
for foreign service, and sent home to oe invalided. 

Experience teaches us that many men, strong and active in their 

Ptive country, knock up at once on a foreign station. Some latent 
lease shows itself. These men are often seut home and discharged, 
and the country has been put to much expense to no purpose. Now 
if these men were posted to the Reserve to work out the remainder 
of their BCrvice, many would completely recover, and prove as good 
stuff" to trust to, as a defence, as many of their more strongly eon- 
:i'-il brethren in arms. 
The entire recruiting should be carried on by the Reserve, each 
«» of which should have iU head quarters in the principal town 
of HUB district, or county, or the towu itself, whence the original sup- 
plies of men ore to he drawn. Recruits to be enrolled, in the first 
aUuiee. in the Reserve battalion, regiment, brigade, or company. 
us of enlistment to be teu years active ncrviee, or twenty 
• rve service, for the infantry (increased in the cavalry and 
The ranks of the Reserve tu be kepi up to its full estab- 
the district to which it is told oil' — the ballot to be 
I to if men are not forthcoming. 

ice battalion to be kept up to its full establishment by tin- 

iuIl- Ilnyul Hhvm' Artillrry ; 1st Brigade liY.-i-ric Hoyal Horta 
Dragoon liiuii'it- 5 1m. Uiktvl" Dragoon (>tmnR isi Bmt.ili<<i< 
l -t Itascrve Battalion HoyuIa ^o. 1 C'-oiuiiati/ ltiivid Eugtoetts | Wo. 1 
ive Ituyal Engineers. 



Reserve, and in the event of volunteers not stepping forward, thu 
ballot to be resorted to in the Reserve. The only mi 
corps to be exempted from ballot in such eas< hose who 

already passed through the Service corps, and impleted 

term "r purchased ofl'it; or men who have served an equivi 
twenty years in the Reserve. 

It would, of course, require carefully drawn up estim&ti 
census to proportion the numbers that each parties of th< 
should keep up. 

For such men as would prefer a corps recruited general 

Pould be desirable to have a certain number. The regiments - 
ild off for service in India should be of this class. 
Some are of opinion that recruits, as a body, like io lm< 
choice of their own regiments ; but, if we had a system (hat ofl 

1 vantages from ensuring a newh-.joined soldier the society of men to 
whom he is already known, it is only in accordance with hi 
nature to suppose the preference would be given to his • 
corps. Thus, all coming from the same district, in the tirft pi 
and enrolling themselves in the Reserve, in volunteering I'm* du- 
nce curps, the volunteer would look forward to uieci 
comrades — he would not feel a stranger; and when thi 

return to the Bescrve, each annual muster would be looke-l forward 
t» as bringiug together a crowd of old acquaintances. 

Idier of the State is entitled to his pension, whether it is art he 
service or reserve service he has rendered. Pensions to be gained bj 
a double amice in the Beserve, aa compared with active service, tiua. 

21 years, Infantry > Active Ban, \ Reserve 

M years, Cavalry I Berried. ears, ) 

Broken periods to count in the same proportion. 

The bounty is the most powerful agent, at present, in providing 
recruits. A sum of money and a free kit on joining the Bex 
further Bum on joining the Service corps (without a kit, at tit* 
uniforms ef thcBeecrve and Service would le exactly the si 
a yet further sum to re-engage for further service, whether in the 
Service corps or Reserve corps, might be found efficacious. 

Discharge by purchase might be carried on ns row. except that a 
reduction might he made in the case of a trained 
purchase his discharge out of the Service corps, but I 
tion to remain in the Reserve. 

Although making H a general rule, to draw supplies of men 
the Reserve corps lo fill up blanks in the Service corps, there is no 
reasnn why u head-quarter recruits," ns they ore now culled- 
enlisted by the service battalion itself — should Dot have l heir v 
grattiied. By continuing this practice it might inert the . l>j. 

man choose hi' 

own r. 

HBBj^ody m1 



ID FOEC 



and infantry of tins force should each bo made available in ease of 

1. according to the ana of the sendee he has been brought up to. 
The present system is very faulty in this respect. 

«lier t though his limbs may be somewhat still", 
would render far more service in a charge than tvvn-thirds of the 
young cavalry soldiers of even two years' service. A veteran battery 
of artillery , a veteran troop or squadron of cavalry, or a veteran 
company or two of infantry— even a veteran Bfjuad of engineers 
would not be out of plaee in the Unserve corps. It would render 
the services of staff officers of pensioners unnecessary, as their work 
would fall tn the start' of the Reserve battalion. 

Tn provide for such a contingency as the desire of pensioners 
and trained soldiers whose first term of service had expired, to be 
told off to the Reserve corps of the district in which they had found 

iivenicnt to settle, arrangements might be made to enable them 

a so. 
Having given a general idea of this now scheme for replacing the 
inili 11 Army of Reserve, let us now examine more closely a 

fchod for organizing the force. In the proposed organization of 

A nny for Service* it will be observed that the infantry are divided 

i — 



Infantry 
Cavalry 

Horse Artillery 
Foot ditto . 
Engineers 
Military Train 



175 Battalions 
33 Regiments 

3 Brigades 
21 Brigades 
515 Companies 

7 Battalions 



Our Army of Reserve should preserve the same organization. "We 
roust ne\f take into consideration how to turn to account the tf t- 
uf the miscalled force, churning for itself the attributes of an 
Army of Reserve, yet fulfilling them so imperfectly, which exists under 
tin- name of militia. The yeomanry corps are the cavalry force be- 
to tlie auxiliary or volunteer force, so that we have only two 
service to consider, viz. infantry ami artillery. A great 
portion of the regiments of our army at present bear the names of 
and districts, and there are militia regiments assimilating 
!•■ them in name, yet strange as it may appear, in most cases, no 
ie unitcj them, consequent thereon. Here, however, is some 
ion to begin upon to kindle up the much to be desired esprit 
aV corps. The Irish regiments of militia considerably exceed the 
>rps hearing their coun try's titles in the line, the recent 
m L»f *2ud battalions to regiments affords a ready means of 
dying ihia. To give some idea how this proposition might Ik* 
oul a list is given, f No doubt many modification* would he 
ul it will serve to show upon what method it is proposed 
to dr.. closer fellowship tho armies of Service and Reserve. 

raised for the Army of Reserve would amount 
IS follows: — 

uQtlbr. II. f Yule Apjujmlix ILL 




Infantry— 175 Battalions of 10O0 men each - 

Cavalry — 33 Regiment*, 4 Squadrons of 144 each 

Artillery (Horse), 3 Brigades 

Artillery (Foot), 21 Brigades 

Eu^ineera. — 56 Companies . 

Military Train— 7 Skeleton Battalions . 



Add Fensioncrs formed into additional batteries, troops, 
or companies, say, ...... 



TOO 



Deduct 2,523 not available 







Before quitting this subject of the Army of Reserve, we oug 
consider upon the best method of ensuring a proper knowledge 
duties fco each soldier, according to the arm of tin- sen ice i*> 
he belongs. Suppose ire were to establish schools of instruction) 
calling them 

Drill Brigades of Artillery. 
Drill Regiments of Cavalry. 
Drill Battalions of Infantry. 
Drill Companies of Engineers. 

Every recruit on being enrolled to have to pass through 
of instruction. For infantry, say six months, cavalry tw el v< 
fifteen months. Every soldier would, by such means*, bt-we! 
in his duties, and the annual fifteen days, or twi s tnia- 

big, would not lie file farce it is now. Commanding oJ 
staif of tbeee drill corps to be selected from amongst the tawt 
efficient officers of the Service corps. 

Company officers and non-commissioned officers, according ; 
number of recruits undergoing instruction, to be embodied from lb 
Reserve corps for such time as their services might; be required. 

The drill brigades of artillery and cavalry would entail the 
eity of keeping up a certain number of liorses on the perm;; 
embodied establishment of the Army of Reserve; but the mooej 
would be web" laid out. Teach men well at first starting, it; 
can never quite forget their art. 

To carry out the annual training of artillery and cavalry n 
corps, who would be dismounted, it might be arranged to place a dis- 
mounted squadron of the Reserve cavalry alongside a squadron of 
Service cavalry for fifteen days, and let the Reserve squadron use th* 
horses of the Service squadron ; the same with a Reserve batt 
field artillery, and a Service battery. 

These drill battalions would also serve to keep the officers of lb* 
Reserve up to their wnrk. 

At first starting, these schools of instruction, or soldier 
toi its, would ha\ e utx over-abundant quantity of raw mate] 
into shape; but time would remedy this, as the Reserve 
to lill with old trained soldiers. 

The Roeu re cavalry would, perhaps, of all, moBt repaj 
system as respects their training, so very difficult is it to fill 



OtfB I.VN'D FORCES. 



167 



4 a in their arm. The yeomanry cavalry is composed of a class of 
men who could not fulfil the conditions of a Reserve cavalry in 
ping the ranks of our Service cavalry regiments complete. 
Depot battalions for the Service araiy might be kept as now; 
y would be eased of some of their labour bv getting recruits 
dell over to them with some knowledge of their profession. 
Independent of every contrivance for thoroughly teaching re- 
ttfl at drdl and depot corps, there should be every means ami 
trivance to make a soldier's life off duty a popular one ; good 
airy reading rooms ; a comfortable canteen, and more after the 
riptb n of a popular tea garden than the dreary potdiouse 
its usually met with at present ; ground for cricket ; bowls ; 
mnastics ; even a theatre for amateur theatricals, an amusement 
soldiers are very fond of. This style of building is also very useful 
i ing lectures. 
When the militia was raised it was expected that it would bo 
from a class superior to that which formed the line, but this baa not 
generally proved to be the case, so that it is better to consider the 
,w material for both as being of the same quality. 
Let us rapidly review the system, proposed to ensure our 
establishments being complete t- — 

1st. — The Service companies would be supplied from its own 
put as now. 

mi— The depot Service companies would be supplied from the 
eserve battalion. 
3rd. — The Reserve battalion would be supplied from its own 

county, or town. 
Voluntary enlistment, with resort to ballot, in case of failure, 
usr supply the Reserve battalion, 

Volunteers for active service, nr ballot in the Reserve battalions, 
case of failure, must supply the Service dep6ts. 
The Service depots would supply the Service battalions as now. 
.\ regiment or battalion has no need of a depot when on home 
service , Hid the dep^t companies should then join the Service ones. 
ie Service drawing its supplies direct from the Reserve corps. 

Jy remains to say a few words about the Aitxiliury Farce, or 
rmy of VoJuni 

This body would not require so complete an organization as the 
rmy of Reserve. The estimate of their numbers, 200,000 men, bit 
■inled as the least to be calculated on. If the patriotism of 
it iv breaks out to the extent of five times that number, so 
neb ihe b» , 

Let this army be shackled by no rides as to the different propor- 
ii firm, whether a battalion of rifles, or a company; a 
tjimeii! airy, a squadron, or troop ; a brigade of artillery, a 

tu-ry, «>r a ■quaoroD to work one pet gun. If the Government is 
tisfied of their loyalty, pray recognise them; only let it he uudrr- 
iluit this is ;i. force whose members must undertake to arm, 

Bind clothe themselves, and also to pay for their instruction, 
y should expect from Government should be arms and auimu- 
.ion from the Government factories at cost price. 



168 



OUH LASD tOllCES. 



LC 



He who is not sufficiently independent in his eircum»tar 
afford this outlay haw no business aa a volunteer. 

Volunteers should be of that class, who give their sttei 
anna from puro love of their country, expecting no reeo 
seeking no assistance from the public purse. 

The Armies of Service and Reserve may call theirs n \>< i i'Msion-, 
not so the volunteers. They are amateurs, and such ai 
shoidd the) f be, as independent Englishmen love to 
in every art and science. ileu who put to blush over and o 1 
again the professed followers of the very crafts themselves. 

An accepted volunteer would be free from the liability to 
the Army of Reserve, tluB would be quite privilege enough. 

The yeomanry cavalry form a magnificent force of their p i 
arm, already in existence. 

Let ua wind up. England will never be in a thoroughly eout 
position, until she has a system Bueh as described, or one &< 
similar to it, which unites all the land forces of the country, 
defining to each the part it baa to play in the defence 
country. One alao that provides against mir forced being 01 
jMgwr,*" a sure means of keeping the ranks of each army full uu i 
their establishments ia a sine qua non. 

The Army of Service must oe numerous enough to insure 
to the State when at peace with all its neighbours. 

The Army of Reserve must be sufficient to take the place 
Army of Service, when this latter is required to take the lieldabnad, 
and also to fill up the blanks in the Army of Service caused bj 
service in the field, as well as ordinary casualties. The voEuntnf 
force can never be required, in addition to the Army oil! 
the day arrives that a foe ia found rash enough to heard IK 
Euglaiul in his own den. 

Above all things, do not let us bo taken in by the prof* 
made by foreign powers to reduce their present anitun 
army for service at '250,000 men does not allow us one man ' 
what is absolutely necessary io render our position us i ti 
power a safe one, and io a defensive point of view. Let u* hfl 9 
to all foreign powers, and yet in a position to make them i i 
Until thia takes place, the disgraeef'i that havi 

public mind of late must be expected to occur agaiu. It it I 
of every Englishman to lend a helping hand toward* Y. 
defences, but it ia a very different business to be continually u 
the French nation that wo are defending ourselves against 
particular, in spite of their assertions thai they are uui 
allies. Thank them for their friendly assurances, but continue i 
defencea. If wa choose to make Eugland one vast eita 
it to any foreign power, but why make so much noise al 

Agitation lm* dene its work, and England's mind is 
have her defences. Now the time is come' to set about H : let 
have silence, and the work will be both quicker and better d 



m 



OUR LAND FOBCES. 



160 



APPENDIX I. 

BX OF THE AbMY FOB SERVICE — AS IT IS— WCLUDIKQ OJTLY 

BEmoPEAys. 
INFANTRY. 



CUHI'S. 



'Bcgta. of Line 

(60tl"> 
(OOtbJ 



atts (India) 



HTIIKSUTJI. T..TAI. 



1 | 1 (65th) 
j £ 2 (3rd iRifleBrigis) 
r £ 64 iii India 

I I 63 

j 3 12 (Enmpcans, India) 

143 



800 
1400 
1800 

liitMJ 
950 
1200 



T.jtul 



149 Battalions— 160,651} men, 



5j60O 

1,400 

2,600 

76,800 

59,850 

14,400 



I'-K.'I.-.U 



CAVALKY. 



CORlB. 


HE<I TS. 




<*Q1 ! A))- 


BTfitSXGTH 


TOTAL. 










RElitMKNT. 




junta 

H<n-;<eGu*rdg... 


2 
1 


... 


8 
4 


■)51 
351 


702 

Mi 


m Guutk 


7 


j 5 of 5 squadrons 
| 2 of 4 „ 


25 

fl 


676 
577 


3380 
1154 


^ragoona 


IS 
5 


6 of 5 „ 
1 -'<■(' 4 B 


30 
49 

y 


676 
577 
(J7C 


4056 
6924 

3360 




33 




I4H 




13.54 7 



TmIjiI 



33 Regiments— 148 Squadrons — 19,947 men, 



AJ:t|i,i.ki:v. 



I "iti-a. 


i;i;i«..\ i >l -. t ivvi n,i. 1 1>. 


MS*, 


loTAI.. 


Hone Artilkrv 
iliJltry 


1 

14 


10 

112 
unknown 


at home ... 1371 J 
in India ... 7 U \ 
at home&coIo&tcsHSOfi' i 
in India .. 7128 1 


2119 

21633 
613 


\rtilltry 
rtiHery 


I 
3 


9 
18 


... 


l-Jfln 
2880 


Hominy. 
Artillery 
rtillciy 
i 


2 demi } 
1 demi | 


4 

12 


... 


560 
1440 


'M. 

Artillery 
rtillery 


1 

4 demi 


4 
16 





560 
1IM 



Total 



885 Batteries— 32.985. 



oriual strength of the Duttcries of Indian Artillery not being known ths 
lions have been made at the lowest cstinutfGi 



170 



OUB UID 70BCX8. 

ENGINEERS. 

Number of men at home and in Colonies 
in India 



[Ooi, 



(Divided into 36 


Total 
Companies.) 


... 


MILITARY 


TRAIN. 




At homo 
In India 


... 


1438 
236 


Total 
(Divided into 6 Battalions.) 


1674 



3006 
458 

3466 



APPENDIX II. 

Return or the Army of Service — as "proposed to be." 
INFANTRY. 



CORPH. 


BATTS. | 


1 E8TBL8BT. 1 


torn 


Guards 

Regts.— 1st Batt. 
„ 2nd Batt. 
Rifles... 
Europeans (India) 


7 

100 
48 

8 
12 


... j 800 
)■§ »y 1 for Australia ... ! 1400 
(1 » 76 for India, China,** | 1200 
l * 01 for Home Service, i > a . n 
)» » 01 Mediterranean, &c. 1 J 96 ° 

2 168 | 


lw«00 

M\4» 

TsMH 




175 



175 Battalions=184,650. 



CAVALRY. 



CORPS. 



Life Guards 
Royul Horse Guards 
Dragoon Guards 
Light Cavalry 
Bengal Cavalry 



REOT8. 



2 

1 
7 

18 
5 

33 



iflQUAD-; » TBESOTH 

i BOSS. ! ° F EACH 
, SQVADBOX. 



TOTAL 



as now 
as now 

5 squadrons each 
do. 

do. 



8 
4 
35 
90 
25 

i 162 



875 
878 
144 
144 
144 



i 



70! 

»1 

5,040 

12,000 

3,600 

22£5l_ 



33 Regiments— 162 Squadrons— 22,653. 







ARTILLERY. 




CORPS. 


BRUUS. 


MATR8. 




TOTAL 


Royal Horse Artillery 
„ Bengal „ 
„ Bombay „ 
„ Madras „ 

Royal Foot Artillery 


1 

1 

i 

14 


10 
10 

5 

5 
112 


of 220 men each 
say 6Brgds. Fd. Btrs.8 Garis. 


2,200 
3,200 
1,100 
1,100 


„ Bengal „ 
„ Bombay „ 
„ Madras „ 


3 
2 
o 


21 
16 
16 


2 >» n 1 *» 
1} It x I » 
lj n » 2 >» 


> 26,962 




24 


198 




33,562 _ 



.] OUB LAND FOBC1S. 171 

» organization of Batteries into Brigades, amalgamating the Royal and 
i European Artillery, according to one uniform system, will probably be 
ed «oon. In the above Return Horse Artillery Brigades are given 10 
ries, and Foot Artillery Brigades 8 Batteries each. 



ENGINEERS. 
56 Companies — 110 men per Company =6,160 men. 

MILITARY TRAIN. 
7 Battalions of 375 men each=2,625 men. 

Infantry ... ... ... 184,560 

Cavalry ... ... ... 22,653 

Artillery ... ... ... 38,562 

Engineers ... ... ... 6,160 

Military Train ... ... ... 2,625 



249,650 
lading Officers and Non-commissioned Officers, our Army for Service wonld 
1 260,000 men. 

a Militia Regiments printed in Roman in the following tables correspond with 
Icgiments of the Line opposite them. Those printed in Italic are Militia 
Mate in existence not having corresponding regiments in the Lane. Proposed 
he battalions of the line should take their appellation from them. Those 
• of counties printed between parenthesis signify that it would be well, in the 
natance, to ask the counties which claim the 1st Battalion to raise represen- 
a> If beyond their power, whatever county can supply the remedy to give 
name to the battalion. There are nineteen required. Rutland, also, whose 
a is composed of one company, would require assistance from neighbouring 
lies to supply the 58th Regiment, 
e bead quarters of each Reserve Corps to be at the principal town of its own 

Lor circuit, or at the most central town of a district, if several counties are 
ed to furnish the reserve, as in the case of the cavalry and artillery, 
e Indian Reserve might find it convenient to have their head quarters more 

l,t&08— 

1st Bengal Reserve Infantry "i 

1st do. Cavalry > at one place in London. 

1st do. Artillery J 

2nd Bengal Reserve Infantry 1 

2nd do. Cavalry f at one place in Dublin. 

2nd do. Artillery 

©on. 



193 



4H»ftl«9 ffftlMt. 



(<M. 



9 



*"5 

8^ 



J£a&fcJs2laa3 




i'i J? 

Is&t&iSiUijf'ii 




B 



I 1 4 i 

: o5 •.* : m :«S 

•*** - 73 "TS *S 

« 3 o 8 

2 « * « 










5 

« 



tit: 



• »«£«« KftS 



3 

00 



5 £ * 
sis; 



sttiti: 

s s * s 

£ § 3i a 



• # 




-• ."615 If* ^?°S§ s 

5 air o-3 



w 



§5 



o 



s 



o 



;<d :8 



S 



: E ; 



5" a 

K 0> 



M fe 



* * =1 * 5« 

I 2 S A I 



= 1 






(2 



i J R s 

•8 a h 

3 I « 






Jj 

111 I^SIHI I^^il K 

|J| 

■.*•'•■ i ^ 

r i : i : | : i -| : | 'IsiJiil. 

•1*1:1 ;f fiS?le||l'1f? " 

CIp-i;iH:i-^-«M51i-i01 




174 



OUB LASD fOBCXfl. 







00 QC OQ QO 00 i 



OUB IiAND FOBCBS. 



175 



1* Life Guards 

*xl do. 

%«1 Horse Guards .. 

«* Dragoon Guards .. 

*** do. 

** <]o. 

** do. 

*& do. 

*4 Carabineers 

74 Dragoon Guards ... 

I* Boy al Dragoons ... 

3W Scotch Greys 

5ri Lt. Dragoons 

n Lt Dragoons 

SALatrtcers ... 

•AlnniskUIing 

J& Hussars ... 

tdiHuasars ... 

fth Lancers ... 

104 Hussars ... 
lMhRussars ... 

Mfi»t«,ncers ... 
Wblit. Dragoons 
14* Lt. Dragoons 
15th Htusars ... 

M*l*nccrs 

174 L«ncers 

184 Hussars ... 

W Bengal Lt. Cavalry 

*» do. 

** do. 

T °W, 33 Regiments 



APrELLATIOX. 



Irish 



Scotch 



Irish 
Inniskilling 



PBOPOSKD DISTRICTS FOR RECRUITING, 
AND FOR BESERVE8 OF CAVALRY. 



General Recruiting — Hd. Qrs., London 

Northumberland and Durham 

Yorkshire — North and West Riding 

Cumberland and Westmoreland 

Leinster 

Shropshire and Stafford 

Cambridge, Norfolk, and Suffolk 

Scotland 

Yorkshire — East and South Riding 

Scotland 

Derby and Cheshire 

Nottingham and Lincoln 

Connaught 

Ulster 

Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth 

Munster 

Northampton, Bedford, Huntingdon, 

and Rutland 
Lancashire 

Worcester, Warwick, and Leicester 
Wales 

Surrey, Kent, and Sussex 
Hampshire and Wiltshire 
Oxford, Berkshire, and Buckingham 
Hertford, Middlesex, and Essex 
Devon and Cornwall 
Somerset and Dorset 
1 f/Hd. Qrs., London 

I I „ Dublin 

} General i „ Liverpool 
I „ Belfast 

| L » Edinburgh 



ARTILLERY. 



1 Royal Horse Artillery 
} „ Bengal „ 
1 „ Bombay „ 
I „ Madras „ 
Total 3 Brigades. 



I 



Recruiting Head Quarters Woolwich. 

„ „ London 

General „ Liverpool. 

„ „ Bristol. 



CORPS OF "SERVICE." 



lit 
ted 

hi 
44 
M 
Ilk 
74 
14 
1 ttt 
■4 

T. 



Brigade Royal Foot Artillery 



PROPOSED DISTRICT FOR RESERVE. 



& Uio., No. 371, Oct., 1850. 



Cornwall (4) Devon (4) 

Hampshire (5) (Dorset) (2) Isle of Wight (1) 

Sussex (5) Kent (6> (Middlesex) 

Norfolk (4) Suffolk (5) (Essex) 

Northumberland (4) and Durham (4) 

Edinburgh (3) Fife (6) 

Forfar and A'incanline (8) 

Lancashire (6) and (Cheshire) (2) 

PenAroke (4) Glamorgan (.'{) 

Antrim (6) (Down) Armagh (1) 



170 



OUB LAUD FOBCZ8. 



[On. 



\ 



conrs ok •' service." 


PROPOSED DISTRICT FOR BEMMYE. 


11th „ „ 


>) 


Donegal (4) Lomkndcrrg (\) Timmc (1) 


1-Jtli 


it 


II at Cork (f.) Royal Cork City (4) 


1-th 




Dublin (4) South 1'ipperary (S) 


Uth 


u 


Watcrfortl (8) Limerick (3) 


l>t Brigade Boi:cpil Foot 


Artillery 


General Head Quarters Londun 
„ „ DuWin 


l>t ., Bonihiv 
2i:d 


>• 

» 


„ „ Southampton 
Liverpool 

Belfast 


1m .. Madras 




„ „ Bristol 


*>.a 


»» 


Hull 


-1 Brigades of Fi»ot At 


lillorj*. 

Tinted in ; 




Mi m.— The Counties 


talics Minify that they have Artillery Corf 
Ut of Fitittcries. The Counties limited 1 


ahead}. T::e li^nres ilc 


uotir.;; mini 


Konuin i:uHo;.to that it w 


culd bo desirable to raise Artillery Reserve Butteriai 


th-.'M- iVuntto. 












COUNTIES ASD JlUTBK 


KtiStNEEKS. 


i 
. 1st Brig 


POLl> OFF TO 


FOR BESERTE. 


1 2 ."* 4 iVnii«iir.U's . 


iidc Foot Artillery England 


ft « 7 $ 


.. 2nd 


•i >> 


Do. 


l> 10 11 VI 


.. 3rd 


?l M 


Do. 


\» u n ir» 


.. 4th 


'1 » 


Do. 


i: is u> so „ 


«ilh 


Do. 


<j| «jj» «jjj j^ ^ i 


.. t>ih 


M 


fc-eotland 


S."» 2(5 27 28 „ 


.. 7th 


*■* *9 


Do. 


2s» ;s«> si ;'>2 


8>lh 


Do. 


.s; 34 ;v> rc> 


S'th 


» ' Wales 


;«: ;!S ,s«» w 


H>th 


„ i Ireland 


41 42 4,"» 44 


.. 11th 


! Do. 


4.'i l(i 47 4$ 


.. 12th 


! Do. 


4.i .vi :»i ,vj 


l*th 


Do. 


«Vt .">4 .V> %>i» ,. 


.. 14th 


,. ,, | Do. 


Total. ,V> Onii-auies 




I 


Ml M.— IK'Slll IjKKVUT"* 


>« Iv ut the 


Mine I'laee as Head Quartern of Brigade o 


Ariillen. u> whieli the iVmi>;vi:ie* an. 


told o:J". 


MIl.'.TAKY TKUN 


. 


i:esi:uvb to n: in 




'. 


... .. . __ _ 


Kirst Battalion ... 




Northern Division of England 


Seeond , 




•Vest Centre of Finland and Wales 


Third 




hjist Centre of Kii-laiKl 


Fourth „ 




tauthern Division of England 


Fifth 


■ 


•?tH>tlaml 


Sixth „ 




Northeni DiuM.m of Ireland 


BOVODUI || ... 




Southim ., ., 


tfcefaton Battalions 





THE AD3HEALT7 AND SHI HOWAKD DOUGLAS'S 
SCREW PROPELLER. 

t mechanical inventions are rarely perfected by one band, 
s iu flic ease of the clock, they proceed step by (step, till at length 
ey take a practicable form, and attain the object first designed, 
ut rather imagined than reached. Even at this point they arc 
pen to improvement. The clock of Henry de Wyck was regulated 
>y n balance, but the balance suggested a scapement, and the scape- 
inent itself made way fur the pendulum. So the steam engine, now 
complete, had ite progressive development What a gulf did it 
from it a crude conception by the Marquis of Worcester to its 
ealization by Watt ! To tako the moat notable developments, there 
the Marquis's own fire-engine, Papin's digester, Savory's hy- 
dic machine, and finally Watt's engine. The screw propeller is 
ig through similar transitions. Smith's original apparatus was 
\dmiralty dual fan, and some further advance was 
ined by Griffiths 1 3 tapered blades, but, apart from some 
ments on board the Fairy iu 1853 with screws cut into various 
rrna not on scientific data, but on the principle of ' ; rough-hew 
em how you will," aud which led to no result — the screw propeller 
s been allowed to remain, like the clumsy inventions of the 
tincse, half-way between success and failure, its original imper- 
L-tious all untouched. These, as practical men know, are of a very 
rious character, consisting firBt of excessive vibration — secondly, 
' \<>h* of speed, and, thirdly, of a lapse of steerage way, amounting 
i a deflection of no less than two and a half points from a straight 
But while onr^ machinists were content to put up with such 
ig screw upon screw without any attempt at iin- 
irn hi, a great outsider was pondering in secret over the 
presented, and which threatened to obstruct the ex- 
doption of the screw. General Sir Howard Douglas cn- 
l on this investigation with no view to persona] advantage, but 
ly by that public spirit which has become a part of his 
Kpttl nnd to which science— nut to mention the army and 

. bis more especial province — owes so much, lie carried on 
erimonte in private, and at his own expense, finally achieving 
'iy applicable to the objects he sought. Anxious, however, 
" be fortified by the opinion of practical men, he submitted his 
1 modification of the propeller to three of our most eminent 
t lir " hiihdts, who all pronounced against it — thus, nt the same time, at- 
that no such form of screw was then known in the engineer* 
Id. Great inventions) are always met by such discouragements. 
1 more cold water than Clarence did malmsey j Stephon- 
ire appearing at the awful bar of a Parliamentary committee, 
plorouby hia counsel to reduce his twenty miles to nine; 
*4 irbeu Franklin's suggestion for a lightning conductor was com- 
ed to the Royal Society, that dignified body indulged iu 
'—not of acclaiming thunder, but of laughter. Perhaps such 
encouraged Sir Howard to proceed. At any rate, he to> >k 



17S 



THE ADMrBAlTr and 






out a provisional patent for his invention, and in his recent i 
on Jfm-frf War ■fare with Shun), which has attained a 
celebrity, ho announced its vh a raster nnd objects. The latter CO* 

Srehended the augmentation of the power of the scri 
Lminntion of vibration, and, secondly, the correction of tin- 
steerage. The incessant tremulous motion in the stern of aw* 
ships caused by the impetuous revulsion of the trouble 
the frame of the screw, is not only excessively disagree*! 
operates very mischievously on the frame of the ship. 1 
Lead to serious results, and, at the same time, involves an 
tant diminution of power, in I lit* ratio of the force of the slu 
water ia comparatively undisturbed by propulsion on cacli 
aperture of the screw frame, though it ia within so violent 
by the reaction, Sir Howard was led to think that the curral 
tin- screw, by cutting oil' its leading comers, would prevent an;, 
shock or discontinuity of action, such na was produced 
angular fan-shaped form of the Admiralty screw, and, coi' 
greatly diminish the vibration, unit give additional power. 
were the results he satisfied himself would be attained 
invention, and thie he now gave unconditionally to the pub. 
precaution of a provisional patent having only i 
the merit of the discovery. Hut having regard particularly to the 
use of the screw by ships of war, Sir Howard invent 
time, a provision against the fouling of the screw, by the 
spara or rigging in action, which, of course, would 
of crippling the ship, and leaving it at an enemy's mere.) 
curved edges of the Douglas screw are of themselves sui 
throw oil' any floating fragments, ;uid strengthened, a* Sir Howard 
proposes, with edges of hard metal, the screw would cut aatmlfc 
any rope or spar it, encountered in its rotation. 1 1 is, ho 
to impossible that this task should devolve on it j for I 
effectually clearcil bv two sharp knife blades, pr like tu»U 

from the trunk in whiuh the screw works, immediately in I; 
both edges of the blade ; and any rope hitched on the boas must 
necessarily be carried by the vortex along the knife el 
deriving a drawing power from the action of the engine 
at once cut it in two. The Admiralty lost no time, after toe 
publication of the book, in testing the efficiency of Sir HuwnrJ"* 
screw; and here we must claim indulgence for dwelliis 
a moment on facts with which our readers must be familiar, 
from their purport having been embodied in an able article 
Times. Sir Howard heard with satisfaction of these experi 
though the Admiralty had nut paid him the ordinary eourl 
announcing that his invention was under trial, when I 

been more effectively conducted under his personal mi] 
tendence; but when rumour announced the perfect &u 
screw, the continued silence of the Admiralty app< 
couutable, that he thought it right to ascertain from the Admiral 
3uperintendant at Portsmouth what bad really been done 
towlea commuiucated with Captain Gordon, v\ ho bad 
charged with the trials made at Spithead by her Mhjtst 



1859.] 



sin now ahu Douglas's schew pjiopel^b. 



179 



Doris, with various descriptions of screws, including the improved 
Admiralty blade of Sir Howard, and elicited the following reply: — 

" H.M ship Asia, June 23rd, 1859. 
14 Dear Admiral Bowles, — I cannot return Sir Howard Douglas's 
note, without remarking how very gratifying it must he to that 

iiiltnted officer to observe how correct his views were as to the 
cccssity of removing the leading corners of the screw propellers, 
y which the steerage of the ship is much improved, and the 
ibration diminished. 
" Believe me, yours faithfully, 
" U. J. Gordon." 
The experiments made on board the Doris, were renewed by the 
Mersey, and, more recently, by the Orlando, and with tho same 
result as regards the Admiralty screw with its leading corners cat 
off, namely, increased speed, improved steerage of the ship, and 
diminished vibration. To show the extent to which the objects 
specified by Sir Howard have been realised, we may remark that the 
nubia propeller will enable the Orlando, instead of requiring a 
port helm of two and a half points to keep her course, the deflection 
!' the ordinary screw ships, to keep a straight helm. Tet the 

Rvt-iitinn th&t has produced results so decisive, and which, in fact. 
n'lis a new era in screw propulsion, the Admiralty now pretend 
wan brought to light by the fruitless experiments of tho Fairy 
in 1853. and baa ever since remained in their lockers, waiting, 
of course, till Sir Howard's book came out to be practically 

elied. Now the work of emptying this depository has corn- 
iced, we may hope for further discoveries of a similar eha- 
er; and it would not surprise us to hear that some inventivo 
first, second, or third lord, or, perhaps, the whole Board in a body, 
had hauled out the original designs for Trot man's anchor and Arm- 
ng's gun. Everyone acquainted with nautical affairs is aware 
that the trials of the Fairy were with screws of a totally different 
lactcr. These Admiralty Barnacles, who would fasten on Sir 
Howard's |iropellcr, had better take care of the knife blades he has 
ted in tin* Bcrew trunk. The plain truth has already cut their 
ible juggle in two. We have no hesitation in raying their 
mi this affair has brought disgrace on the public Benin-; 
furnishes another proof, if any were wanting, of the necessity of 
a sweeping change in our naval administration. Mr. Osborne once 
proposed to turn the Serpentine through the Horse Guards : wo 
could wish, now be is himself out of danger, that he would diverge a 
ittle turtluT to the left, so that its cleansing powers might he exer- 
i the Admiralty. The Times may weD ask " how can any in- 
idiil; for success at the Admiralty, when even Sir Howard 
)ouglas, with all his claims upon the consideration of the authori- 
get them to acknowledge gracefully that the improve- 
br nothing, is an important one, nnd is his r 1 " But 
he matter will not be allowed to rest here. The assertion of tho 
dty has been disproved, but this is not enough ; and it is due 
an ol is an ornament to both services, and has conferred 

benefits cm bin profession find his country, that the Board 
.if publicly retract a statement so unfounded. 



186 



*11_ ADMIRALTY AM) 



[On 



Among the screws tried by the Doris was Griffiths 'a improve 
propeller, to which and the curved screw of Sir Howard Douglai t_ 
experiments were especially applied. As Sir Howard's propelk 

S roved the best, Griffiths now comes forward, in a letter to tb 
lines, to appropriate it as an iin- _ ~ - . 

Erovement already adopted by 
imself — in fact, aa the very pro- 
peller to which it was found 
superior. The annals of piracy 
cannot furnish a more impudent 
claim, urged in more impudent 
language, for the pretender in 
this case thinks to carry his point 
by swagger, throwing the mud of 
his abuse at one of the most dis- 
tinguished characters of the 
British army. It is said ho has 
been set on by a backstairs 
intrigue. The Admiralty Blond in 
having been pronounced a myth, 
we are now told of his capering 
over a tightrope with Griffiths 
on his back. The force of folly 
can no further go ; and, for our 
part, we have only to ask Which 
is the liar f The Admiralty and 
Griffiths can't both be speaking 
the truth. If the Admiralty so 
belied all its traditions, as to 
come out as an inventor in 1853, 
it must still yield the merit to 
Griffiths, who hit upon the very 
same discovery in IS 10 ; and as 
neither the one nor the other let 
the world into their confidence — 
as both have carefully preserved 
their secret up to the moment 
when Sir Howard's invention 
was tried and succeeded — the 
world ignores both alike. Sir 
Howard Douglas has met the 
Griffiths claim with silent con- 
tempt. "We have, indeed, only 
to turn to the specification of 
Griffiths's improvements, regis- 
tered in the Patent Office, to 
find that it is without an atom of 
ground. Here his improved pro- 
peller is described in precise Ian- _____ 
guage— "I claim the making of propeller blades narrower or fsperrf 
towards their outside extremities, in coutradirtmction to the fort 




tIo adopted of increasing the width of that part of the blade." 
a word here of cutting off the leading corners. But we take 
the same specification a diagram of the Griffiths propeller — 
lich tt wilt be seen the corners arc retained. Not only is there 
miktrjty between this blade and that of Sir Howard Douglas, 
hey present the* greatest possible differences, the Griffiths blade 
[, to borrow tin? weeds of his own. specification, " in con tradit- 
ion to the form hitherto adopted," which is still the rudiment 
Le Douglas propeller. The objects proposed by Sir Howard 
das — -and all realised by the recent tnals — -are equally distinct. 
epecifiatinn Bays — "My invention of improvements in screw 
■] I era consists, first, in a modification of the farm of the blades, so 
the advance or leading edges of the propeller blade a ahaH receive 
shock in cutting through the water, and therefore produce a 
equable act ion of the propeller, which will result in less tretnu- 
motion in the stem of the ship when under weigh, and alao 

J and equalize the propelling force. For this purpose I form 
ranee edge of the propeller blades of a convex curved form, in 
maimer that the eurve of this edge of the blado at the extreme 
yr periphery will be in the rear "(as regards its position in the 
') id" the inner termination of the curve or that nest the centre ; 
urre la such that it produces an easy cleaving action in the 
\ By this form of the advance edges of the blades a further 
itage results, which Lb this, that any spars, rope, or wreck" with 
-crew blades may come in contact are thrown off in a radial 
tion, or have a tendency to be so acted on j the propeller theiv- 
ossiets to clear or effectually clears itself from any wreck or 
rial with which it is liable to come in contact. By forming the 
ice edges as described, as they eater and leave the opening in the 
wood of the ship, the transition is gradual and therefore will not 
■e shakes or tremulous motion, so perceptible in all vessels pro- 
1 by screws by reason of the right line edges thereof striking the 
rbed water throughout their whole length, and the violent reoc- 
ofmiefa water in propelling, the water in the deed wood being 
•omparatively quiescent state and inoperative as regards propul- 
I also form these advance edges of the blades of screw 
•Hers of steel or other suitable metal so sharpened or serrated 
t enw that they will sever any unyielding obstacle with which 
may come in contact in the manner of a circular caw," "We 
in vain to the specification of Mr. Griffiths for any of the 
ts here enumerated. The only one it puts forward, in connexion 
the form of the propeller, is the adjustment of "the fame pitch 
B propeller to the power and proper speed of the engines." A* 
nans say of the House of Lords, let us be thankful wo have a 
it Office. Mr. Griffiths lias put on record the nature and aim 
i invention ; they are registered in the book of fate ; and the 
folume which now bears w i t new ngnsttt him, preserve? <•■ Sir 
in! Donglne, by the same convincing evidence, all the merit of 
eovery, The attempt to despoil him of this honour has iv- 
authors, meeting everywhere with derision and contempt, 
uk i li proceedings m any similar case will, we true!, 

cud to. 




We seem to have arrived at a period when the natural opi 
of our sin. res are insufficient to shelter the vessels that nsi' 
Time was when the creeks, hays, and rivers of England wcj»*K»pW 
sufficient to float and shelter her ships. But those were far distant 
days — so remote, indeed, that we care not to atop to inquire wba d 
was that the creation of wealth became a main fact in British his- 
tory. Nevertheless it ia a curious chapter, how from time 1 
the commerce of England has outgrown the dimensions of her 
harbours. Wo are carried back to the all but romantic per. 
the Cinque Porta, when Sandwich, Hastings, Dover, and Ilyt; 
to Eii«bnd what Liverpool, Bristol, Portsmouth, and London ai* 
now, before we arrive at that point of time. In those days of iimal 
enterprise the rivers and havens of the Cinqne Ports, which w 
(radio of our navy, were brimming with water, whereon li- 
the entire sea forces of the Kingdom. Ships were then tubs, b: 
muddy creeks and inlets, nnd navigators seldom ventured out > 
of land. In the fullness of time the "needle, navigation's 
lent its mysterious aid, and ships expanded in dimensions, and DM 
hastened across the pathless ocean under its guidance 
new worlds. It would be an interesting, hut perhaps profitless tail 
to attempt to fill up the gap in the history of commercial entt 
since the inhabitants of the deserted and dried up Cinque J' 
long-bearded merchants, who cheapened hides with the L " Bsterli 
and exchanged wool with the Norsemen, We are reminded ( 
progress, in which the headlonghias of English utility has evoki 
mous values out of every description of raw materia], and ■ 
marvellous creation of machinery that differences England from *B 
other nations. 

Jn tracing the growth of our naval power, and the insufficii 
harbourage upon our coasts, we find abundant evidence t 
that remarkable changes of land and sea have taken placi 
nee, the plough boy whistles and the corn waves over thi 
up and withered havens of the Cinque Porta. Bold and loft i 
lands, gusty promontories and towering sea marks, that guid 

forefathers along our shores in their frail era aanyflf 

them been supped, undermined, and swept away by the n ntk-> ••> : 
Wears also reminded of the heavy tax upon shipping, 
mime of *' passing tolls," to delnry the expenses of keeping tin' 
harbour at Dover — the only living Cinque Port — from dying a Cin^ 
Port's death, that is, of being choked with silt aud shingle. 

These ar< cal nnd historical facts, having considerahk- 

cine in the selection of proper sites, and in the formation of deep 
water harbours, to shelter the 40,000 ships that are now enl 
" Lloyd's li^ta.'' 'flu's enormous marine, he it remembered 
reached it» maximum. The Goblin Steam, with his myriad 
never tired, ia working day and night incessantly, and is k 
property that bids fair to outrun figures, To such an extent 






audacity of commercial enterprise been carried, that we now lose 
annually by shipwreck, upon and in the immediate vicinity of the 
British isles, property that is estimated nt £1,500,000, a sum equal 
to the revenue oi 3 small state, and sufficient to supply, in ordinary 
yean?, the wear and tear of out expensive navy. It" we could by any 
possibility avoid the annual loss of ships and cargoes upon our shores, 
and apply the money to maintain our ships of war, the sum saved 
would go far towards a good navy, and relieve the nation of an enor- 
mous burthen. Then as to loss of life, it seems that we lose as many 
men in about a dozen years as would man a channel fleet, strong 
ugh to watch Cherbourg', while the money value of the wrecked 
ships ami cargoes would, in eighteen or twenty years, amount to from 
teen to twenty millions sterling, or a sum safficient to build and 
■ sixty sail or 1 the line. 
With such startling facts as the above, annually presenting them- 
es to our notice, it is not to be wondered at that the necessit}' of 
(rnctiug harbours of refuge upon certain convenient points upon 
i ud shores should have claimed the attention of the 
rumen t. Last year, for instance, a select committee of the 
House of Commons reported upon this national question, and tic 
completion of that committee 1 * report was delegated to other com- 
atoners, charged with the special duty of visiting the coast, and 
deciding according to their judgment upon the most eligible locali- 
t'or harbours of refuge. The result of their inquiries has been 
laid before Parliament, but as we have repeatedly for years back dis- 
cussed the main question in the United Service Magazine, of the 
ity of having harbours of safety upon our coast,* we 
intend to confine our remarks to the local claims and probable 
noes, as well as tho utility of the sites recommended by the 
nissioners. 
Before plunging into the thick of the argument we may as well 
state, that we have no desire to entrap any cursory reader into hard 
iy under false pretences ; but if he should wish to know why cer- 
tain nooks and corners of our coasts are recommended for harbours 
sftigt, war harbours, or life harbours, let him follow us through 
•V pages of this Magazine. The subject may appear, at the iii'st 
po&ee, to be dry and uninteresting, hut we promise him abundant 
\< m about sti inn and shipwreck, details of breakwaters, claims 
W different localities, casualty returns, distressed ships, loss of life 
ports, fishery statistics, coasting trade, and other infor- 
relating to tin- enormous traffic on our shores. These facte 
**ul<l be interesting, nay invaluable, if they were speculations upon 
"'*■' DUuri iwer of some ancient people, such as Greece, Tyrr, 

j* Bome, They would charm us if seen through the magnifying 
nturies. Let us see if it is not possible, however, 
^ interest even the general reader with statistical and scientific 
h, bearing upon the strong, stubborn, hearty mariners of 
i— of the men who make us feel that they are the marrow 

[formation njwti tliis subject the reader is referred to the follow- 
■ 'is i>i"ihis Mngnzirtc — viz.: February, Mny, and December, 1856 j August 
ItM and December, 1858; and January, IU5B, 



184 



nAitttorn* 



and Iwme of the nation ; and although to some thei>" 

as it does to colliers, tallow, hemp, nnrl tow — may appear \u1g 

us remember also that their Bufferings in win 

intense, their deeds as heroic as any that conic 

human action, add lastly, that their labours are useful. 

The magnitude of the evil arising from the want o! 
refuge tipou the shores of Great Britain and Ireland will be 
rent to the render, if we state that the Commissioners requif 
outlay of £2,385,000 to be devoted to their formation. Pea 
however, that this sum mny not he attainable all at once, they i 
mend it to he expended in ten years. The misfortune, 
that all recommendations of this sort are certain 
the amount specified. It too often happens that publ" 
private jobbery are synonymous terms. We Ha\' 
sions, in this Magazine, exposed the wasteful erpenditui 
taxes of the industrious classes upon the giganl 
and Aldcrney, and therefore, although it is impoestli li- 
the advance of money for such a sacred purpose as 
a good harbour of refuge, in a serviceable locality, yet 
strongly the recommendations of the Commissioners ma? 
our selfishness by money saved in ships and cargoes, and to< 
pathy in saving life, we will not accept them without a close .- 
for we are not insensible to the fact that opportunities ha 
taken advantage of to promote an extravagant outlay of tl>< 
money upon works of very questionable utility, and we regn 
is our opinion that the Commissioners have in some im] 
tieulars either misunderstood the wants of certain local 
stated the ease of others, as it appears to us, to enlist I 
ferotzr of their recommendations. 

And, moreover, while admitting that it is established as a ] - 
that hnrboui'H of refuge are necessary for the prevention and mil* 
gotten of the deplorable calamities that up to the present hourajif*» 
to be inseparable from maritime enterprise, y*t fcfaere i 
some doubt whether the whole of the casualties record* 
ought to be ascribed to the fair risks of navigation, and, const 
whether many of them would be obviated by Harbours of " 

Thus, for instance, Lloyd's list proves that more ships 
collision, (ire, unseaworthiness, not being well found. 
A--., than by stress of weather. Science has done much to 
ordinary voyage along our shores safe. Splendid dioptric 
8Mb. their friendly warning beams upon every salient , 
const. Buoys and beacons tell the mariner of every lurking tm 
hidden shoal. Almost every port has its lifeboat and g 
hut these and all the other aids for the saving of life a 
be sadly neutralized ns Ion": as vessels are sent to f- 
drunJcen captains, with faulty anchors, chafed cablet, and 
manned. 

Harbours of Reft is 



r P 






" aa much as possible, and II that out 

in the report of l\\\.- 

many of tbe casualties there enumerate! «ro*»l 'mpptw 



•re, 



>■] 



irATiTiftrua or nTrrTTriE. 



IBS 



arbours had been close at hand. In various, instances ships 

■eft near the shore, then sumc vessels run for the nearest port, 

distress, because they were iniseaworthv, or, in other words, they 

ht never to have been sent to sea at all. Others were too old, 

Iy found, or undermanned ; and in more than one instance it ie 

ted that vessels were lost even at the entrance of the harbour they 

re running for, because they were badly handled. 

It is obvious that such disasters would not be materially diminished 

we spent millions in forming harbours. And it should be men- 

ned that the Commissioners notice these facts, and while regarding 

-traction of refuge harbours as a national duty of the highest 

anee, they think it also necessary to consider whether any 

lolic measures cum be taken to insure greater safety. It certainly 

lid materially diminish sea risks if all vessels, previous to going to 

were [unv.d to be seaworthy in their hulls, well found aloft, 

itly manned, not overloaded, and that want of seamanship, or 

. or vigilance, and losses proved to be fraudulent were punish- 

h< off) r proper investigation. 

remarkable with what impunity well found and ably cfim. 

• ships perform the most distant voyages. We hear of 

ing a girdle round the earth twice within n year. 

:■ of return tickets to Australia, India, China, and America; 

n Bummer cruise to the Cape, calling at New X< u 

n at the Islands of the Pacific, ett vaatttot, and round 

Horn on their return home. Such exploits dispose one to look 

j part of the world as a mighty pleasant sort of 

-•ard a voyage tn Sidney or New York as a sort of 

day, where the lucky passengers go simmering along 4ft 

taverns, and expect to In- landed within :i day at least of the 

!. And, indeed, such is the marvellous regularity with 

itch the? British mail packets make a passage between Liverpool 

., Vork, that punctuality to the hour is oftenerthe rule than 

■ ptiun. 

This n doubtless very satisfactory. There is, however, another 

to this picture of security and nautical triumph. It is a very 

too, nnd ought to be examined very carefully before we 

ourselves that we have shaken the trident out of old 

c's grasp, Any one who will take the trouble to consult 

will Hud it a dry, bald, but terrible chronicle, all senti- 

a being sacrificed to statistics. However, this remarkable regis- 

iters has its consoling chapter, For here we 

hipa pass to and i'ru oyer the lea with en;npnra* 

•afeh-. But i\\\ nociaenta occur to ships ably manned and com- 

Y>. I npli over the storm. Thus, out of 12,000 and 

ies, oijly 04 are recorded against ships of 700 tons and 

i accident is not in oonsequenee nf 

ela greater ear 

'Wiiiti tic appointment of a compe- 






ar. £a have bei'ii sustained h 

d BO tons ko 500 tons. I are the d 



•I likely to be Bailed economiml!</. These are the 



ISO 




HATWOVnS OF ltTITrOE, 



vessels too, that are often weak handed, and liable to be cotim 
by men possessing few recommendations for filling the office of ob- 
tain, except by being part owner, 

Such a union of evils as we have briefly Inuted at, affords 
sorry chance of a prosperous voyage, and we expect to fi] 
consequence of such mi alliance in Lloyd's list, the wreck chart, 
and in the report of the Commissioners for Refuge Harbours. 

However, the necessity of having good harbours upon every avail- 
able spot upon our shores, is not one jot abated in eonseqm 
any remarks we have made, and our object in drawing ui 
the disereditahle manner in which vessels are often Kent to 
to show what a comprehensive source of mischief results tbei 
The obvious inference of what we have said is, that if owners ml 
their vessels to sea in a well found and efficient con 
would escape the risks of the ocean as successful ty aa any 
great shipping companies. 

We will now proceed to notice briefly the advantages we hope 
to receive from the labours vi' the Commissioners, Their att< 
was of course first directed to those parts of ou when Har- 

bours of Refuge are most needed. And here it will be a» h 
remark that the Commissioners discriminate betw< irioa* 

classes of harbours, such as harbours of refuge like il 
Portland, and what they term life harbours, or harbour* 
for the express purpose of relieving the trading vessels on c 
coasts. They draw also a distinction between loealifi< - l, 
local interests and places where no such interests i I mi for 

instance they recommend the sum of £1,000,000 sterling to Ix 
in improving the entrance to the Tyne, however, onU 
this sum is to be furnished by Government, and the other thrw 
quarters of a million must be raised on the spot by local 
Again the Commissioners recommend the like sum of £1,0 
Bterhng to be spent in forming Old and West Hartlepool into a har- 
bour of refuge, but here the Government is called upon to Annua 
half the amount, and the locality the other half. The case is 
ever altogether altered when we come to the fishing vilhi. 
upon which the Commissioners recommend anouiluv > 
sterling, the whole of which large sum is to be furnished 
nation at large. It will be seen therefore, that the Conunuaioafll 
deedde thai the inhabitants of certain localities, such as the entrance 
to the Tyne, and Old and West Hartlepool, must 
respectively to the extent of one half and three fowl 
sums required to forma harbour, before the Government will 
the remainder, while Filey is to be found a harbour at tin 
use. 

Royal Commissioners give their reasons for all their reeaa- 
iitiona and conclusions, which we intend to notice a* we jm- 
in our investigation of the capabilities of the i 

i mended by thera as proper sites for harl 
>id refuge. From what we can gather iu a general way &»• 
report, we should say that any nautical man would h 
the paine conclusions by his own fireside, if furnished wit* 



HAEDOrBB OF ItEFUOE. 



167 



and charts, without taking the trouble of visiting each locality, 
ig evidence, and without much practical acquaintance with the 

St. 

I Royal Commissioners state with remarkable gravity a fact 
i we should have thought everybody knew, viz., that in bad 
lit it is desirable that vessels should have harbours in which 
am find shelter for the purpose of avoiding the risks, and the 
and tear of keeping the sea, and the loss 01 time occasioned by 
driven back. Thia simple truth has been repeated over and 
iL'iiin for these fifty years past. Such harbours will tend mate- 
to save both lite and property. It so happens, however, 
on many parts of our coast, and particularly on the north 
>f England, which is much exposed to heavy on-shore gales, 
frequented by an inferior class of vessels, such as coasters, 
ra, &c., that nothing but tidal and bar harbours are to be found, 
it these places that the Commissioners recommend the forma- 
>f life harbours. 

the other hand, when weak handed and badly found vessels 
i difficult, if not impossible, to keep oft" a lee shore, they say, 
ith t ruth, that the greater the number of available ports the 
;r will be their safety. They come to the conclusion, therefore, 
he best system to adopt for refuge harbours is the improvement 
> existing ports where such a course is practicable. But if 
(rise, then that the sites for life harbour;*, of which facility of 
i and sufficient shelter aro the only essential requisites, must 
ight at that spot on the coast, which is most generally accea- 
!rom every part of it. Thus, if the line of coast be straight, 
it its central point— and if a bay, then at its head, 
a obvious that the annual loss of life on any line of coast is, 
illowing for deductions, the best test of the necessity of a life 
ur, and the Commissioners have becu guided by casualties that 
ned in those districts, which have formed the subject of their 
ry between the years 1S50-7. Wo subjoin 

AN ABSTRACT OF CASUALTIES. 



CturaalllKB from I MO-7, OMlwttns 18M. 



ccBsioned liy 



' „n!!-r 



Vi'^'.-K 



Ai>i>roxImnta 
Value, 



L<at 



Total Amiiul ' 



ATt-TPgC-l 



Tot ul 



J Aiinui'.l 
Average. 



Uvea lent from 1850- J 
CScItt'llDKt 



l-'rutu Slrist AU i 
Founder- of oilier Totiil 
lug, HTbUm- elms™ 



Ann. 
Awgo 



Lou n-r Ship ■ HiileiL 



N'. .v v. Ciimi 1 ia «.il j so u:i 






KIM St»IS 



-11. 'i 



|M1,9!M 



£ 
B?,0M 



\s. g, Ciwut | 

Cuaatj 
Sristol ■ 

N. K. I ■ 



*,!H(S,007 :m,tt&& 



I.'-'' l<n lj*i 






* Lone . Ivor" Included 



planatory remarks are here necessary. The abstract of 
commences with I he year 1850, from which period until 



HAUUOVOS OF BBFUOB, 






the year 1854 inclusive, the wrecks, and other di 

vessels in the sea**, ami on the shores of the United Ivii 

ni' irded in a wreck register kept at the Admiral i * . I 

however, the Merchant Shipping Act trail 

Hoard of Trade, conferring increased powers on 

the purpose. It appears that the returns under the ik-w maniar* 

tnent are now more numerically complete, although as i 

accuracy of the information contained, there is not any > 

difference between the later and the earlier returns. 

The reader will have noticed that the year IN5" 
omitted in the tabular statement of casualties. Tin 
omission is stated to he, that the returns For that 
sidered less accurate than thoao for the two follow 
the system established by the Board of Trade had g< 
working order. 

It is unnecessary to dwell upon the important 
:ih(*lnn-t of maritime casualties. We are indebted to it far muss 
information upon the subject of harbours of 
careful examination of its instructive figtu 
us to form tolerably correct notions as to the localiti 
of safety are most needed. Nor shall we hesitate to dwell u| 
momentous question of saving life and property from tshij 
Nothing, indeed, is more important in a national sense to an 
people like ourselves, possessing a maritime populnl 
to hundreds of thousands, than the safety and welfare i 
shipping interest connected with these realms. It has, 
further claim upon our attention, irrespective of the 
ships and cargoes. We all of us have lately exp> 
valuable unit the British seaman may become. In i ' 
danger he has tiUvnya been the van of our vanguard -, fur 
as a body, the guardianship in war, and the prosperity in j 
islands have for ages mainly relied. 

A cursory inspection then of the abstract v 
connected with the loss of life thai requin 
It will be observed that a large number of rnsualtieM do n 
upon the question of life and refuge harbours at 
arison from causes independent of the want of hi mnbtf 

of which would not have prevented them. 1( ll 
iiecessary to separate the casualties and lues of life, v 
to have arisen from the want of harbours, nnd the 

of tceaiker contains those casualties and 1 !« b* 

ontl n under enquiry. 

north enat coast of England the loss under the I 
significant fact, because the tenor of t 
red by the Royal Commissioners induced t ! 
many vessels navigating that district (espe 
to sea in a state more m* less unseaicortky. It is 
of these rotten craft, when taught in gales of wind, ran I 
under circumstances, when a auund vessel would t 

£aratively no danger is keeping the sea. The losso 
cad of foundering have also a very important beorii 



UABBOinta or refuue, 



189 



ion in other districts, though in n less degree than upon the 
i east COASt of England. 

nil rule, the ratio which the losses from stress of weather 
mtioleAng hear to those arising from all other causes, will 
ito the character of the coast, making proper allowances for 
tioual cases where such exist. 

1 tabular statement above alluded to exhibits also the annual 
ges of casualties, as well as the annual average of to 
ml the high comparative value of the vowels lost in the Irish 

Jritiali Channel, and the largo loss of life in the former, even 
ling that of the Bbip Ttiyteiir* will not fail to attract attention 

» justify the improvements contemplated in that district, as 
the construction of the harbour proposed by the Commis- 
rs at St. Ives, which it is hoped will be as useful to vessels 
ig down the Irish as to those from, the British Channel, by 
log them in bad weather to make more free with the Cornish 
than they can at present venture to do. 

lile hearing testimony to the zeal and skill of the Royal Cum- 
mers in the performance of the difficult task allotted to them, 

avoid noticing that with respect to the annual loss of life, 

ippoar to have rather overstated the casB. They are particular 

• 1 1 list disastrous year, viz., 18-34, when no less than 1,51:1) 

ns perished on the seas and shores of the United Kingdom. They 

tate that the average low of life during a period of six veara, 

1869 t •■ 1857, amounted to 780 persona annually. And they 

the attention of the Legislature to these serious national 

1 1 is our pleasing duty to inform the general reader 

losses are decreasing. From the abstract of the ret urn a 
to the Board of Trade, the number of lives lost on the shores 
i United Kingdom in 1858, was only 310, and the average loss 
: three years, 1856-8, was not 780, but only 4G4. AW believe 
ation is mainly indebted to the National Lifeboat Institution 
is diminution in the annual loss of life from shipwreck. Wc 
aid that this most excellent institution, unaided by public 
a from Parliament, has eighty-five lifeboat establishment! in 
■etinn with it, on which it has expended upwards of £28,000. 
he most astonishing fact is, that since the first establishment 

ty, it has, unaided by Parliament, rescued more than 11,000 
recked persons from death by drowning. The majority of these 
o were of course takeu from stranded ship?, during hurricanes and 
is, fur the lifeboat is intended for those particular occasions 
all ordinary means of rescue would be unavailable or useless. 
night exhaust the vocabulary of praise in doing honour to this 

istitution, which has not only saved 11,000 seamen and 
» from a watery grave, but has also voted .£10,000, besides gold 
'■<lils, to the gallant fellows who have manned their 
i on those trying occasions when the saving of a follow creature's 
Bperilled their 
;ain, when the subject ifl further examined, we find that of the 

* The Taylcur was lost Janaaiy, 1854, on Lornboy Island, 






number of wrecks and casualties, including damage of at' 
(except collision) in 185S, only 4G7 are ascribed t<> stress of , 
These were cases in which Harbours of llefuge mighl have been useful 
in saving life ami property, On the other hand, 102 
occurred in, the same year, winch wore the result of in<iftrn(u}n,tart~ 
lessness, neglect, not being well foitnd t and other avoidable < 
obvious that the loss of life under these last-named c» 
will not he materially altered if we spend millions in the forma! 
of harbours of life refuge. 

Improvements in shipping and seamen will be more likely to 
life and property than is generally admitted, and it is to h 
that BUch .shipmasters as send their vessels to sea under-manned aod 
badly found, will be encouraged by harbours of n 
inattentive to their duties. The losses amounting to 402 
exclusive of losses by collision nnd./Jrr, and other causes not eoi 
with stress of weather. The majority, in nil probability. 

prevented, by greater care and skill ; and with 
necessity that exists for HJe harbours, they must of coura 
ducted from the total loss of life, as not one of them could htr 
avoided if a life harbour had been close at hand. 

e casualty returns also prove that by far the larger pro] 
of losses happen to coasters. We subjoin a table of 
casualties of 2GG vessels of all classes, arranged according I 
rig, tonnage, and number of hands on board. 




Era. 




TONK 


AOE. 






1 1 \ v 


Barques 21 


6*0 & u 


esBela. 


with 5 & 


under 


SS vi 


Brigs 121 


100 


55 


■i 


,. 10 


ii 


1 10 


Brigantuiea 2 


200 


03 


ii 


„ IS 


u 


■jo 


Cobles 2 


300 


65 


ii 


. SO 


rr 




Galliotts G 


100 


7 


91 


„ 23 


ll 


t „ 


Ketches 1 


500 


s 


}1 


Unknown ' 




Luggers 2 


000 


1 


JJ 








Schooners 7G 


700 


- 


11 








Sloops IS 


Unknown 


If 








Smacks G 














Snows 2 














Steamers 8 














Unknown 1 














Total 2GG 


Total 2GG 






Total 


266 


It is to the 


■la>is < 


af vessels en 


innerated in the above 


list tl. 



harbours are chiefly required. In confirmation of this rtsfc 
flu Commissioners allude to a Glasgow Shipping Compan 1 
Is have made 1,700 voyages during the last lil'tei n yet 
have only lost thirteen vessels, and not one of I 
coast of England. On the other hand, the same compan? wit- 
to have lott during the short space of six ypars !■ 
££0,000 by the desertion of seamen alone. 

hat the desert ii 




HABBoras or beftge, 



101 



L-la starting for their voyage are frequently exposed to great 

•ilij inconsequence of the state of intoxication in which the meu 

sent on board. The defect of character which has deteriorated 

seamen has been fostered by the crimping system now we hope 

se of gradual abolition. Desertion, of which the Glasgow 

i com plains, and moat of the other evils, can be traced to causes 

which the men are by no means solely responsible. It often 

pens that ships and smaller vessels go to see with almost everj 

n furnished by crimps, and more or less under the influence of 

nk. It also often happens that such vessels meet with bad wea- 

r soon after leaving port. Of course the usual cwnBequeuces are 

ely to happen. One of the many perils to which shins are subject 

'hen under the best management overtakes her. It is not easy 

nd a remedy for this, but it has been suggested that if ships 

t permitted to go to sea until every man had been 21 horn's 

luard, it would assist in remedying this evil. We know, how- 

r, t hat the subject is beset with difficulties, but as drunkenness 

Lmitted to be the fruitful srumv of many calamities at sea, some* 

ng ought to be attempted towards suppressing a vice that dor 

•h mischief. 

W have made the above remarks upon the report of the Royal 

inuiasionrrs not in any hostile spirit to the subject of refuge or 

harbours, but with the view of showing that a gross total of lives 

at sea in any particular locality id not a fair criterion tojudg 

claims of such place for u harbour. Deductions must be made 

deaths by drowning, which occur from causes entirely inde-pen- 

t of the want of shelter, and which deaths could not have been 

vented by any number of life harbours upon our coasts. Our 

nion upon the necessity of having good and convenient refuge 

ra ta, however, still unchanged. For after making every allow* 

ualtiea which we have pointed out as capable of 

vent ion. the annual loss of life and property from causes that are 

»ii beyond man's control, is amply sufficient to justify a large mil - 

hie public money and to enlist both our judgment and our 

hi the good cause. 

these preliminary remarks we will proceed to notice the 

.vhich the Royal Commissioners selected the sites for 

e hnrbours proposed by them. But as these details 

■ the trade of the east coast of Scotland, the north-east 

Ireland, the Uristol Channel, the Isle of Man, the nOi 

t of England, and the loans to promote the construction and 

ura, we intend to postpone our remarks upon 

uportaut questions until next month. Thesubjcet cannot be 

n an otTiiaud manner. Ii i true we might briefly state that 

nil is considerable, that besides 

h is the Davis Straits and Greenland fish- 

:n trade with the Baltic and the north of Europe 

the wesl coast of Great Britain, from Ireland, Canada^ and the 

Then there are the fisheries (herring) with their 

employing thousands of hardy seamen, Hut ©van 

mould fail to give au adequate uotion of the traffic of this 

*Uu,, No. 371, Ocr., 18159. o 



iall district of our Bhores, if we neglected to mention thai 1 
<Ia pass annually along this strip of crust, while those that 
bhrough the Pent] una firth amount; to the like nun 1 
Besides, we have much to say about the ni 
age to shelter the enormous traffic of the Bristol Channel, tl 
of which comprises nearly one-sixth of the shipping, and i 
Hie tonnage of the entire kingdom. Its export of <•■ 
;",! :( i(),!.!(X>tons annually and ia daily increasing ; then itt* foreign trad* 
employs some of the finest ships ju the world. Indeed, harbourage 
in this locality is a national affair, for windbound vessel 
imilute in its principal anchorages in enormous fleets. For in 
at the Mumbles we hear of 300 vessels, in Penarth "K* 

[a, off Lundy Island 100 vessels, and in Whitesand I 
vessels anchoring at one time. 

ftormust tho Isle of Man be forgotten. Its cent™ I ; 
the Irish Channel, combined with tho total ah 
harbours, and its being the foeua of a large herring fitdien 
B| -ail and about 6,000 bands, are Btronc claims for 
And lastly, the important district of the north-* a 
lnnd extending from llamborough Head to the Faru I 
eluding all tho coal ports of the eastern eoasl of England 
a large fhavi- of our attention. Tho traihe along tl 
equalled in any part of the world, and it is as various as if i 
r-ivr ; there ia the coal trade, both homo and 
trade to all parts of the kingdom, and a valuable foreign i 
every port of Ihe globe. It ia of aeknowled 
nursery for a race of seamen excelled i and equalled ; 

Then tho activity of this coast is evince'! in a very marked i 
by the number of ships which seek shelter in its principal 
Thus, at the Tyne, Sunderland, Hartlepool and Whit hi 
300, 353, and 370 respectively entering in one 
lington Bay and under ESpceton Cliffa we hear of "i 1, and l"' 1 

vessels being at anchor, and at Yarmouth Roads from ! 
vessels, the larger portion of which are from the north count] 
these enormous fleets must bo added a large passing t 
Baltic and the north of Europe, both from thiaaml f- 
so that owing to circumstances into which it will be \, 
enter more fully ia from 300 to 500 vessels m 

ilv fi'iii froiti Fltimborough Head tit one time. 
The Royal Commissioners have taken no notice of oui 
shores, aud consequently Dover, Aldtrney, and Pori 
eluded in their remarks. ]\\ the next number of tl 
will supply thia defect, Cor the magnitudi 
Mated by the vatt amount of shipping so briefly 
together with the annual losses to which sliipowj.t i 
I ruction of refuge atsd life harbours : 
the steady prosecn turn of which cannot fail ultimately 
beneficial and as it k our earnest desire to d"*ji 

labour* of the Royal Commissioners, we. fur v. 

{jelled to i mon the sites r 

or refuge and life harbours until the follow 
Porttmortfh. 




ran.] 



103 



THE ARTS OP CAMP LIFE, 

r Colojtel Sin J. E. Alkxjutobb, KX'.L.S„ 14th Regiment 

: has in these days, usually, a very changeful 
the times when a regiment was * J for ten years look- 
e romp^rte of Gibraltar.' 1 Corps' are now moved hither 
Mid thither, often at very short notice — 

"Ona foot on tea, ririL' foot do *&ore ; 
T" cfao thin gj oonrtflnt never." 

Pbeiefoie, the component parts of our army should ho " handymen" 
r ashore — ready to rough it uncomplainingly, should 
1 r it disgraceful to grumble at their lot, but, like good soldiers 
'ominander, should rather be pleased to ho " tried 

The school of the nnble soldier Sir Charles) Napier is one of the 

!u up in — not one cif the kid glove or silver fork de- 

criptkm, but where simplicity of thing is the rule, seal in the pep. 

filnty is constantly evinced, the study of one's profession 

all i a inculcated, and devotion tu the service of 

's sovereign and country is the predominating sentiment. 

life may be moat miserable and unhappy, or it may be very 
■ ble and enjoyable. We have a painful recollection of marches 
) :i regiment of cavalry and camping during the hot months of 
:l. Kay, and June, in India— the dust, the stilling heat, the ex- 
thennometer being sometimes at 120 deg. under canvass, 
p interrupted at night by the horses drawing their pickets inraiq 
■ madly through the camp, cholera breaking nut, even 
tin- liver complaint from the heat, and thm officers dying 
these terrible marches. 
. thu tent life in I he Crimea in the winter! of 'Si, *G5, with 
tit, and cold, and mild, and want of fuel, is too recent to bo 
in. Camp life in the woods of America, in the sum- 
outus, is not agreeable, by reason of the close heat ; the black 
ale the tare of salt pork and biscuit would not 

au ep i Bleeping in one's clothes on pine branches would 

tints in eli an sheets, But a good climate like the 
i Hope, for instance, and with prudent arrangements for 
inn out," one truly enjoys the liberty of the bush and the 
ill, if ii 't too long stationary at one spot, may lure those 
attendant on sound health and useful and Retire 

me i determined to be miserable when they are removed 

the usual routine, to bo utterly unable to adapt themselves to 

j in which they may be situated, never having the 

like that noble apostle to the Gentiles, Saul of Tarsus, 

rerp to bo content." A literary and scientific 

d that the moment he went to sea he lost all saergy, 

did nothing during the fmrt or long, but look at the 

ur. 

© 2 



194 THK ARTS OF CAMP LIFE. [OCT., 

Now, your real traveller is cheerful and liappy '* blow high, blow 
low" — finda exhilaration whether lie treads the deck, the elastic 
carpet of the woods, or scours the plain on a gallant steed ; for, a* 
that devoted and most valuable public officer, Sir Thomas Munro, 
Governor of Madras, said to some young officers who were uuhappy 
in India, and always fancying that when their term of service wai 
over they would enjoy .themselves in England — -'Make the most of 
your time and opportunities now, maybe you'll never see home 
again."* 

Here we beg to direct especial attention to that highly accomplished 
and intelligent traveller, Francis Galton, Esq., F.R.G.S., who took up 
the track of the writer in Africa where he left oft", beyond the tropic 
of Capricorn, ami, advancing into the undescribed country of thf 
Ovampos, gnincd that experience in the art of travel there and else- 
where, also by great reading and study, as to enable him to produce 
a most useful book, which should be in the hands of all wayfarers 
j)cr more per terras — " The Art of Travel," published by Murray— in 
it are also found most valuable helps and hints for campaigning; and 
to make the matter still more complete, Mr. Galton prepared a set of 
models to illustrate how fire can be made and employed, water 
searched for, purified, and economised. How rivers can be crossed 
without the assistance of boats; how to bivouac and ciicamiiin 
various ways ; how pack oxen are used, &v., &v. A tot of the* 
models was sent gratuitously to Woolwich, and the Government 
afterwards wisely ordered twelve more sets to be supplied to same it 
the principal garrisons, where, if an officer takes the trouble to study 
them, and lecture on them, he will not only convey valuable instruction 
to himself, but will also do a vast service to his companions in nnw. 

Tn former years, whilst exploring wild regions, and coniinp. for 
instance, to the banks of an unfordablo river without either boat or 
bridge in its whole course, we thought how helpless a party of wen, 
uninstructed in the art of travel or the arts of camp life, would find 
themselves, and sometimes, it detained there, how fatal might be the 
consequences, as wc remember to have occurred to a party on the 
banks of the (Jreat Fish River, in 1835, at the Cape, which was sur- 
prised and dispersed with loss by the Caffres. With an orniVi ■ 
pontoon train is usually at hand, though for detached parties there* 
seldom such precision ; but an officer practised in various expedients 
to cross rivers will not be at a loss to get the party over without 
pontoons. 

Thus, five logs, eight feet long, with double rows of augur holei 
near the ends, to peg batons to, binding them also with withe*, «* 
our mode of poling ourselves across American rivers. A string « 
dry" gourds round the waist, or bundles of reeds or grass, enabled one 
to swim, though at some risk from alligators, rapid streams in India; 
a stout limb of a tree, with a peg in it to hold on by, formed ■ 
wooden horse for the tributaries of the Orange River — 

" Where AfrieV Minny fountains 
Koll down their golden sands." 



* The Life of Sir Thomas Munro, l>y the Chaplain-General, is one of 
books, after the Bible, to put into a young man's! hands destined for the Eat 



ihcbc* 
East 



■3 



Tnt AHTS OF CAMP LIFE. 



195 



Heat/tit. — In Cfttttp life, the first find moat essential roquisifi' in 
><\ health. On service a man is comparatively useless if he is own 
feeble health. In hot and cold, in wet and dry climates, truly 
should be a great study ; and it is painful to see how men 
away their valuable health and strength, by which, if duly 
sbanded, at the same time without unmanly nursing, they might 

i '4 efficient service to their country and to themselves, 
Our life and health are in the hands of the Almighty, and a tra- 
iler and campaigner, -if he desire to do auy good, should value his 
as a great gift, and should try to Bad out how best to pro- 
ifc under ull circumstances. Amoug the qualities of a good 
Idler is this, " seldom in hospital." A general who used to snr- 
ise hia followers by his powers of endurance, when asked by his 
IF, after a long day's work, "you feel fatigued, my Lord f" " Not 
all;" "thirsty?" " Not in the least." "You must be hungry 
this time r' 1 " Not at all, nor too hot, uor too cold, I am quite 
ht. thank you.'' Descended from a long line of Scottish warrior-!, 
bate gallant Cathcart was a soldier of the right stuff. 

iQversation with another distinguished general be remarked, 
I 1 was first on service in the Peninsula I wished to be very 
dy, and thought that a true soldier should 'rough it' mi nil occa- 
•ii when there was no actual necessity for it, but I lost my 
ength and did not enjoy refreshing sleep by this system ; I then 
■ I adopted a method for passing iny nights with greater 
and thus rendered mysetf more efficient for emergencies, I 
with live horses, and altera hard dajj if at S o'clock at night 
it had something good to cat aud a tolerable cook, I must 
>d up Hke an overworked and underfed horse." 
\W have seen an officer on service sleep beside a bush and get 
■ idf drenched with dew, out of brag, and so as to be Been by tho 
»p in the morning, when he might have had the shelter of a tout ; 
nbsurd, and it brings its own punishment in the shape of 
rutnati lably. Not aware of his danger the writer oiue 

lgb( fever and ague by sleeping on the ground, with others, at the 
ins of Persepolis, in Persia, where there is malaria on the snz&ee 
Lhe plain: a brother dragoon (the late Sir Keith Jackson) was 
he illness which terminated fatally, for two of the party iu 
John M'Uonald Kinneir, by having au iron col, 
lieh slightly rained hint above the ground. 

|i, between the tropics, the first thing to attend to is the 
Bad. to guard, it well against the terrible sun; our people under- 
ind this better of latter years by dear bought experience. A 
cap with a Ji^ht cover sits more comfortably than any other 
in great Ileal ftome folds of linen wrapped round it pro- 
tbe temples. A light, well-balanced scull cap, with peak ali 
the true headpiece for soldiers. 
Of Into the moveable cape of the Drogoona is an admirable eon« 
I has saved many a stout fellow from a dangerous 
niching. Infantry soldiers often seem to tempt Providence by 
*hing out in rain and then hitting wet in a public house, To pro- 
it na much as possible their going out in rain, Infantry great coats 









me not allowed to be worn in rain 
be perhaps an advantage to ei 
fantry great CO** for ueeasional U 

There Lb no excuse for a soldier not i 
pair of trousers and of boota (<> chi 
mae, the* sergeant-major, depot k2nd Royal High In 
of bis parents, lately lost bis life at hi;* native plai 
from the drill Held wet, and ti tg .1 chill in unchanged cluJuci 

on the exposed ramparts of Stirling C 

In exploring in the forests of 
from morning to night, with impunity, in the red tl.\ 
Worsted socks, and Indian leggings, hut we were moving, uiida: 
a dry change and a tin "tot" of hot tea after n 
worth all the drams in the world ; in fact spirits for I 
psdftiona lead only to mischief, " But," said au : >)e old 

commander, Ueneral Wir Benjamin D' Urban, " I would like to am 
a little rum with the spare ammunition to pass round ■ 
Jlmd effort against the enemy." 

In garrison or t-Ainp if men adopt indolent habits, 
bahly soon lose their health; exercise and tempei .-uvnti 

of health nnd cheerfulness, a lounging life is often a dt • 
smoking one Beginning well in the morning, v. 
shi'it ride, or half an hour's walk hi ■ m&4 » 

capital enliveuer for the business of the day, coiipli 
rub down with a rough mitten and r< hi water. 

There cannot be good health without pn 
usually much attended to, but it is of the In 
inhaling each others' breath for eight hours is poison. I 
hu m freely ventilated as good barniek rooms, b 
hilirating as the starry canopy over head, and l! 
in the bivouac of a fine night. "Astra casing iiitinen, In 
men,'' is then the motto. 

As to eating and drinking, as part of the nrt of i .. 
pe ranee in all things should of course be practised late sad 
We all know that what agrees with one man will ■!; 
another, but as a general rule, 1! 
twUmae, to soil the interior. Sin 
tod must be better than that with the blood in il : 

ia should be avoided, unless 
the momiry of the thermometer in the bulb, n oostrsiarf 

to put up with blubber or pemicm 

in studying the wholesoines, b 
cannot be good; trails of woodcocks, and 
tranomy, umv I inable, but we humbly 

mistake,'" In the wilds of Africa, the 
Ixwnches before Sevastopol, we could always easily pi 
from alcoholic drink with the assistance i>t 

up in a gauze or muslin rau' r nod I 
must bo apparent on th> 
ng ''brandy in disguise," iu the aha] < y, sos 

frideira. in hot eliuut' - is fatal to health: but in warm weatkst 






I860.] 



TKB ABT9 OF CAMP LIFK. 



197 



and when it is presented, who can i-chI^l a tankard of foaming b 
and a quart per Jt'rm l*ilii hurt no liealtliy man, though a piui 
dio<! ! perhaps ttiK best mark iutheluug rau. la the Opera 

'Martha," l'luuket sings : 

"Cl • li t:ho il bkrhiw 

iii:ttu vii |»cr d»r piaccr 
nil ? 
E'Lv bevanda grata a ber, 
Che il del ci nmiidn nel hiccliier, 
E. chc il Eritnnno reticle til tier. 
Ah ! ambrosia 1 ijrtMtl vivu il bicehicr. 
Viva la birra, mcsdjtni I da bcr. 

Harm!' 

WIio will tell me with wlmt I must fill 
This empty horn, dull care to kill ? 
J Joes no one guess ? Not one ? 
"Tin that most grateful beverage, beer, 
Wiiich heaven hath sent onr hearts to cheer, 
To nil tilil Englsnd'i sons so dear. 
Ambrosia, nectar, is surely beer ! 
Liqw^ live iualt, 1io].th> long live beer. 

lElllTnll ! 

Bathimi. — In camp life the free 1130 of cold water for the skin is 
nihil for hardening the system, and clearing the pores from nil 
Uftpurith's; it is also a wonderful promoter of cheerful neas. It is 
true, abundance of water cannut always be procured, but a liable 
bucket full will enable one to perforin ulilutiona with fair succ 
and in this wise. Stcppi iilj into the tent of a friend, newly arrived 
at the seat of war, be said, ' : 1 feel very miserable. 1 have not been 
to ' tub,' and have only bad a bucket of water allowed me a day 
I arrived." "That will do, 1 ' was the reply, "quite sufficient. 
An old pi ■ of towelling was then folded, and made into n mitten, 
ihirt i to be used as a bath glove, and which, with the addi- 

of a piece of sponge, gives perfect ablution, on an emergency, 
from a single bucket of water. 
The addition of common salt to the bucket is very useful, and pre- 
1 1 incuts, and induces healthy action of the akin. AL'Ut 
saive fatigue some tepid water is useful, but as a general practice, 
milium.!- and winter, the cold bath is much more bracing than warm 
r, and the steam baths of the luxurious Easl ; beaid . ing 

tics must be ana 'adored. 
If water can be collected by a dam or otherwise, camps of instruc- 
tion complete unless they have the means at baud for the 
men bathing. and being taught to awim. This is soon acquired in 
Leepest water, by suspending a man by a girth round the cheat, 
a rope passing through a ring at the end of a horizontal pole, 
t lie shore or from a boat. Thus he makes hi 
I. Owing i>iit''s life, under Providence, to a knowledge of 
not sufficiently insist du the great importance to 
Ik- attached to it. for ! ildters especially, so Ua bip- 
id disasters at sea. 
We have trie. I, and seen utterly fail, inflated Indi;: bcUfl ; 






10s 



TtTF. ARTS Or i AMP J 



[On, 



ire Liable to injury from the priel ■.i«to» 

Lb apl to decay from what makes them waterproof in I 
Sinai! squares of cork, sewn in stout calico, never fail ; ami if nclMg 
else is to be had, empty bottles, corked, and put in 
Bliirt, will enable a man to pass buoyantly through I 
breakers. 

Food. — The new system of the coram 
least there ia a wonderful improvement in the qtmlitj 
lately. The animal is seen alive before it is killed for tin* u 
diers. Formerly there wen.' many complaints against i 
contractors bought lean and diseased beasta — L| 
eodgera" — but the Government will not allow this 
to continue. With recruits, quantity of food predt 
every other consideration : their appetites are usually 80 
unless allowed day after day to boil their meat, and i 
baain of soup, eating the meat and bread thereafter, 
-'If " the fiery edge" of their hunger, they will not be .- 
have also known a recruit buy at the canteen a foui . at' aftfl 

liia dinner, and return to a corner and consume 
Meat prepared in the oven ia not so filling to i 
to change their manner of cooking, and the stew is n 
with pepper and onions, they soon desire to 
ehange in their diet. 

But in camp life nothing Is bo relishing as the I i botiot 

or small squares of meat skewered on a lot 
wood fire, and eaten hot off the stick, with biseuita from tl 
sack, washed down with a ** tot v of I We found I 

best way to deal with indifterent meat on service, was •, 
small with a hatchet on a block of wood, ami n 
it ; the fire acted on it better this way than boiling it, 
very slowly performed, only made the meat hard ami unj 

It is absurd to be fastidious about eating on sen ie< . 
carelessness and stupidity not to make the most of • 
and with indifterent means to produce n respectable ' 
tage,' 1 is doubtless a proof of ability in the way of the ru 
uleinned for some time to a diet of salt pork and I 
found the corrective to this Fort of food in a bag of 
riee water correcting the injurious effects of the pork, Thi 
make a good mess out of salt beef in to boil it for an hi 
throw away the first water, boil it again 
biscuit or whatever else is at hand, Hour, for instane 
boiling -ill produce a fair soup, and meat not at all bad. 

The pet dish is, thus produced : cut up I 
into a jar, peppering and salting it slightly, put thi 
kettle, the water surrounding the jar, but not entering the in 01 
let the water simmer for four or live hours, at the ■ 
ff will be turned out of the jar fit fur a genera] 

Got d kneading will raise bread without if 
H-r, tlu-s — a triak we learned on the American lal 
!ii full of^four, knead this till tired, adding a ! 
the saucepan on the tire, and before long a tolerable lo.i 



IS."'.)- TITE ART9 OT CAMP UP?. 199 

in it ; ur make n man wash his hands, sit down, and till them with 

r, lit another pout 1 water on this, knead well again, and slick the 

round moist ball up against the hut ashes, a good roll will soon be 

Luced to accompany one's meat. 

Commend mo wild pieat wheu il can be got, an easier of digestion, 

allh ami ntrengtu~giring than any stall-fed ox whatever. 

quantity of food is not at all required for strength and activity; 

of the finest men for his years we know is "Watc-i'ton, of 

Walton Hall, " wanderer and naturalist." He has always been a 

j moderate eater, he could walk, run, climb trees, and perform ull 

j of athletes at sixty better than most men at twenty-five, and 

his leg was a picture for a statuary, having what he called a double 

rulf, though he boasted at the same time that his stomach was "no 

i* than his fist," he ate so moderately, 

DmNK, — To search for and find the " pure clement" on service, is 

ret consequence, ami also to look to one's supply of water on 

ipyinga post, should be considered of primary importance. The 

privations which the Oriental arid African travel Icr experiences, and 

ocohttc-ri'Seinhling pools with which he is often obliged 

try to assuage his thirst, teach the voyageur the groat valoe of 

i water, and «how the abmird fastidiousness of some of those 

*■ who have never slept out of sheets" about the crystal purity of tin 

water they use. 

The campaigner or traveller In wilderness regions should recollect 

nvergiug footprints of wild animals, the flight of birds, 

■ l > appearance of vegetation, at particular places on an 

. plain, indicate water. The beds of rivers, apparently dry, have 

iter at no great depth, and the elephant digging there 

with his tusks, and inserting his trunk into a hole, sucks up what 

will refresh bis bulky and sun-burnt carcase. 

The experienced campaigner will carry with him a piece of alum 

to precipitate the earthy particles in water; or throw into it charcoal, 

; if in a hurry to drink at a muddy pool, he will Spread a 

! kerchief over it, put a bullet in the centre of the handkerchief, 

and thus collect the witter dear. If a filter is required, he will Sink 

bored with holed, in a. water-course, biutjuucI it with moss, 

..I* better, have oue barrel within another, and nieiss between then, 

simple and valuable mode of distilling fresh water from salt, in 

the event of shipwreck, should be remembered- — place a kettle of soil 

r mi two or three Btones, so as to have a lire below it. introduce 

I he muzzle of a gun barrel under the lid, support the breech hoti* 

tolly, surround the barrel with a net cloth, or put it in a trough 

to act as a condenser of the steam, and the fresh water will 

1 the touch-hole. 

voyage of a month and more, troops might be trained to 
temperance, and made to feel ita excellent effect, giving no spirit 

, or cocoa. If beer and porter could he 

would he preferred, doubtless, but they are bulky and 

i the rations. When wounds are given, men 

i prepared fur them, and will more rapidly recover from 

mii tea than on grog, when there is a taint of alcohol iu the 



Md 



TTT^I Ame OT C\M1* 



BTttoM, M hOB been often witnessed ; also there would In? much le 
thirst if the very moderate use of tobacco were indulged iu. 



11 



■bk 



■l, 



indulged 



),y 






■niislmit 
strongest and nerve-destroying cavendish. '■ I regretted leav 
West Indiea," said a slave of the glu^nudpipe. " Why ?*' N B ea n s* 
I had always a beautiful thirst there V 

Cooicrxo. — It ia of the first consequence that troo] d ariv 

bestir themselves and cook a meal , particularly if they have bns 
work before them. It ia alleged of the Scotch that they alwirn 
take the precaution to eat a good breakfast to make - 
meal, careless afterwards of food during the day. Previo 
buttle of Solferino, the French, knowing what was before 
Moke! and ate at 2 am, ; the Austrians were bringing up 
cooking apparatus when their pots and kettles wcro kim. 
by the French ami Sardinian balls ; exhaustion was the result 
soldiers of the Kaiser, fighting, as the brave fellows did, on empty 
Btomaeba. 

AVe first saw camp kitcheus with the Russian army a\irinf» the 
war of 1820, a long trench dug and square notches cut at one tide 
of it for the fires and kettles. Captain Pont, U.A., hag eorwed 
trenches sixteen feet long, for draught, and a chimney at the and. 
Colonel I). Lraaonsi, C.B., made admirable i with long 

draughts, in the Crimea, for the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusili 
circular kitchen the earth is thrown towards the centre m 
iiit in it f.ir the kettles to rest upon — an Iron pot am! 
may comprise the Apparatus for cooking; in this way tin 
made in the same kettle the moat is boiled iu. For a hun 
broil rib bones ; also piecea of meat slieweretl i 
much strength. We have seen KaQlr warriors with t!i 
meat on their left arm in the form of A ring m* two of lb . 
like a bracelet, ami thus trotting along with their light coramil 

IIoTTixu. — If troops are without tents th I eat out i 

In the ground) parallelograms, to hold, ?ay eix men In 
in Armenia some years ngo underground how neeu. 

table-lands there are exposed to severe eold iu winter, and meo sod 
entile are sheltered under ground, under the same Hat 
house being indicated by its chimney appearing abow 
the plateau of Sevastopol the officers of some regimenti* 
entirely under ground; they excavated to thedepthof iddsr*. 

leaving steps to descend to tho floor, and over all 
roof, thatched or covered with boards or tarpaulin. The winds** 
and dour were at the gables. Doubtless the an u vstf 

indicated m exploring among the baths on the Curragh of KiSdar., 
lived wholly, or in part, under ground, 

li would boa useful practice for troopi to construct a few 
ad In its with roofs uf poles and branches, car. 
Barry off the water by means of small trenches oute 

iu the ground and bringing their top* toge i fu? 

them willt 1> i l l 1 heapii all round, 

make a tolerab ■ i live in. 

i i forests it is easy t.» awl oneaeW as m did on he -ihsk 










raW, I I ARTS OF CAMP itTK. 201 

at of two forked sticks with a ridge pole six or 

mvi.-i.-u them, against tbJe k-au poles on one aide, 

front open, thatch the poles with brandies, also close up the 

triaugular ends, have a log firs in front, cover the floor with small 

branches, and after the evening meal is cooked and discussed, 

delicious repose may be bad in one's blanket in thia forest M camp." 

lb '" make camp," to the woodsman's phraseology, is to construct a 

screen of this description, lu very wet and cold weather two of 

eing each other make a complete hut, but the emu " half 

Efiees for many months in the year. To save the trouble of 

thatching, the writer carried coverings for the poles (cut riaih) of 

stout Striped ticking with end pieces. Ticking to cover Jive 

men weighed 7 or 8 lbs., whilst a bell tent, dry, with its pegs and 

mallet, weighs 00 lbs., and wet, upwards of 100 lbs. 

TiSTTS. — The inventor of the tern's d'abri is deserving of a high pre- 
mium. It id terrible, the waste of lives in armies which have no 
ran ting for their soldiers, as was the case in former wars. 

In disembarking at Old i'ort in the Crimea, for want of transport 
no bell tents could be landed, and the ienie d'abri was then a novelty; 
there was a deluge of rain the first night, and the result was a ship 
load of rick ; now tenles d'abri are introduced for practice, at the 
i six soldiers, each carrying a piece of canvass 5ft, 
■. with buttons on it, ami short poles and guy ropes, a 
i and a mallet, ess si ( up their shelter in a few minutes, and 
am harm b*dow, particularly if there is a piece of 
laulin or waterproof to cover the ground with. 

ii service lu set up two riiltra G^ffc, apart, with 

pings in their muzzles, a ridge cord went from plug to plug, ami 

[own to the ground, a couple of blankets, provided with 

:ied with canvass or leather), made a tent for 

fmr men. of which the rifles were the poles, imtl two rifle* and two 

blankets remained for defence and cover inside. 

hi bell tent, difficult to pitch, and with its numerous pegs, 
stilt maintain* its ground in our camps; perhaps it m lew difficult to 
blow down than tents of other shapes. Heme prefer a pyramidienl 
triii of 7:1. in the sides, and requiring four pegs at the angles, the 
->.mk two or more feet, a young tree substituted for the 
usual pole, or, to give more space, a number of poles converging to 
i fashion, and covered with the tent and with a 
tarpaulin ake ;i capital canvass habitation. 

In India and for fishing excursions in America, a two*poled 

- used 7ft. l"i'g, and roomy enough to dreBS in, fastened to 

id v. 1 1 u pegs, or even stones, and a semi-circular part at one 

in i : canvass weighed 8 or 91bs., and the cost was 

the guy ropes of tents with twigs or fastening the e&dl 
I burying them, will enable a tent to resist the heai 

permanent abode should be dug out inside, 

support the poh with a flat atone below 

ln-il, a shelf all round, and for cold weather a Fireplace 

d with a chimney runn ng o Kid across the trench, 




which in ihi}*; bo keep the. rain water from gettri 

tent. 

Captain Rhodes, with his book on tents, ia the Bid 
canvass habitations ; he collected most valuable information as 
trnta (rf evTiy description and form ; his pmiciph 
discard the use of the inconvenient tent pole, tli> \ bein* 

supported on pliable ribs of aahwood, the lower enda oi 
fixed into the ground, and the tops meeting in a woo .which 

also answers the purpose oi* a ventilator. 

A patrols tent used in South Africa is thus 1, and 

earnestly recommended ti» the notice of the campaigner ami 
man as affording effectual protection from heat, cold, and 
portable, that one man can carry it, and it may be " built 




O*- 



Two stout poles, outside the tent, r\re four and a half 
high, and are connected with & ridge rope eight feet h>ng. wecur 
with one or two guy or storm ropes. The tent is 
tent is of striped ticking, the inner of blanket, the tick 
blanketing are both sewn over a second ridge rope; this n 
loop?" at the ends for the pole heads, and is connected with tl 
ridge rope by ten or twelve loops of strong tape, the first 
running through the loops. There h a curtain nt the 
an interval of two and a half inches between the and th 

blanket tnpes at the middle and ends connecting tl 
with the ticking. Width of tent at bottom about 
half feet, with a trench all round ; the doora of 
ih&pe, fasten across each other at the ends of the tent. 
lie twenty pegs to the tent, but fourteen usually 
Blenkinsop, 15th, and Captain Barnes, 14th regiment, were 
months in a tent of this description at the Cape, and with grtflt 
comfort, 

Fnue. — Tell moat civilized men to make a tire, wit h 
tueifer matches at hand, and they would be quite at a la 

. that is. they have a small block of wood which 
not be too hard, and a drill stiek hard and dry to rub into tl 
block, twirling it between their palms tiil a quantity of bi;i< 
is collected, which ia fanned into it flame. In Kaihr Ian 
warrior pai n f u lly u raising fire" in this waj tor '■ to astonii 

I lie tiatiu*,'' did eo effectually, and bimaeli at the same 






THE ARTS OF CAA11' Llli:, 



203 



pulling out a match box, and incautiously using it, he blew up the 
whole in Iiih face. 

On » urying a tinder box is useful, with flint and steel, 

also :i lump of sulphur, to wake matches by dipping chips into the 
i mi Jted in an old spoon, We have Been, lire obtained from 
a rag, by firing it out of a gun with a email charge of powder. A 
burning glass is easily found in one's telescope. Tinder is prepared 
for a journey by lighting and smothering rags of cotton or linen. 
Punk is a natural tinder, which grows on the stems of old trees. 

hi Africa our usual practice was, to collect Bonis dry grass and 

make it into a loose nest, ignite aome touch paper [made by rubbing 

r into it), with the flint and steel, and put it into the 

middle of the nest, encourage it with a pinch of dry powder, and 

swing the nest round the head, and backwards and forwards in the 

air ; with a little practice a flame is thus quickly raised, small chips 

of wood previously collected and at hand begin a lire, and large 

K the kettle. 

In the pine woods of America we had fires to last all night, by 

g and partly squaring a couple of great lege, one rested on 

the other ; Bre was raised by means of the chins, and thru the logs 

ignited ; fire is made in the bottom of a boat in a box of day, 

It will be remembered that lire- is an admirable purifier of the air 

iu damp situation-. 

l\sriM>, Gabions, &c. — Important arts of camp 1 i J V - are the 
making of fhsvh ons, and other means for conducting the 

al operations of a siege, and for the construction of lield 
.nid kit!' I 

Some years ago, whilst the writer was stud] bag at the Royal Kin 

KJneer establishment at Chatham under Colonel (now General Wir 

l< \ , tlii* valuable officer was preparing a series of small 

entitled. 

" Kidcs, chiefly derived from experiment " on the above matter.-!, 

B&d these are highly useful to refer to, though not easy to be oh- 

i a tool of the greatest value, particularly in wooded 

>un tries, and soldiers should take every opportunity to uae it. The 

^ the Tinted States General, Macomb, mentioned in 

at Washington, saw our people in the war of 1S12, 

g the billhook, and working with brushwood, whilst the 

Americans were felling trees with axeB for breastworks. 

In crating brushwood for fascines, gabions, and pickets, the stroke 
of" the billhook should be upward and backhanded, a pair of stout 
- indispensable, also rubstones ; fascines for revetting bat- 
i. long and 9in. in diameter, they are usually made of 
'1 wherever it can be found, 
are made in a cradle on tressles, or stakes fixed obliquely 
ing each other, and found together in the form 
the tresslcs are usually 4ft. apart. The 
properly trimmed are placed on the tresaelfli 
'a- is bound with withtsa, two men choke or compress the 
thwood, Slid two iiimL The fascine picket with its triangular 
to penetrate and lix the fascine is about ll't. long, 







Gabions or cylindrical hampers open at; top and bottom tlld 
with earth are most useful, lite fasciues, for revetting uYldworka. 
Ai'tcr many experiments it was found that 9 
diameter to use for gabions, and 2 feet 9 inched 
height. Gabions arc usually made by driving nickel 
ground in a circle, the prepared rod;? for the web or 
passed alternately round one picket and within 
time to time the watling 13 beat down with the foot or a 
picket. 

It requires considerable practice to make f:<- 
ueatly and strong, whereas pointing the branches offelle 
sb&tfas, pknting stockades, digging pitfalls or from tfo louj 
taught. 

Skill mid judgment are necessary to make powder m 
trendies or in Held works that will not be liable to h 
an enemy. At Sevastopol the British seemed laete euco 
the French in this matter. The magazine may be plai 1 
verse or partly underground, and may be constructed of I.. 
gabions, &.?., and the mouth covered with a splinter proul 
scantlings of 8 or 10 inches, and placed sloping ovi 
2 feet of earth usually cover the scantling. 

The dimensions of a field powder magazine aiv 
high by 4 feet 6 inches wide, nnd its length in pn 
quantity of ammunition. There should be at leasts 1 « « 
on the top, the floor to be quite dry, aud of joists and boaj 
small ditch underneath. 

Thhowiko ip a WoitK. — This in a most useful part of th< 
tice of the arts of camp life, though some sold 
tiny "listed," a pick and spade would never lismdledky 

i he m. But in these rifle days the value of these inq cannot 

be suifieiently inculcated. For the protection of artillery, besides 
mantlets of iron, the breastwork rapidly thrown up will b 
sable. The Homans with ilieir nightly eutrenelm 
country, their palhtm el Joua, allowed the value thej put -11 earth 
works and the use of tools. 

The engineers and their assistant 3 v> ill bIi"W 
pickets, and cords the heigl t, and bj?a? of a Held work, and also tks 
tbidrneM of the parapet. The men are distributed ami told 
Bhovels to one pick, nnd they work :it 6 nr feet apart ; if 
ing pay is given it should be appropriated to replace clothet 
worn out at the wo.k. 

"Setting up" is a great matter in the Dritif and it is 

doubtless very advisable to hike tin' clown out "I ;i man and eoa> 
vert the bumpkin into the smart clean soldier, proud •<> hitnat 
of his corps, yet we must not sacrifice the practice of il 
spade, the saw, axe, and augur, to white belts and pn 

A pipe clay regiment was kept on a frontier, and not till 
engage in an exciting campaign, because the 
seemed reluctant to get his men's clothes soiled in a bivoi 

In America (a dangerous place \\>r deserting) regie 
public works remained true to their colours, whilst nwre drill 



>■! 



THE ABTS OF CAM!' UPB. 






rack routine, made them first fattest, and ( * u- 1 1 ready to listen 

to lie helped across the border. The colonel of a ivl;i- 

ut in Canada, betides employing his men on useful fatigue duties 

d hia good conduct men by allowing them to work tor wages 

the gardens of civilians. 

In summer, throwing up fifty yards of a parapet, or a sod foffy 
1 practice ; whilst in winter making n snow fort and attack- 
j it . :i- tetfmea practised in Canada, h both amusing and 

tru ctive, combining also the use of scaling ladders. 

Burmans, in the war nf LB2&-I828, used to sink pita at uighj 
ite a work occupied by oui- soldiers, and in the morning 
• v from under cover. The Russian rifle pita, of a few stones 
• r, with the ground hollowed out behind them, are in the 
••ly recollection of those who took part in the siege of Sevastopol. 
are made by throwing up a "few feet of parapet, and 
; the trench behind it. 
beg to notice Colonel Lefroy'a excellent handbook fot 
rvice, containing among a variety of most interesting and uae- 
I subject.*, directions for field fortifications, military bridges, 
i<-al mauieuvrcp, &<\ The treatises of the American. Pro. 
' labon, on field fortification, outpost dunes, <£c., are also 
;bly to be commended for comprehensiveness and portability, 
j)«t Colonel Jebb'fl attack and defence of posts should be in the 
i uf every officer. 
BtVOCAC. — The true soldier will try to make himself as cou- 
nted and bappy by the bivouac fire ha in the carpeted and eur- 
ined r<i(im " when battle's over." The imitation soldier grumbles 
d in "put out " with the least approach to discomfort. During a 
elave insurrection in the West Indies, we remember certain 
mm, at first seemingly inclined to do good service, but soon 
beted," and wishing to go home, because they did not 
r]\- . -dIi, ■<• jTgularly of a morning. 

It is wonderful how hardened the system becomes after ■ few 

is exposure; what would half kill a " barrack clerk," a night 

the buHi), is enjoyment and health to a seasoned i satnpsjgner, 

was Haiti before, it is absurd to reject the appliances to guard 

linst cold and dump, or he may BOW trio seeds of rheumatism, fever, 

-ntery. A very valuable and intelligent officer, Colonel 

If A , "Tarifa Michell," brought on a fatal fever, by think- 

j himself too hardy, and Letting hid wet clothes dry on him in, 

Unless the trunk m very large, it gives very uwliflcrmt 

I. sleep behind ; much better turn up a broad turf as a » 

night blast. Picking up stones, drawing bushes together, 
a furrow in the sand, all help materially in the 
t being kept covered, with an addition to the cloak 
1 . the pillow the butt of the rifle, and the barrel between 
if danger is near. 
* a pony to carry the portmanteaus, a pair of blankets 
a large tarpaulin, or a waterproof hag, is a capital preparation 
r the bivouac, a dap covering the head in rain. 



206 



THE ARTS Or CAMr LIFE, 



In connexion with this subject, we hope that will 

come when troops will be dressed in a mure loose manner 

[iresent European fashion of Prussian stiffness. We hare 
mrseback the loose shulwae of the Persians, a sort of tr 
in them a man of ordinary stamina, and with I 
broad shawl girdle, and a coffee and bread diet 5 shouli 
11H> miles a day in the saddle for many days to; 
European cut garments, these fatigues might be incoi 
the bivouac might be reached with difficulty 

Again, for riflemen, or for any soldiers, a vest, v\ 
for hot climates, and thick sleeves for cold, and over u a 1. 
ii la Zouave^ or after the old Highland fashion, will 
give the wearer more apparent size, and greater freedom 
and anas, than the fashion of buttoning up a soldier I 
in a tunic, though that is a wonderful imp] 
The outer garment should button over the vest on 
in genera] It. might be loosely confined at the upper 
breast, and the belts worn over the vest, the waist Wt run 
through loops to support the ammunition. 

Equipped in this way. and well shod, and with chau 
expeditious, when the bivouac was reached, if the weather 
no tent was pitched for mouths, The jacket and amimmiti 
he thrown oil", and after collecting urewuod, the in il 

ii id broiling operations commenced by some of the 
clearing the sand of stones, and putting up some lui 
and turf to the windward, would precede the turning 
blanket. The night air about which there i.-* such 
among dwellers in cities, gives health and not diiteas 
li ■!•:-■ the misfortune lo repose near swan 
'li-i 1 a veil over the face and a fire may ward oft' 1 1 
the morning a little precautionary ipiinin 

On Saturday nights music and dancing agreeably diversif 
life, or bunts at single stick, to prepare one for a rush, .« 
hand, on riflemen. 

In the bivouac the sabbath should be a day of 
idleness. The careful officer will then assemble In- 
due reverence offer a tribute of praise ami 
!, wd of 11 

En the afternoon whilst clothes are repaired and wa-ln 
may convey useful instruction from a pocket volun 
in addition to the Scriptures, might lu> found ii 
form a portable field library of hundreds of volumi 

Stimulated b of duty and by the ree 

the Christian soldier will be always ready, " with th 
beaming on his countenance," to advance with a I 
hw country's Goes, auil, if need be, content lay down 

in her service, 

The Curragli Camp, Sept.. I8«n, 



207 



A GERMAN VIEW OF THE ITALIAN WAH. 

tinned from page 41.) 

CJIAPTKK IV. 

The Battle of Magtnto— Tlio French and Anitamn Befcanu of Killed and 
Wounded — Gjulni'is Tueties— The Austrian Retreat— No Pursuit — Baaalu of 

tin.' Uiiitk of Magenta — The Fight At Meleiiiuin.i-The EvncniUioii of Lom- 
■ — Politicul Results. 

Tt was not till l p.m., that Maritahona artiilury w;i< ngaiti 

idililo on the battle-field at Ponte di Magenta, and at about th« 

tnc hour n wing of Reisehach's division had pushed on from 

*oute di Magenta tin Builiilora. It is very doubtful whether Mac 

ion would have carried the day at the decisive moment at Ma- 

ntri. bad not, at this juncture, all the French auxiliary troops come 

Bt oil the other side from San Martiuo. This decided the day. 
•_.» of dead proved how bard the Austrians had fought against 
m mouse odds* Genera! Cler was killed, General Mellinet had two 
oraes shot under him, General Wimpffen was wounded bo the 
tead, Commandants* Desme and Mumihurs were killed at Buftalora; 
e Konaves lost 2.00 men, and the Imperial Guard waa much cut up. 
is Austrian Generals were wounded, .Keischach in three plaws, 
lad the "French not won the day, with the Tessin behind them, 
" eir army was lost. 
Iii round numbers the French say they picked up 120,000 mrj 
on the tietd of battle, the official Austrian returns are 1000 men 
sing (chiefly prisoners), 03 o (Beers killed, 1,302 privates kille.!, 
21^ ofliceca wounded, and 4,130 men, in all 9,7ltt men killed, woun- 
ded, and missing. Amongst the wounded were Generals Iieisrhacb, 
Bauer, Weigh Lebzeltern, Gablentz, and Hurdina, the last severely. 
of the missing afterwards rejoined their respective detach- 
ents. The Austrinns took 700 French prisoners. The loss of the 

neb, in killed and wounded, must have been very great.* 
Was Gvulni justified in not renewing the battle on the next morn- 
s' 

lustrian writer enters into all the pros and cons at great 
lgth, but tinally cornea to the conclusion that the retreat was ad- 
nble. The first idea was to give a second I) at tie, and some military 

The Au-uiim writer into n long emuaentwu of the Atistium 

a show how inferior they were in numbers to tin" nllii'l :v. ■,.. 
Th« Journal dt» Debuts ha» reccntlj published ii rettirn of the Iomob of IjhIi 
. ions engagements, which e turn it states to have compiled from tluj 
|[ gives the li«««a us follow* ; — • 
At Moni. u Ho (aist Mnv> (In- Allies* had 7,000 mm engaged, of which 6,800 
50 imii put hom ill' combat,ot which 625 were French. 
• were 13,000 strong ; fmfs d? ctm/ittt, I,I50 ; prisonera, 150. 
lro ('3<Jtli ami Sift M*y) ; Alii. 21,0 10, ofwhkuonh 2,500 were French ; 
. 1,400, Ausiriniis also 21,000; 2,100 nn-n halt dt rvtnbat ; S5u 

i June, inditding Titrhigo 3d June): French B5,O0O j 4.100 hort dt 
prisoners; lost <>"■'■ j^iin. Atutrinm 78,000 ; 13,000 km* tk 
ul lust four 
. .'. i tin; Ficni a, wtxhinu !u k impartial. The Aottrku return* 

nil.) 

t, aUo., iS'o. 371, Oct., IbO'J. i- 



209 GEBMAff VIEW OF THE TTALIAK WA.B. [OCT., 



authorities are of the opinion that had a determined attack been i 
on the oil), the French would have been driven baek over the Tessm. 
It is impossible to say what the result might have been. The Aw- 
trians could have brought up 70,000 men, but the whole of the 
Sardinian army and 13araguey d'Jlillier's corps, altogether 90,000 
men, would have been opposed to them. 

On the morning of the 5th, the Austrians opened tire to cover 
their retreat. The Regiment Prince of Hesse attacked Pouto di 
Magenta, and kept their ground until the retreat was assured. Xo 
pursuit was made. 

tSuch was the battle of Magenta ; it will be ever memorable in the 
annals of war fur bad generalship and for the heroism of the officers 
and men ; 75,000 Austrians held their ground against 110,000 French- 
men, and would have ginned the victory if a single fresh division 
had been brought up in time. 

The results of the battle of Magenta were very important, but 
they did not imply the necessity for the evacuation of the whole of 
Lombardy. It is, however, true, that after Milan was somewhat 
hastily evacuated, " superior orders " commanded the evacuation of 
Pavia, Pi/zighettone, and Piacenza, as the army was to take up anew 
position behind the Mincio. 

On the evening of the 8th .Tune, the only serious engagement in 
the retreat took place at Melegnano ; the rest of the Austrian army 
crossed the Adda unopposed, as did also TJrban's flying division near 
Cassano. 

And these strongholds were allowed to be evacuated, and the forti- 
fications destroyed by the Austrians, without opposition. This il 
the best reply to the bombastic announcements in the Monittur. 

The Emperor !Napoleon 1.11. ordered Marshal Paragney d'JIillion, 
whose corps was not engaged at Magenta, to join MacMahon. Jfa 
wished to show, at lcasl, the appcaranco of a pursuit, and there wai 
to be a light at any price. The troops of the 1st corps were still flu* 
oil", and MacMahon's corps, though one portion of it had advanced 
as far as St. I)onato. one mile east of Milan, appeared to have suffered 
so much that the Mar.«hal dhl not feel much inclination to push for* 
ward. Paragney d'llill'crs, in his report to the Emperor, says: 

"Time was required to carry out effectually the attack on Mchg- 
uano. Put your M-'ji ;ty has ordered me to commence operatioason 
the very day T left Sim I'ietro d*( >h>io, which has rendered my task 
much more difficult, as the Hil di\ ; sion i-ould not take up positien 
till half-past three.*' 

It arrived only -it half-past four within 1.2' V metres of "Melegncrfl, 
whilst Marshal MacMahon eio-.-cd the Lamhro at Carpaniello, and 
pushed forward his artillery <n the 1/di road. 

At the battle of Molegnaii" t'reo divisions of the French, of W 
•orps, were engaged, supix.rtcd ly MacMahon's artillery, whilst i* 
the Austrian side there was Rodeu's single di\isii>n engaged, wp* 
ported by a sei-ond division in reserve. 

Rodcn's brigade had to light against the terrific odds of nix to one- 
He had thrown up a barricade in front of the town, and placed* 
battery at the entrance clote to the lirst huises. When the French 



k] 



GEB.MA1T VIEW OF THE IIAJLUN WAS. 



209 



mu of attack uf the Sd division approached and op jned their 

tie Austrian battery, they Buffered auch aerera loss that 

had to fall back. The Austriana, however, were threatened on 

all sided ; six guns were brought up in front on tlie high road, ten 

Were placed ou the left wing, and two on the right. General Forgeot. 

■ two battalions and a detachment of sharpahooteva, advanced 

rom Mezzana on the French right wing, threatening to cut otf tho 

rvti"L':it i»n Lodi. 

Nevertheless, Eoden's brigade made a determined resistance, ditf- 
. every inch of ground, in the streets, at the castle, and behind 
ie gurden walls), until the 2d French division came up. The com- 
ion with the bridge over tire Lambro was now threatened on 
idea. The retreat was wounded and all the guns were tmfely 
ed across the bridge with the exception of one. Behind Meleg- 
Bodon'a briga le was joined by that of Boer, and took up 
el-Bernardi, and held its ground there until the latf 
wounded man had been removed. MacMahon's- artillery now opened 
Dodi road, and it was high time fur the Auatrians to beat a 
laat- ie o'clock at night a heavy storm of rain put a 

to the fighting, and the two brigades joined" the rear-guard of the 
rh lekt) without pursuit. Tt*e Austrian return* of the 

fair are 368 men iter* de combat; of which number 112 privates, 
oQicerc, and 1 general killed, 234 privates and 15 officers wounded, 
addition, some oilieera and men of the Regiment Crown-Prince of 
missing or made prisoners. General Boer died of his wounds 
Lug conveyed to Lodi, 
Marshal Baraguey d'Hilliers 1 report speaks of 1,200 wounded 
to the French ambulances, and of 800 to 900 pri- 
soners! and of one gun captured. We must ask here (says the 
usLritm writer) who lies ? The Austrian report is official, giviug 
Lilled and wounded ; the French account is cooked 
for the Parisians, Baraguey d'Hilliers, nevertheless, admits the 
043 killed and wounded, including 13 officers killed, 56" 
two colonel*, one lteuteuaut-colonel, and 
ided. 
hesitate to say that the honour of the day waa on the 
ust i given the French a good leason, aud were 

ed to retreat unmolested to the Adda, 
Be to evacuate the whole of Lmnbrirdy, and to 

>hind the Mini 

Luatrian military authorities raaintairj that Piucenza and, 
ri with it, Pavia, ought to have held out. 
After enumerating the recent auditions to the fortifications of 

w riter continues : 
'* It is true, a successful defence of Piacenza uould have required a 
«<'<; of ut least 20j000 or 30*000 men. But this 
;, employment before ita walla to double that amount 
Would it then m possible for the enemy to 

line of I ho Adda, with Piacejua in ita 



einiuv . 



uut writer) unhesitatingly adopt thif 

p 2 



OEBMAS VIEW OF THE ITALIAN WJUI. 

opinion, the more so as by holding the line of the Pu from Pi 
to Cremona, and of the Adda, the occupation of Milan bj 
French would have been .1 very precarious one, and a si 
would have compelled them to evacuate it. The *_■■ 
and of the whole of Lombardy as far as the Mincio, wa 
inost unexpected military advantage for the Franc 
considering the revolutionary character of the war, aa in-. 
political success. The whole of It ah believed it to i i« 

of the battle of Magenta, and that Austria did tiol !' 
enough to meet her opponents onee more in the tit-Id ii 
On all sides Austria waa deserted. The Val belli no, I 
gave in as soon as the Piedmontese and French app 
and Parma, when Austria had partisans, did I 
legations in the Papal States made poll lustrations iu 

ol the Protectorate of Sardinia. In short, wherever 
failed to b e felt, the whole of Italy beyond the V<> and 
lust to her. 



an 
pe 



CHAPTER V. 

'l'lic Battle of Solferiiio, 

On the 23d June, the armies of the Allies were ou the river 
and it was only when Napoleon was informed, by hi- 

scouts, of the projected attack of the Austrian*, thai 
orders for a general advance and to commence the attack 
break on the 24th. The position of the Allii !,i be! 

the 23d and 24th, was as follows; — The Piedmont) 
between Desenzunu and Eaenta, sonic detachments o< 
npperrange of hills near C a Bt el \Y 

against Pozzolengo and ou the Peschiera road. The first FttoA 
corps, under Marshal Baraguey d'Hilliers, consisting of the Infantry 
divisions, Forey, Bazaine.and fj'Admirault, was at Eaenl 
destined to net against Bolfermo. Of the Imperial 1; 
Marshal Regnauld tie St. Jean d'Angely, the Infkntn 
Mellinet'e division of Grenadiers of the Guard and Cam* 
geurs — were encamped at Monteehiaro. The eight battel 
Artillery of the Guard and the tln< Cavalry bn 
were at Castenedolo, half way between Monteehiaro and Bi 
In thia retired position, the Guard formed the main n - 
second corps, under Marshal MacMahon, consisting 
Lamotterouge and Decaen, was at Castiglione, thus m a 
Austrian lines, and had orders to act against Cavrian 
corps, under Niel, consisting of the divisions Vinoy, Faillv 
and strengthened by the two cavalry divisions Parto'inuaiu and 
Desvaux, stood on the same line (elevation) aa the second corps at 
Carpenedolo, and was to advance against Guidozzolo. Thi 
corps, under Marshal Canrobert. consisting of tiie divi ..rbtki, 

Trochu, and Renault, was stationed somewhat in t] 
other side of the ( biese, in Mezzane, and was destined - 

right wing of the army and to support the fourtl 

.1. ' e. 1 .. 1 .'..ic. .:.. .1.. r. o i. 1... j- ...i- i 



army thua formed a half circle front Eseuta, by Castigliout 

•jo. lo MeaBane, iu the centre of which, Monteehiaro, stood thr 






UEBJUV VTEW OF TITT. ITALIAN WAR. 



211 



rre. TIio position was a very concentrated one, anil well selected 
;iH 'eventualities. The cavalry and artillery of the Guard were 
ue somewhat too much in the rear, and had a trying march to get 
to the field of battle. 

The Austrian army had, aa was known, abandoned its former 

ng positions of Lonato, Montcchinro, ami Caatiglione, and had 

nuvn behind the Mincio, and it appeared as if its intention was 

• ti.i await the attack of the Allies. This retreat across the. 

in did not please the Austrian troops, who were eager for battle, 

d the splendid Austrian cavalry vvaa particularly annoyed as it 

mid itself condemned to inactivity, as the plains of Medole and 

onteehiaro would have afforded it a. rare opportunity of acting in 

; masses against the enemy. News came in that Prineo Napoleon 

;i<K an eing with 35,000 fresh troops, and that the enemy 6 fleet 

raa preparing to attack Venice. All these circumstances and many 

Iten determined the Austrian General to take the offensive; the 

ing of the Allies was to be the chief point of attack, with a 

drive them up agaiust the mountains and impede their retreat, 

reootinoiasance had shown that the ridge of lulls south of the 

rda Lake waa not occupied, and that a quick move in advance 

hi! J aecure the advantageous points and enable the Austrian s 1)0 

rile tn the enemy, who had his back to the Chiese, under very 

Mr circumstances, 

It was on the 23rd June that the Austrian army crossed the 

: Reiehlin's brigade of the Gth corps joined by Field-Marshal 

medek'a at Peschiera and Salionze, the 5th at Valeggio, the 7th 

i MeusdorfTs reserve cavalry division over a military bridge at 

the 9th, 11th, and Zedwita'n cavalry division crossed over 

bridge at Goito. On the evening of the 23rd the Austrian army 

ih\ iii position as follows : — 

"the 2nd army of General Count Sehlick, the 8th corps, vvitli 

brigades attached to it, wnsat Pozzolengo. The Hue of outposts 

itched from / a pa g I in to Madonna della Seoperta, a very domina- 

potnt. The utn corps, under Lieut. -Field-Marshal Count Stadion, 

is at Solferino, and with Bils' avant garde brigade occupied the 

igh»<< iii front and the village of Grole. The 1st corps, under 

■unit dam, waa at Cavriana; the 7th corps, under Lieut. -Field 

i Zobcl, at Foresto, below Volta, as a reserve. Lieut. -Field 

shut Mensdorifs cavalry division occupied Tezzc in the plain 

i the 1st and 7th corps, 

• ■ 1st army Feld-Zeugmeiater Count Wimpffen, 2edwit?/s 

sion, with sonic battalions of the 9th eorps> had been 

duil on to Medole ; the 3rd and 9th corps were encamped in the 

•tion road m Guidiszolo; the 11th stood as reserve at Castel 

on tin- yjitm 1 level 113 the 7th corps of the 1st army. 

■iniiit thai the 11th corps waa placed too much in the rear ia 

i . the assertion, however, holds as regards the division 

1, of the 2nd corps, which had gone forth from Mantua, 

under the immediate orders of Lieut.. Field Marshal-Prince 

Iwnrd Liechtenstein, had stationed itself at Marcavra, near the 

idge over the Oglio. It had, however, orders to particinali' in tba 

orations of the main army, and to operate against the right of the 



GEBMA^ VIEW 



THE ITALIAN WAR. 



» French advancing by Castelgoflrcdo. Napoleon was also informed 
of this projected Hauls attack, which eventually would have perhaps 
been supported by the whole 2nd corps, and he had given I 
sary instructions to Canrobert, in consequenc 

division Jcllachich was not, however, witboui otcd 

Cnnroberfc sending up to Nle1 the support he repeatedly sent to 
for. Without this circumstance, the position taken by th 
Jellaehich would have had no influence whatever on the t 
the day. Mae Malum, with the 3rd division i 
had boldly attacked, and thereby perhaps tm 
wing — but we must not anticipate the course of the battle, but ' 
with the first fighting on the morning of the 2 In I 

The tirsfc movement* of the French army commenced at 2 
in the morning, and at daybreak already the 

§ skirmishing with the Austrian outposts atGrole a 
bad thus anticipated the Austrian attack, and prevented I 
pleting their arrangements for giving battle. That a b.itt!> 
expected till the 2.5th is scarcely probable. The outpof 

» opposite to each other on the evening of the 23rd, and it was > 
be supposed that the French would quietly watch the 
Ihe Austmus to the 25th, 

The French let corps advanced in two columns from 
Solferino ; L'Admirault's division, with four field pi 
mountain road, whilst the two other division?, nith t : 
artillery and train, advanced in the plain. The avant- 
fortned in the plain and on the declivities, b\ I ' 
former commander, Beuret, fell at Montebello, and whicl 
tined again on this day to lose its chief. Behind Font .mo 1 1 
tahon of chasseurs of this brigade attacked the 
posts on the Monte di Valseura, and dislodge 1 them aJ 
fight. They made a mure determined defence at Gride, which 
attacked with two full battalions of the 7 lib of 
numerically inferior detachments of Bil I iml figbl 

Solferino, The Monte Femle, which u 
tbr artillery, was taken possession of 
same Frenidi brigade, whilst L'Admirault's tl 
mountain road on the same level. Some hour* <>'" 'h 
ensued for the possession of the houses scattered in iV 
L'Admirault, twice wounded, was obliged to gireup his i 
General Wcgrier. lie died afterwards of hi* wounds. 

pined resistance was expected by the French on tin 
Sohriino itself, where the tower, bo' called "Hpiai 

auding the whole country beneath. Tin 
ferine, surrounded by a w» LI. had grvat ciipabiKtira 
the whole position on the heights was strong ami ad* 
no ticld-works had been thrown ti 
the position -was only occupied the night before. Th 
tough piece of work, especially as it was defended as 
by toe I rave Count Btadion. The defence 
mination and an obstinacy perhaps never equalli 
bhe strong three French divisions was cnoi i repeated ■ 

tempts to carry the height* by storm were contiL .ltd 









1869] 



GEBMAK VIEW OF THE ITALIAN - WAU. 



213 



the brave regiments Kinsky, Archduke Leopold, lleisehaeh, and the 
19th, and battalions of the Kaiser-Jager. 

In such a defence it was impossible to avoid tho capture of 
prisoners or of a gun ; this very fact shows that the men stood their 
(round firmly. The French report of the number of gnat captured 
neons. They enumerate all the guns taken, without dedn- 
■ii from them. 

The 1st Austrian corps, which in the forenoon was not hard pressed 
by Marshal MacMahon's corps, might have sent up some detach- 
merits to the brave 5th corps, especially when it become aware that 
Napoleon was bringing up the whole of the Imperial Guard to sup- 
pert the 1st French corps, 
The Emperor Napoleon just h estimating the importance ui' Nolle- 
■, had sent orders to the Imperial Guard wince bed advanced 
from Montechiuro against CastigUone, to accelerate its march and to 
attack the heigh is of Solferino on tho Left, to support the 1st corps. 
At the right moment Comou's division of VoH incurs (according to 
earlier returns thirteen battalions strong) arrived at the field of 
battle and stormed Solfarrao, which wan defended by four Austrian 
brigades, followed by Mellinet's division of the Grenadier Guards, it 
the same moment with three divisions of the 1st corps. A French 
of the 10th regiment of Artillery firing at a distance of 300 
metres, made a breach in the churchy are wall, thus getting rid of the 
left and BO desperately defended position. .Surrounded on all sides, 

eked by three times superior numbers, Stadion had no ehi 
left hut to abandon the position at half past three o'clock, after tea 
hours' incessant fighting. Tins was done iu good order in the direc- 
tion of Meeeolaro, a junction with the 1st corps at C. gag 
prevented by MacMahon's corps, which hud now taken position be- 
tween Solferino and Cavriana. 

Solferino as the salient point of the whole Austrian position must 

e been the chief point of attack. lb was the bastion of 

ked front, and to maintain it sufficient and the most elficient 

jould have been employed. This important point could not 

havi- been intrusted to braver troops than those wiio defended it, but 

hi*w could the result be doubtful ; four brigades against tea, and the 

'portion. Moreover the Fi tight up 

kcrd in ii. Vi soon as Solferino was taken, the attack cou- 

■1 itself against Cavriana, and the overwhelming furco now 

t direction. The Austrian lot and 7th corps bad to m 

ck of three French corps, including the infantry of the Im- 

and could not hold their ground. It is now time to 

id French corps under Ma< it* 

alread) stated, tu operate from Gastxgtfone 

but it was for some time prevento , this 

v 4th IV tained id Edodole could not form a 

IMacMahoo feari >uld lie enl off from Niel'e corps 

ty (he Austrian eorpa advancing from UuidtzJtolo, and by the 
i had advanced from Tezxe, day 

very prudent and 

ncral. IK y, and tor a long time remained 

on between Solferino and Monte Medokuw, from whiuj 




A 

£ 

ba 

Ai 



evafion he watched ilic* battle ami gave his orders. He wn? 
is corps on the actual battle-field id' 17H&. On the left oftai 
eadiag to GuidizKnlo he placed the 2nd division Lamotteroi 
its right a brigade of the first division Deeaen, with I 
brigade as reserve in the rear. The 7th regimen wii 

cheval covered his left flank, whilst the right was supported 
two cavalry divisions Partouuenux and Desvaux by i^ 
corps. 

The combat commenced here by a heavy cannonade opened 
.ustrians from a number of batteries of the 3rd and 9tfa 
ilaced in position on the high road. MacMahou adva 
atteties of Ida own corps against them, under commnnd of ■ 
Auger, whilst the gun* of the regular cavalry opened on tl 
Tliiis artillery combat was very unequal, and results 

IBre being silenced. Ii was here Auger lost his left arm. from « 
wound he afterwords died. Lieutenant Kield-Marshal Mi 
made some happy charges against MacMahou's left win 
through some of the French squares of the 11th battalion ol 
seur», and of the 72nd of the Hue, and put to flight soi 
ments of the 7th Chasseurs, but becoming exposed to the en 
nl" the French batteries he had to sound a retreat. In t 
the superiority of the French artillery decided the vici 

» At eleven o'clock Kiel sent to inform MacMahon that lie 
now advance. MacMahon advanced on Solferim*, .when 
the voltigeurs of the guard were advancing to the :<i;< 
second corps now became engaged with the first Auai 
tIj!' heights between SoLfcrino, Caesiano, ami I i tkr 

fighting continued for some hours incessantly, until the c 

IStilfrrino allowed a combined attack oa Cavriana, W 
fighting was very severe. Mure than once the French : 
driven back. The fort which connects Cassianu with (. 
stormed by the Turcos of Lefebre's brigade, who were t< 
driven back, with the losa of their colonel (Laure), and lieu 
C 1 irriiu'iit > , and a number %A' staff officers and officers worm 
The dreaded Africans were here terribly cut up, -mil their 

»will have to be replenished. The attack was resinned b\ 
and 78th French regiments of the line, the hist belonging to !'■ 
division, and it was not until the combined and lr. 
attacked t'avrmua that it gave in. Here again snpei 
numbers carried the day 

To (ill up the vacuum between the 2nd and ]th corps, the E\u 

I Napoleon had placed the whole cavalry of the Guard under Mori 
Mm-Mahon'a disposal, who then saw his communications witli 
assured, and could thus bring his full strength to bear on Co 
When the 1st Austrian corps withdrew from the place, the 7th < 
the retreat. It did this under the eyes of the Austrian Em] 
' a mrc than once in the thick of the fight, regardless of d« 
the division of Iaeut.-Field-Marshal Prince Alexander. ,»t 1! 
f the regiments Kaiser, Erzherzog Leopold 
3rd Kaizcr-Jagers, and n battalion of i. 
dlydistinguished themselves. The Prince repeal 
person against the enemy, displaying great militan tact and 



LM9.] 



oTTmAtf VIEW OF THE ITALIAN WATt. 



216 



personal daring. The order of Maria-Theresa has been conferred 
upon him. 

To add to the horrors of this sanguinary day, a terrible atorm 
arose, accompanied hy a gale of wind, which whipped the dust and 
hail and ruin into the faces of the retreating Austriaus. For half 
act hour it seemed as if the heavens "wished to continue the terrible 
low. Did not the heart of the French fatalist leader quake 
when be heard heaven's thunder growl in the midst of the carnage 
«n the field of battle ? When the storm had Bpent its fury, the 

Li- inns continued their retreat, fighting and in good order, on 
Volta, where a portion of Prince Hesse's division arrived at eight 

ock in the evening, and took possession of the heights ao as to cover 

retreat through the defile of Borghetto, and over the bridge to 
Yaleggio. Gablenxa's brigade of the same division remained till 
late in the night in the vicinity of Cavriana, and only retreated at 
day break through Volt a to Jem. No pursuit was attempted. Quite 
close to the Austrians, the French, worn out by fatigue, courted 
re«t. 

\VV must now turn to t*he battle on the French right wing, where 

I, with admirable skill, played the first part. Doubts have been 
impressed as to whether Niel fairly earned his marshal's staff on this 

Iilay ; we are of opinion that he contributed greatly to the victory, 
i was by his determined defence of Casa Nova and BebeODO, 
which prevented the Austrian left wing in pushing farther on. 
Napoleon could nut make Niel Duke of Solfermo, at most Due de 
Baoeeco, which dues not sound so well. Niel commenced his advance 
'iree o'clock in the morning with his own three strong divisions 
iil'antry, and the two often mentioned divisions of regular 
and was thus enabled to attack with superior force the 
I detachments of the Austrian Oth corps of infantry, nnd 
writss'a division of cavalry at Medole. Luzy's division took the 
I, circumvented Medole in such manner as to compel two batta- 
lions of the regiment Franz-Carl to retreat. Zedwitz's cavalry, after 
a alight skirmish, also fell hack before the superior force of the 
ninny. This retreat is natural, but that it should have extended to 
the Oth, itrd, and 11th corps, requires explanation. The official 
ite expresses its regret that this cavalry division should 
ught it necessary to retreat after an insignificant skirmish, 
and did not give that support to the Austrian left wing, which had 
been expected from it. Some lamentable misunderstanding must 
liave occurred here ; every one expected great things from the fine 
Anstrian cavalry. 

Niel now pushed on beyond Medole, but met with the most deter- 
mined resistance at Eebecco and Casa Nova, and Peate, Despite 
all his endeavours, all that he could do was to maintain his position. 
il'« plan was, according to his own avowal, to seizo upon the 
junction road at Guidizzolo, to cutoff the retreat of the Austrian 
ting in the plain. To carry out this plan, Canrobert 
io Bend two of his diiisions to support him, which, however, he 
deem advisable, as he feared an attack from Acipia-lYcdda, 
laments this circumstance, but without blaming Cuiirubcrt. 
iiavc been a little jealousy at play here, and Napoleon is 



216 



OEimAW VIEW OF TUT. TTALTAlT WAK, 




L Orr. 



said to have ehided Canrobert for his limitation, fc] was he 

self who iu formed Canrobert he must expect :m ,nt tack on tho 
■avra side. 

The fighting at Casa Novaand Bebecco continued li 
out the day. Three French Colonel*, three Lieu 
tunny chefii rfe batailfon were among the statu. Tin 
wen 1 strewn with corpses, without either party hai 
decided advantage. On the Austrian Bide the whol 
9th corps were engaged ; Blomberg's division of tho 11th 
ral ikltin'a brigade (both officers were afterwai 
during the day, but the French were still superior in nun 
whole of MacMahuu's corps stood at (irst in the plain, and wbei 
Canrobert, later in the day, seut support, tin u*s p 

established. Opposed to the Jive and a half divisions nf 1 he Austrian 
8rd, Bth, and 11th corps, and the three brigades of Lieut. ■ 
alml Meusdnrn's cavalry, there stood in the phi 
meat of the fight, two divisions of IfaeUahon, tin 
Greneral Niel, and one brigade of Canrobert. and seven 
cavalry of the guard and regulars. When, later in tin 
HfsrfMaJhon'fl divisions went to the left, Canrobert brought up hro 
and a ludf divisions on to the battle ground. Tin.; Mscrt 
French reports that the Austmns outnumbered the bYanch 
plain is false. Fiuaily, at nightfall, long after the 
had baa driven back, and the advance of the French threat- 
separate, the two Austrian armies, the first army n n good 

order. The 11th corps of Lieut.-Field-Marahai Weij;! waa orutnd 
to cover the retreat of the left wing, a task ably peri..; 
of the French right wing being kept in check.* i ,, ilm. 
ment, Brzherzog Joseph, and the 10th battalion Jj 
dial i i themselves. 

Marshal Canrobert made his ndvauee at half-past two >>'• 
in-, crossed a bridge made by the Piedmontese at \ 
and stood at Beven o'ekw k with Janui n't 
before I tfredo, a place surrounded by an rthi 

was occupied by cavalry detachments uf Zed wit /.'a 

Januiu circumvented' the place with his 
dant lteuaiilt attacked it in front, and forced the sate*, win 

1 p:\rncaded. The small garrison of cm airy bea 
lobert now pushed oliwitb his whole force, ami | 
same level us Mcdole, where meantime Niel wi 
moment Niel sent to him for support Canmbert mi 

ved a written communication from the Emperor, that 2" 
:>0,UO0 Austrian.^ were advancing against him 
Canrobert himself declares that lie saw clouds of Vcuai- 

livddn road. J le there: nt nl first on 

not till 1 p,m. that Renault's division join 

's brigade of Trochu'a division joined the 1th cor 
in the brittle. The 03rd regiment her, 
y, at the urgent request of 
■ aid. so that nil that remained to watel 
vtas CollmeatTs brigade of TrocWa division. 

VV\' have still to relate more in detail Urat 



I 






OEfBUAN VIEW OF THE ITALIilT WAE. 



217 






rhere Benedek, with 25,000 men, defeated the whole 
iniiii army. 
According to the Sardinian report, early on the monuag of the 
24th, only three divisions (Mollard, Cuc-chiari, and Durando), 
ndvitneed against Peachiera, Puz/.ulengo, und Madonna della iSeoperta ; 
but as lower down it alludes to the divisions Lamarmora find Fanti, 
and the French report speaks of all five divisons, it may be taken for 
gTanted that the whole Sardinian army was engaged against a single 
Austrian tmnee corps. 

Tlie Sardinian army advanced with its main body on the Itivotello 
road towards Poxzolengo, whilst another portion pushed fbr.vanl 
from Castel Venzago against Madonna della Seoperta. The height ■> 
1 irtino were not occupied by the Austriaus, as the Sardinians 
in their advance left those heigbtH to the right, and followed the road 
to Posxolengc. At seven o'clock the hostile forces emm- in collision. 
when the Sardinian avant garde, commanded by Colons) Card<. fa, 
was routed and compelled to make a ha? I v refcf ft wt. Benedek now 
the offensive with his whole corps, took possession uf the heights 
of St, Domino and St, ilartino, driving the Piedmoiitese before nun 
on all points, Some attacks mode by the 7th and Nth Sardinian 
regiments, supported by charges of the Montfcrrat cavalry, were 
'•essfulry repulsed, with the loss of many Sardinian officers, in- 
cluding Colonel Beretta and Major Sobu-a. Benedek combined to 
gain ground, and was already close upon the railway which leads 
from Desenzano to Peschiera, when bis victorious progress was cut 
short by a superior order. 

At Jive o'clock, exactly one hour and a half after Solferino had 

a abandoned, Benedek received the order to retreat, which 8MB- 

itiand he obeyed with tears in his eyes. The Sardinian army here- 

up«ji i show of taking the offensive, but Benedek, to show 

m that he was simply obeying superior orders, turned round, 

drove them from St. Martino, and took 1,500 prisoners. The Pied- 

itese reports do not mention these details. They say Vennemi 

i pltcr, and perhaps they did really fancy Benedek was 

retread re them. He retired slowly, fighting occasionally, 

t>> Pottofengo, which he occupied during the night. 

i ided the battle of Molferino. The Austrian writi r e/ivesthr 
losses on all sides as follows: — Loss of the Sardinians, 0,000 ; of the 
French, 14,000 ; of the Austriaus, 15,000. There were 85,000 men 
at least put kors de combat during the day.* 

The battlo of Solferino closed tbe campaign. Preliminaries of 

peace were signed shortly afterwards at Yilhifranea, between the two 

Emperors of France and Austria. It bus still to be seen whether 

■mica will eventually assume the form and shape of ■ 

, and peace be assured. 

• A miter in the Journal dex Debute gives the following return :— 

IUVJUo : .- 15,000 ; iota], 145,000. The allied titties 

of which thiiiiV'v l 1,50 i French ; 35fl nriaonfiw, o\ 
- Frcii.'Ji, Annrrians . 170,000 \ 21,000 Attn it r wnftW i 

. ••■. . 7, 'too, iiikI :>'■' l'mms. 




led 

prvM-ul 
Id draw 



THE BRITISH NAYY DURING THE RUSSIAN WAS. 

Br These us. Late R.X. 

Although England may possess u large steam fli 
ships well constructed, fitted with at i aati 

I win powerful guns, still, unless that fieet be manned bl trahwd 
crews, and be commanded by officers fitted to lead them 
ib must not excite surprise if the superiority of our ve**> 
those of the enemy be not so apparent :is we nave 
to expect. The whole of the system of promoting and 
naval officers is radically wrong, for aristocratic and polit 
possesses far greater influence at (he Admiralty than merit. 
Sir John Pakiugton quickly discerned the faults of the 
system, and with hi* accustomed energy at once proceeded I 
up a scheme embracing extensive alterations in nil de| 

(the service. Meeting with strong opposition from th 
Admirals, the proposed alterations were delayed for .a 
when the ejection of Lord Derby's government from office OHM 
their further postponement ; but n ;. hope thai t\w : 

ol Somerset will urge their adoption by the present rniu 
there was any cause of regret in the niinds ■ i Englishmen that peat* 
had been so soon concluded with Russia, il wan the 
during the war the English Navy bad performed hardly a • 
action worthy of being chronicled in history. For two vcan 
ships blockaded the coasts of Russia, destroying the Hiuafl trs 

and ruining the [tour fUherim-u, but never capture.! 
Russian man-of-war. In former times, we read of our gal 

ing in their boats and cutting out the enenr 
moored under the protection of strong batteries, but the only Iwat 
expedition recorded in the annals of the Baltic Fleet ■• km- 

bastic attack on the lighthouse at liaro Sound, and the miui 
battle of the Nile, It may seem hard to rake up the ■horteei 
of the navy during the late war, but as three years ha .:uawl 

wince the conclusion of peace, and no alterations have 
1^ management of our navy, we feel that the only way of pram 
future mortification is by exposing the faults committc 
Admiralty and our naval officers, and - - compel the Goven 
the force of public opinion to reform the many abut pre- 

vailing in the naval service. 

The principal causes of the navy obtaining so little glory in thr 
Russian war we believe to be as follows: — ■ 
let, — The French Alliance. There can be no < 
of the French during the war was to obtain all ; : 
tea and depreciate the English ; and 1 1 

TIk French say they captured Scbastopol by uki 
ii they took Bomnraund with their 
>lcte naval bombardment of Sebastopol 
\ of the French. A plan of attack was agre< 
sJghsh. French, and Turkish Admirals, The French Gem t 




BRITISH NAVY OTBIKO TUE RVS&I4K WAB. 



219 



pprove of this plan, and as he is always superior to tlie French 

rub hi' commanded him not to join in the proposed attack, but 

rded a scheme of his own which he thought more likely of 

Notwithstanding tbe strong remonstrances of the English 

rals. the French General persisted tliafc his scheme was the 

and that the French tleet should only be employed if that WW 

d. For the sake of unity the Admiral" consented, und the 

of I he bombardment was the result. As the real facta wore 

properly known the Admirals have always had to bear the 

If Bit Charles Napier and Sir Richard Dunda3 were to 

as the truth, they would openly state that one of their chief 

was to get the French Admirals to agree with their plans. 

seemed to be incapable of aiding in the smallest attack with- 

r-t consulting the Emperor. It is currently reported that the 

fef Admiral Price was mainly caused by the opposition he met 

from the French Admiral, wao refused to join in the attack 

own plan, which subsequently failed, was carried out. It 

\< nt hope of most English naval officers that, in future 

wars, our fleets may not be fettered by foreign alliances, 

t disgust was expressed by all our sailors in China, when they 

that the French had been asked to co-operate in the attack 

Cam 

d. — The mis-management of the English Government, espe- 

y of the Foreign Office and the Admiralty. This cause is 

rn by tin* following statements : — Certain members of the 

Dent before the eonimeneement of the war bridged most 

iialy of what the British Navy could do, thereby lending the 

>le to expect some great victories. The Government, by 

ng to obtain proper information, under-rated the resources 

strength of Russia, as it was frequently stilted that the enemy 

dd be humbled in si\ months. Different depart incuts of 

lent sent different instructions to our Commanders-in-Chief. 

Charles Napier received a letter from the Foreign Secretary 

roving of his passage through the Great Belt, whilst the 

rote and censured him for the same act. 

Admiralty did not furnish the Admirals and Captains with 

itructions as regards the capture of prises, so that at the 

int of the war a great number of neutral vessels were 

wed id pass, which it was afterwards discovered would have been 

ful prises. The Admiralty interfered with the proper duties of 

Admirals by sending nut plans, from home, instead of allowing 

naval commanders tn follow out their own ideas as to ths b - 

r of injuring the enemy. During the summer of 1h;H the 

miralty instructed Sir C. Napier ou no account to attack the 

ssian forts, as stone-walls were stronger aud sure to beat wooden- 

Is. Yet, when the storm; season in the Baltic set in, the 

i v<il imperative orders to go and attack the forts of 

ig immediately. Sir C, Napier acted most wisely in 

Kn-li :i command, which w;ls onlj given for the mac of 
■ uf nut having obtained auy important rictory 
!y to the Admiral, 



20 BHITI3H KIT* BKHtXO T1I£ BTSSIAX Wl«. [{ 

The Admiralty did not pr 
materials for the Admirals to undertake an; 
of success. Witness the gunboats wanted by Mr <\ 
Admiral Deans Pandas, and the imj 
Sweaborg owing to the failure in the supply of aboil 
of new mortars to replace I hose damaged b 
have further a strong belief that certain insl 
any very active operations against the enemy, were «?nt ti 
naval commanders. How else can be explained the fallowing 1 
addressed by one of onr Admirals to a Captain ab< 

detaehed service. "Now remember, Captain t ani 

tions that you may undertake against the enemy, must bo 
on your own responsibility." 

The Government instead of endeavouring to lind nut the rau*c< 
our ill-success have tried to hush up all inquiry by 
honours and promotions with a most lavish band. 
been awarded indiscriminately to any person attached I 
no matter whether lie faw an angry shol tired or i 

3rd,— The Humanity War System. By this is 11 
property of the rich man, but destroy as much as \ 
goods of the poor man." We believe a greater < 
interests of the navy doeB not exist than the tbeori 
Kuril -ly. In the times of " Good Queen Uees. 
and our sailors not only fought for the defence of their < 
also for the purpose of making fortunes for tbemsel 
to (ho Manchester iilea«j our sailors are paid 1 
have do claim for prize money, and it is the merehanl 
gain fortunes by the war on account of th 

plain words, a man who risks his goods in order to obtain a pecuniar/ 
benefit fiff himself, is deserving of greater reward ll ;a *w> 

si akes his liii; in defence of his country. The rich city of ' 
not bombarded bcenuse of the vast amount of private | 
contained. This place afterwards became the gvc.it drj.,'.. ,'. 
for (lie Russian! besieged in Sebastopol. Revel. I' 
were all spared for the same reason. The town of Kola, 
of Russian Lapland, was destroyed by us. True, it < 
wooden houses, bad no wealthy merchants living ihoro. nod bad as 
fortifications. How many Russian peasants died Iron 
the cold during the ensuing winter on account of h;o ii 
tions to live in? The small fishing boai .ipwr 

ishermen in the Sea of A /.off. in the Gulf of Finl to las 

rlilf of Bothnia, were ruthlessly burnt, and the pom- wthigvTsfc** 
lently deprived of their stores of firewood for the wii itsst 

1 against one of our Admirals because he destroy**" 
nerous dockyards and stores of timber and t 
lia, which alt belonged to wealthy merehanl 
Lon behalf of ll,. usBian fisherman. We hope to be abk* 

■this "Humanity War System" more fully 

Wjf- — Our Nvai Otlii.Tfj, It is a i imlsars 

'•lithe Adniirals who rounnauded-in~cni*f our B< 



•] 



SMTtSU KATY DVJRTyG TIIE miSSUSf WAB. 



221 



rely against the enemy Jit the commencement of the short Russian 
ir, were recalled or superseded before its termination. With two 
ng, the Admirals chosen by the Government were 
right men in the right place. The majority of them weft 
ami hud lost nil that daring by which English victories have 
SBCtalJ gained. We muat acknowledge, however, that the 

- ■>{' naval promotion is more to be blamed thsin tlie Govcrn- 
?nt. iVir we doubt very much if there were fitter officers in the list of 
than thosf that wen; appointed. 
« Napier was sent to the Baltic with a fleet of large 
»in*, manned by newly-raised men, and commanded by officers who 
never served in a largo tleet before, and were consequently ignu- 
naval tactic*. The fleet was composed of screw ships, paddle- 
steamers, and sailing Bhipa. It was not known bow steam* 
i^ht to be managed in a battle. None of the Admirals placed 
harles Napier had ever commanded a Bteam-ship, and 
unable to advise him. He was pestered by Govern- 
it to be sure and nor want discretion; he was on no account to 
*k toy chance of defeat; he was instructed to submit any plan of 
id tor the :ir>|TOY-t! of the home authorities before proceeding to 
out ; when he asked for gunboats, he was sent four old 
steam packets, and told that none others could be fur- 
i; and he was badgered by several of the Gaptoins, who 
ited to nttack the forta, whilst the gunnery Admiral would not 
U ing them permission, on nccoitlit of the success of the 
doubtful, and the pmb:i of ships and uieu that 

With ao much to worry and confuse the mind of a 
rarlv seventy years old, it is nut at all to be wondered, at that 
ir Charles Napier did not fulfil the expectations of the public. Ho 
nisi, doubtless, have felt the stings of conscience, if he recolle 

ner in which he bullied the iate Admiral Sir Robert Bfcopford, 

minanded the English fleet on the Coast of Syria, in 1840. 

I ."ajiier must have felt the full weight of responsibility that 

on bis shoulders, aa he was decidedly unequal to the task he 

| ted. Suppose, however, that Sir Charles Napier had been 

rears younger, and had been despatched to the Baltic with 

but with these instructions : ''We have providj 

, and manned it as well, as the short time allowed as would 

Take the command of that fleet, go to the Baltic and ende*- 

>ur Ui ian ship* and forta before the enemy have 

improve their defences. We have confidence in j owe skill 

rif, and will supply you, aa quickly aa possible, with all 

laterials vou maj require." We firmly believe f ho result would 

struction of Cronstarit and the Russian fleet, the 

of Sebastopol sooner, for the Russians would have DM9 

a large army to defend St. Petersburg instead of 

rating their whole, strength in the Crimea, and, consequently, 

been soonor concluded. Sir Charles Napier would 

iiinitl'il to appear in his proper character* that of a 

Id. -i ugliab sailor. 

there may be many excuses for Sir C Napier 




effecting so little in the Baltic, lie Is greatly to 

ging propensities. Compare the signal made by Bir 1 CtM 

that celebrated one of Lord Nelson's. On bearing of the d. 

of war, Sir C. Napier made the following signal t< .: 

then lying at anchor in a neutrnl port, several hundred tnilee from 

the enemy: "Lads, war is declared; with a bold and ru 

enemy to meet, should they offer us battle, you k; 



p 






dispose of them ; should they remain in port, we must try and 
tbein. Success depends on the quickness and precision cd 
firing. Lmla, sharpen your cutlasses, and the day is our 01 
was this piece of brag carried out ? Did the enemy utter ! 
No. Did wc try and get at them? — No. Was thi xmrn 

to try the precision aud quickness of our tiring? — S 
the lads even use their sharpened cutlasses i — X 
lake the famous signal made by Lord Nelson to the 1' 
then bearing down tu engage the combined fleets : u England ■ 
every man will do bin duty." There w:im no boast in this 
the result of the Battle of Trafalgar was the destruel i 
and Spanish fleets. 

Admiral Sir James Whitley Deans Dundas was appoiie 
command of the Mediterranean fleet entirely from big p 
forest, as lie had not served afloat for the previous twent. 
He also wns in a most difficult position, for he received :■■ - 
fmm the Admiralty, from the Foreign Secretary, and from U* 
English Ambassador at Constantinople. He bad also t 
and please the English General, the French Admira 
Turkish Government. Considering all these anxieties. 
eat name to ensure his popularity, it is easilv 
why bo failed, lie was afterwards made a G-O.B. b\ 
eminent. 
Lord Lyons, when second in command, thought Admiral iJunu* 
might have done more, but when he himself be* 
Chief, and encountered the same difficulties, be sue. . 
better, though, having very aristocratic relations, be ited '. -• 

the peerage. Our opinion regarding Sir Cbai ipplic* 

equally well to Admiral Lyons, " that, if be bad be 
younger, he would have performed some great exploit, and 

i ive hindered the younger naval officers from <li- 
them selves." 

Admiral Sir Henry Ducie Chads was well known dure 
French and American wars as a very brave officer, 
Banding the naval expedition in the first Burmese iv:ir, was called 
the natives the "Fire-eater," from his daring exploi 
[be being seventy years old) bad gradually e\( 
ashing spirit of bia younger days. His superior 

ry had taught him experience, and he " lingly oustiot* 

uring the Baltic campaign. Ilia discretion was rewarded by bets* 
ladea K.C.B. 

Admiral Sir J. Han way Plumridge, during the shoi i 4 . 1m 

eld command «.f the Flying Squadron, showed (ha 
Jssed activity, energy, and during. Finding tlud I 






BBITlSff ffAVY DUWJfO THE HUS&UN WAB. 



228 



winning the confidence and popularity of the Bailors, Sir Charles 
>ier removed him to the command of the fleet of sailing line-of- 
battlo ships cruising at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland. U the 
Government hud been guided only by merit, this officer ought t*> 
have been selected as successor to Sir C Napier ; hut, unfortunately, 
Admiral Plusnrtdge's ideaa of fighting were not in unison with the 
bttmanity-war system, and he was therefore placed in charge of a 
dockyard. Admiral Plumvtdge haB the credit of having been one of 
the best officers in the navy, for the Magicienne frigate, when eom- 
tnanded by him in 1B31, has since been known ns the most rilieient 
and most comfortable ship in the service. 

Admiral Hon. Sir Richard Saunders Dundoa was selected to com- 
mand the Baltic Ficet from his being the son of a lord — from his 
the youngest of the admirals — from his connection with the 
Admiralty ho would understand the wishes of that department — from 
lis having seen no former war services (except against the Chinese) 
t w:is thought he would adopt the modern art of war ou the: 
uimanity system— and, lastly, his discretion could be trusted. He 
.•ortatiilv fulfilled the desires of those who appointed him, for, witli a 
and more gunboats than Sir C. Napier had, he still 
•fleeted much less. He was liked by both officers aud men, for hu 
was kind and considerate of their comforts, ;i- he made arrangements 
I hat th <' every ship shoutd receive letters weekly from Eug- 

laml, and supplies of fresh meat very frequently. Admiral Duudas 
,h a good sailor, hut ou no occasion did he show himself fitted 
i-i command a large fleet employed against a powerful enemy. It is 
'n>» use disguising the fact, hut the bombardment of Swcaborg was 
more successful than the bombardment of Odessa or Sebastopol. 
management of our stearn^ahipa at Sweaborg gave rise to the 
nrioti that our officers did not like close fighting. It is the 
iou of many naval officers present at the action that, had six of our 
aa-of-ba1 tie ships with a few smaller vessels, and the gunboats 
ved up the bombardment bv going close in and engaging the 
"ortst r that Sweaborg would have been quite destroyed. Hut Admiral 
Duadaa had neglected to assemble the necessary ships, and so the 
aity was lost, 
Admiral Sir Michael Seymour is a brave and discreet oHiecr, and 
buii' liked throughout the navy. His incomplete bombard' 

Stent of Narva, for the purpose of exercising his crew in gunnery. 
K'us very Uijudictous, aa it gave the Russians an opportunity of suyi 
bat they had beaten off two English line-of- battle ships, one com* 
tianded by lhat fighting spirit, " Nemesis Hall." lie bus since 
ommanded the fleet in China, and has conducted the operations 
i-u tin' Chinese most successfully, so that he must be considered 
11 r besl admirals. 
idmirul Sir Houston Stewart supported Admiral Lyons very 
;i!l\ in the successful attack upon Kiuhnni. He is too 
i his own rountrymen to make, a good Commander-ift-Ohief, 
a strict diBciplinariaa. 
ural Sir Montagu Stopfonl showed great activity and eu 

Eu Captain of the Fleet in the Black Sea, and it is a great pity 



824 



WEITlHlI tfAVX DCRISO HIE HVSSLU? W.UJ. 



,;u, t . 



that be hud not some more tun &q 

superintendence of Malta dockya 

\dmii xYi Ron. Sir Frederick W. ( 

L:itlo had charge of naval stores at Constantinople and UdaL- 
hint, but having seen iu active operati 
difficult to understand their bene* made K.C.B.'s. T! 
during the war Heem also to It 

i^ now Comninnder-iti-< hief at the Cape of ( 
the other of the Channel Fleet. Family connect urns :i 
interest will ae: er, to explain much thi 

to men of common scn^c. 

Admiral It. L. Barnes was certainly not lifted fur the i 
a thing squadron, and did nothing to recommend 
appointment to the command of the Pacific squadron. 

Admiral David Priee liad seen much service in the ! 
and was considered one of the tno^t gallant officers in tin 
he was too old for such au active command « a» «*= 

afterwards shown by his mind failing under the heavy i< 
he incurred in stocking Petropaulowski, 

Admiral Henry William Bruce succeeded Admiral Price iu tht 
Pai -ilk*, hut the Russians bad evacuated tin 

It arrived to make a second attack. Thisotficei 
with the sailors, as he is very considerate of thi 

Admiral Sir James Stirling 
the Admiralty, on account, il was said, of bis djl 
proceeding to attack a Russian squadron. It v , tJ morr 

satisfactory bad a court martial been held wa thi. 
whole narrative relating to the escape of the li 
most mysterious. If the Admiral was to bhiin 
know why the Admiralty accorded bini the priin 
hauling down bis Hag, by promoting hi* Hag-lieu Jiatf 

Stirling ia generally thought to be a follower of ihc 
achool of politico but wo hope it was not *t belief i 
war system that led him into this acn 

Commander Hon. 4*. J. B. Elliott tun] proved liiu nhitif 

young officer in thP operations on the coast of 
who know him it in diflieolt to undet'staud how 'lie 
Russian squadron of nearly equal force slip thro 
public enquiry have been ui 

as it might have shown that the i 
shape of private instruct inns, lor the course he pi 
Opinion was uol 

influence, and the ■ ■ good luel 

and ;srL Aide-di •• . ■ ,■ the open 

river 

Commodore Bundle liurgo*s U'atsuii, who liad tli 
the 

roach of '.' 

kepi hips «'i-,,- „ u j 6( , r „. n , 

Ulimrul Dmidaa, fcu 
>*» broke the blockade likewise ia nut 



SO.] 



BRITISH NA.YV IHHINl. THE BUBSlAN WAJi 



225 



captains who particularly distinguished themselves during tho 
to L. Lushington. H. Kcppel, Hon. F. Felham, T, M. 
mends, U. E. Yelverton, W, II. Hull. p. H. M. Buckle, Sir W. 
A, LO. Kej . 

tain Half, who commanded the Hecla, in the first Bailie fleet, 

id got such praise for his gallantry, was removed to the Blen- 

td block ship, and kept with the fleet oil' Cronatadt, $u that 

! unable to distinguish himself during the second Baltic 

mpai 

i>l' tho eaptaiiH were certainly not lit for their post, One 
who had the command of a small squadron on detached service 
I i nit 'hi' Finland, once sent a gun-boat up a creek to reconnoitre, 
kJ. obeen u graph station surrounded hy Cossacks, the lieu- 

lant in rmnaiand determined to destroy it. 0[ieniug fire with the 
lywere soon di^R Taed,and the lieutenant then landed 
iu his gjg with four men, obtained the signal book of the Russians, 
it down the poet, and set fire to the house. On returning he 
itioned what he had dono to his superior officer, who asked him 
he dared to fire on the enemy without hia orders." Not re- 
iving a satisfactory reply ho sent the gun-hoat back to the Admiral, 
oil the lieutenant as being a most disobedient officer. 
Imiin! Dundas ou learning the whole of the facts, told the lieu- 

i mind what Captain had said, as he considered he 

1 done a very gallant action. Thu lieutenant, however, is not yet 
moted, while the captain has lately obtained a most important 

nd. 

There was a great want of an efficient reporter to narrate all the 

runs of the Baltic fleet, a* the only person corresponding with the 

spapers, was an officer of the Hag-ship, and for his own interest 

was obliged to give flattering reports. The public will, therefore, 

greatly astonished to learn that two English gun*hoata declined 

I wi i Russian gun-boats that came out of CronBtadt to meet 

Our gunboats retreated in sight of tho whole of our fleet, to 

intense mortification of the nvws, and to such a pitch did tho 

it reach, that the othVrers of the wardroom mess of a line of 

ip denounced one of the captains, but were compelled after- 

to retract their words, by order of the Admiral. Both the 

iHiiruaud of these gunboats have held important appoint. 

itiee; but what confidence can be placed in them after 

irrence : 

a most painful task for us to place such narratives before the 

iiut as we were present with the fleet, and have been informed 

accounts by most reliable officers, we consider it a 

hem. The appointment of several officers lately to 

ul iMitiiiuuhls widely from political interest, has caused much 

ide in the minds of naval officers who know their precedents. 

laid before, we may have fine powerftd ships and efficient 

; still, unless the officers in command are fitted for their poBts, 

again ha\e the mortification of being told that our ships 

the enemy, and that our fleets arc only useful for 



q 2 






CAPTAIX ULAKELY AND THE AEMSTIiOSU GO*. 

It has beeu already announced in the ministerial papers 1 1 
TSii hard S. Duiidas is to succeed Admiral Fanshawo us Convtu 
in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet, whilst Admiral Fans 
take the vacant place at the Admiralty. This is only ;i-i 
numerous Whig jobs, and is very likely tu take place. We 
denounce it, far, as we have already tinted, Sir K. 3. Hondas hu 
shown no fitness to command a large fleet in case of war. If w» 
were eertain of peace for three years, he might get on 1 1 
inasmuch as peace is not secure for three? months, \ 
appoint a fighting Admiral who litis the confidence of tl 

Commission the Duke of "Wellington, screw tl, 
make her the flag-ship of Sear-Admiral Hon. Sir Harry ' 
and we will undertake to say that her crew nf 1,100 
complete in a fortnight, inui.li as sailors dislike large shipa geoentlj. 
This officer is in the prime of his life, and haw ahvadj, 
he possesses all the dash and daring of a true British 
sailors know his character well, anil would follow him au\ 
But this admiral, whose merits are well known, id >■ 
live un his half-pay, whilst other admirals, who 
characters, are appointed to oomtn&nd our fleet. 

Having thus exposed some of the glaring faults uf i 
y, we desire just to state that it is the opinion of mu 
perii'iicnl rdhcers thai the French Uftvy is also not free IV' 
errors in its management. The French admirals duri 
Russian wnr were not bright specimens of naval oflin 
greatly to clog the intentions of the English admit. 
English navy obtained hut little glory dming the wnr, 
ii:n\ had certain!} u much less share. We haw no fear for tk 
result, therefore, in case of war taking plaei 
countries, so long as our fleets are commanded by good offi 
the prime of life, and who already possess the eonfid 



crews and their country. 




CAPTAIN ELAKELY AND THE AHMSTRONl 

A'o invention of modern times has excited so much hi forest a»tk 
Armstrong guu, and this not solely because it stands he lit 

but as much on account of the object it achieves, mid the 
at which it was produced. For years all the po 
have been endeavouring to give new attributes to their ordu 
to extend its rnuge, increase its efficiency, and enable j( •,, -ji> tin- 

rat amount of execution. It seemed that war was no longer** 
influenced by human valour, hut that some monster 
fearful projectile might render the weak ami timid Bnpei 
gravest, as if the days were indeed approaching win 
•liet had foretold, one thousaud should Ree at the rebu 
lield. and the prizes it promised, Were sure to 



59.] 



CAPTATS BT.^TJT ASn THE ATiMSTHONfl QVW. 



227 



OttpetitoTB; and, accordingly, the foundry, the laboratory, and the 
actiee ground swarmed with inventors, from whom we were con- 
lually bearing mysterious whispers of some new infernal machine, 
lich ' 

*• iiitt«le each particular hair to stand on end, 

Like quills upon the fretfvil porcupine." 

»ere was Warner's long-raugc. the invisible shell, the steel cannon, 

d the mortar that threw a ball of we know not how many hundred 

»ight from Dover heights to Calais Green. How often has 

iptain Norton made us quake ? Now we have Mr. Warry'3 

i-ention, which, extending the principle of the Emperor Napoleon's 

impounders, belches destruction from a pop-gnu. But theso are 

tlous, earnest workers. If they arc on a wrong track, it is at 

one they have opened for themselves, not the beaten path of a 

ul competitor. But the ground has been scoured by quacks, 

well as by practical engineers nad artillerists — by men intent 

ppropriating the labours of others, as well as by the harmless 

riders of hobbsea. Tt has become the fate of every successful 

en t ion to conjure up, on its promulgation, a dozen pretenders, all 

♦■rting a prior claim to its discovery. Each of these geniuses 

- that he had hit upon the very same thing— only it was 

latent ! They all belong to the tribe we have indicated — the 

ip followers, the Pindarees, the men who hover about the flanks 

practical workers, watching for the ideas they drop, and the 

h they throw away. Out of these they fashion some abortion 

1 if I heir own — nn engine that won't work, or a gun that bursts at 

the fir*t discharge, This they afterwards twist into something 

jiiite different, and, as we sometimes hear of attempts to legitimatize 

bastards by recording their birth a day or two before wedlock, these 

spurious fabrics are dnterl back to a period when they lose all form 

in an embryo — the rudimentary idea, which may he moulded into 

ihape of any successful invention from other hands, and which 

self, withal , — though registered as a novelty at the Patent Office 

old as the hills. We are not directing these remarks to any 

icular case ; our readers know they have an application only too 

< Hut the cause of diseoYery is the cause of mankind ; it 

iota nn advocate in every breast; and, in spite of three eeiiluries 

a half, America is the inheritance of Columbus, not of the pro- 

r who labelled it with his name. 

2 Armstrong gun has been an object of attention beyond the 

it more especially addresses. Not only are we rejoiced to 

1 b time of disquietude, of peril, and of great military 

ment, that we possess the most powerful description of ord- 

c» yet fabricated, enabling us to hear with indifterence of the 

d improvements of foreign armaments, but it is a subject 

nal gratulation to be in a position to furnish such a decj- 

proof of our manufacturing superiority. The effect Iuih been 

om coming upon vis by surprise. No preliminary puffs 

teed paragraphs sounded the trumpet before this C»sar of 

Whal need of such a flourish when it came, fired, and 

I r Not till the public became mystified with the conflict- 



CAPTAIN BT-AITTIT.V A^D THK AHMSTIh 



ing descriptions in circulation, did the inventor, in ■ 
right, come forward with a modest account of hiV 
years of hard toil it had consumed, [t ni the same fii 
of genius wading through "a sea of troubles," that v, 
Our youth, and that has had its example in 
day on day of persevering labour, after midnight expcrii 
lonely sea-shore and the solitary mountain side, all ■ 
overcome, and the goal was reached. The Minh 
Bounced from his place in Parliament thai 
become the proper! v of tho nation, whatc 
those terms, which might hare been anything the 
were a free gift. Sir William Armstrong waived 
the empty honour of knighthood was spontaneously 
the Queen; and the salary he receives from t. 
is merely a temporary compensation lor the time ! 
fabrication of our armaments. 

These considerations naturally lead us to 
any attempt to detract from his merits as the i 
gun. In such a case, it especially behoves us, ai 
organ of the army, to show that we .ire ttninflu 

sional jealousy, and eager to acknowledge the 
eminent civilian to military science, and, at the m»:> 
obligation conferred on the country. How much 
guarded when the disputant of Sir William's bono 
officer, who calls upon us to decide on his ''hum '; We hart' 
us a pamphlet entitled A Letter from (hptttln BlafoJff, HI'. 
Artiueiy, to the Secretary of State for Wor, Chi 

nt ton of an Indisputable Feature of the J 
letter wo have read with deep attention • we 
fficts hearing on its statements, scrutinised the eridenc© w" 
statement s themselves advance, and sifted the 

details that form the appendix. At last, wt ie to tin 

that a en?e more void of fonndation was nevt r pn-sr 
public. 

Many years ago, Professor Barlow, in hi 
strength of timber and iron, treated of the bur 
cylinders used na hydraulic presses, and demonstra 
Of having the external parts of the material 
order to obtain the greatest strength. The ;. 

I upon, though perhaps imperfectly understood, iu t': 
of ancient cannon, as we rind in the case of I 
pinned tin' English army to the field of <. id whi 

gishly hints were not used, from a sm ihat t 

prove more destructive to friends than to fw 

Captain lilakely may have stumbled on some ru 
on duty at the Tower, where specimens still i- 
Caught :i new light from the principle laid do¥ n bj Profew 
:h, though only directly specifying the eylii] 

ae, applicable I 
internal pressure, and it can hardly be deeme 
flow's part that he did not specially enumerate all t! 



MP.] CAFTATtf BT.ASETT AVD THE AHMSTROtfG O-Tjy. 



m 



l cylinders subject to this reeu.lt. But let us see, by referring to 

m specification registered sit the Patent Office, what it is that 

aptain Blakely claims. He says that his improvements relate to 

nd "for forming guns with an internal tube o? cylinder of 

>n or steel, enclosed with n easing of wrought teel." 

t is necessary, however, to know what, the gallant officer disclaim* 

i well as what he claims. For this purpose wo ipn< e I'riuu a docu- 

i.u'h Captain Blakely enrolled at the Patent Office so recently 

• March hist, after having had nearly four year* to digest the 

fetter, He there say*:— "I do not claim its my invention the 

ifthoil of forming guns or cannon by tho application of collars or 

pgs heated and shrunk upon a cylhidrical inner tube, 6ave mid 

UXpt when the internal diameters of such collars or rings are, pre* 

to being heated, so much smaller than the external diameter 

inner tube on which they are shrunk, that after being cooled 

niter casing formed by the "rings or collars is in a state of tension." 

ag this passage, we are first puzzled to make out what can 

I meant by rings shrunk on, and yet not in a state of tension. At 

time, after so full a disclaimer, we may ask what remains to 

Not, certainly, rings in a state of tension, for rings shrunk 

i tmtat be in a state of tension ; and moreover, he will tind at the 

'intent Office specifications prior to his own for the eame thing. 

1 '■ will only refer to a patent granted to ^\li\ John 

rith in November, 1843, twelve years before Captain Blakely 

lis appearance, and which specifies, amongst other things, that 

the first reinforce is hooped with stroug wrought iron, driccu on 

hit«t in.tt." We presume the gallant officer will admit that hoops so 

ut on would, en cooling, remain in a state oj tension. As to tho 

Outer casing, 1 ' tho "'application of collars or rings," the invention 

' which is here bo fully disavowed, Captain Blakely furniBbea a 

iscription of a cannon so fabricated ll years ago" b) I ', eneral 

hierry, Which looked exactly like his own; but it was " a perfect 

ilure ;" and he tella us that the reason of this break-down is 

bvious, aw it had "no initial tension, or, at most, only enough to give 

ii bold on the interior," Captain Blakely was equally uiifor- 

Lte with his own gun, in which he ran to the opposite extreme, 

vin-_; ral ber fcoomuch initial tension ; and, as in the ease of the French 

eral, the gun burst. Thin, whet her the tension be great or small, 

itlt is the same — "a perfect failure." This brings Captain 

y to the necessity of parting with the last shred of his patent, 

ile that document affirms that the collars or rings are to be 

n the external diameter of the inner tube, he here, :ii 

81, abandons the process of " shrinking" and is determined " in fti- 

irc always to force tho outer lube on cold." 

On what ground Captain Blakely claims to participate in the 

if the Armstrong gun, we are wholly unable to conceive, 

i lie xiew of showing that the guns now beiDg madi under the 

£ Sir William Armstrong are in violation of his patent, 

ovisional specifications never carried t<» maturity, u 

er accounts based ou no authority, and documents which rufip 

8k William Armstrong's experimental gun. These, as ( 



CAPTAIN BLAKET/r AND THE ABMSTHOWC 



tiiiii Blakely muat be aware — or he alone is not — are nut applicibb? 
to the Armstrong gun as now fabricated. Even if they were, t apnw 
Blakely himself informs us that, '-judging from dates, the first Aim- 

rong gun inust have been commenced long before his v iewswc 
1, though he affirms that his patent had been taken out, ana av 

two guna made. But the dates in question — nan ■ gins 

in the letters and documents embraced by the pampfH 
:i different tale; for they show that, while Sir Williai 
lirat gun was commenced in December, lS^l, the firel 
Captain Blakely's patent was not taken till the 27th of IVl.nuur, 
IS55; and, farther, that none of Captain Blakely's guns were nmtk 
mtil after the date of his patent, nor, in fact, until :iii 
Mam Armstrong's gun was in actual use. The inference h. thai 
Mr William Armstrong, in the outset, was gro| 
fchrough details to a certain fixed object ; and it vu only when I 
found that others were besetting his eteps — perhaps jumpi 
hie footprints, that he judged it necessary to fence himself round ■ 
he advanced with provisional specifications, which were *ucc**«t*1? 
abandoned, as he moved onto other ground. Captain Bin I, 
have gone to penny-a-line paragraphs for a description 
strong gun. We all know that it was recently described 
ventor himself, at the dinner given to him at Newcastl 
Captain Blakely is fond of parallel statements, \w 
description by the side of that <d" his own invention, as eunij 
his patent : — 

Sn; W. Armstrong. Cattais Bias 






' Tin- ^un i. J a built-up gun, made- 
wholly »i wrought iron, each sepa- 
rate piece heing of ptieb moderate 
wizo sis to admit of l>eir>£ forged 
without risk of flaw or failure." 




"The improvement* p 
forming guna with an tntonui! 
or cylinder of cast iron 
enclosed with a caaota <>r 
iron or steel. I prefer to Ansa i 
outer surface of the innci 
somewhat conical, the greats* 
iliameter hcin" just in (rout of iht 
trunnions and tajiering 1 
■ind to up ply tho nnt 
form of collars r>i 

1 M 

flu'l'dHl. 

abandonment, point by , 



Look on this cannon and on 
this! Can anything be more 
unlike ? putting aside Captain 
Blakely's subsequent disclaimer 
of invention, and his ultimate 

of all the details of his patent! Captain Blakely professes I* 
be actuated by perfect candour. He nas published this pamph- 
let aa a measure of justice to Sir "William Armstrong as well 
as to himself, being desirous that " the exact truth 
be made known." Then, why, we ask again, has he not des- 
cribed the gun as at present fabricated, instead of seeking t« 
ideal resemblances from an obsolete specification? He »tat«». 
d, that two years after the first Armatron<; gun was 
with his own became so manifest to him, that lit 
to inform Sir "W. Armstrong, and obtained a reply, pron 
■»ciate with me, before ' using ' the invention 'eommei 
It will hardly be credited that Sir William Armi 
Which is given at the end of the appendix, where no one wi" 



1859.] 



CAMr.UOK IN LOMlUTiDT. 



231 



te the trouble to look for it, cannot be made to leaf any such in- 
wpretation. It runs thus : — 

*• Tour letter of the 19th. has reached me here. At present I am 
malting no guns except for experimental purposes. If you have a 
valid patent for any method of construction I may adopt, I shall, of 
>urse, on being satisfied of that, negotiate with you before I use it 
rommereially ; until then the question may fairly 'stand over." 

Here is no allusion to " the hi vent ion," which Captain Blakeley 
^lls vis was to be the subject of negotiation. He leads us to sup- 
that " the invention " was acknowledged by Sir William, and 
the latter had entered into mi unconditional engagement to buy 
up. But from the letter itself we learn that Sir William wm still 
t\\ experimenting, though if results should lead him to any method 
-.t ruction validly patented by Captain Btakely. be would, on this 
?iog proved, be prepared to come to an arrangement. Captain Blake- 
attemptto establishsueh aclaiin has thoroughly broken down. His 
b"est friends will admit that it is wholly at variance with the fartn, 
and muet lament that it has ever been made. We are willing to give 
him credit for advocating ;t principle which is undoubtedly correct 
— namely, that to obtain the fidl Btrength of a cylinder in reference 
bursting strain, it is necessary that the outwnrd parts should 
ip in a state of tension ; but of this truth, as we have shown, 
he has no claim to be considered the discoverer. Nothing further 
can be flaid in favour of his pretensions. As a practical investor or 
igner of guns he has certainly not been successful. The few he 
d found little favour with the Committee to whom they 
were submitted, nor can we be surprised at such a result, con- 
sidering the several instances of bursting he records. Such facta 
could not. of course, be ignored ; and we only wish the pamphlet 
bad thus presented throughout the "exact truth," which would 
ha\e been more in harmony with the solemn and grandiloquent 
elusion of Captain Blakely'e letter to the Minister for War. 
'* I thank my (Jou that lie lias enabled me to do my duty." But 
then such a claim would never have been made, nor such a pamphlet 
lied. S. W, F. 



CAMPAIGN OF 1848 TN LOMBARBY, 

(Oontimtctl from pnge 85 ) 

Radetzky meanwhile was rapidly advancing in pursuit, but iu a 
parallel line, bo as to secure the heights on the right bank of the 
Min< i" nod the Brescia road, and outflank any position the King 
might take up on that river. For that purpose, Wratislaw was to 
lead his corps across the river at Mozambano, and move 00 Oastig- 

.-, while Asprt* with his was to cross at Tallegio and advam < 
\ oftaoo the southern edge of the plateau. Wocher, with his reserve 
corps, wna to direct his course by Salionzi to Pozzolengo, so ns to be 











at hand to support either of the other two, and Thuru was to eo 
the investment of Fescluera, On the 23rd, w hen Chai 
a to collect his forces towards Yillafraiica, the 
ttli&was sn fur raised that the Austrian corps at 
able to communicate with the garrison, who eon 
to assume the offensive against the Pietlmoutcsc renr. W 

(SflB 

proaehin^ the same place. This was the brigade Savoy, wh 
Mfit on by General SonnaK to re-oecupy it. Both par 1 
on with the utmost expedition, but the Auatriana i 
were however assailed Dy such superior numbers tleit 
was turned, and was fallingbnck in disorder, when Kerpen's I 
up at the double, and throwing themselves on with the bt 
pushed the Piedmontese back over the edge of the height 
inln the pluin. On (he Austrian right, however, which Iirl 
town, a severe and doae action continued, the Piedi: 
been long quartered in the place knew the ground pc 
fought well ; when darkness came on they broke in d 
into it, and being aided by the inhabitants, gotposen - 

houees and the church tower, from which thi irp » 

ou their opponents in the streets. Here for the first 
of the townspeople used gun-cotton, and the Austrian 
mention how "terrible it was to hear the whistling of the I 
the detonation." This severe struggle continued dm 
part of the night, the Austrian (roups who were first 
relieved by others from the heights above. At u 
last ho thiB was one of the most bpi ere ftd ions of (he w. 
nnd soldiers on both sides were excited to t lie high 
A*piv was present in (he thickest of the fire, heading his menhir 
a subaltern of grenadiers. At several points encouutci 
bayonet took place. During the night 10,000 fresh 
to SonnaVs support, but nevertheless the two Austria 
lint dweouraged, but having erected barricades cont inn 
morning broke ; they were joined ere long by tin. 
BeXkberg and G iiilay, and orders had been despatched 1 1 
for Wratislaw and" Woeher to wheel to their left an 
haste to their assistance. It was mid-day ere they 
Aspru's and his corps alone belongs the glory of the 
the foremost of the supporting columns arrived, his men h 
the last attack of the enemy, made with a great superiority ul 
they were then in full retreat on Guito. Durin 
symptoms of a dangerous discouragement appeared ftmoi 
of the privates throwing down their packs and see 

With Wratislaw and Woeher the Fii ml birnieu* 

■•lit proposals arrived from Charles All 
d to retire behind the Oglio, 
the line of the Adda, the surrender of all 
river, and the release of the 
^ on answer to this counter proposition was r 
positbli crowning the heights nl< 




1859.] 



CAMrAlOK TTI fcOMRATlDT, 



2m 



I 



Aspre a corps in the action at that town was 22 officers'and 482 men 
hilled, wounded, and missing. 

■lea -Albert rejected the Austrian proposals, and continued 
hia retreat on the 27th to Marcavia and Camieto on the Oglio, Rn- 
detztty did not receive his answer until the following morning, but 
his army immediately moved in pursuit on Goito,and, ou finding that 
town evacuated, wheeled to its right and set out in three columns for 
the Oglio. Culoz's corps from Legnago had now arrived at Mantua, 
to its command Count Thurn was transferred, his old corps and fehe 
siege of Pcscbiera being entrusted to Haynau. It was ordered to 

e from Mantua along the great road to the Oglio, and thus 
became the left wing of Radetzky's armyi it reached Marcavia on 
that river on the 29th, which was also approached on the MM day, 
higher up, at Canneto and Casal liomana, by Asprc and Wratishivv. 
Charles Albert found that the line of the Oglio could not be defended, 
for when that river approaches the Poit flows for some distance in a 
iriy parallel with it, and the Austrinns by crossing it 

up might turn (he Piedmontese left, and getting into their 
rear shut them up in the loop formed by the junction of the two 
rircrH, J?y Rava's advice he therefore continued his retreat far the 
Adda, by the great road leading through Cremonn. The Austrian* 
and without opposition on the 30th, and continued their 
advance in two columns on Cremona. A position in front of 
t hat town 1 he K iug wished temporarily to maintain, so as to avoid the 
appearance of a flight, and rouse the now drooping spirits oi'his mm, 
and a sharp artillery skirmish between his rear and the Austrian 
advance guard in consequence took place. But finding, towards 
rvenuig, that Radetzky had his whole army t numbering G0,0OQ men, 
in hand and ready to attack, that a general action was inevitable 
if be remained, and that his troops were in a state of the greatest 
despondency, he continued his retreat during the night, and crossed 
the Adda before morning. Cremona submitted to the Austria™ tlie 
\ ho continued tbe pursuit in the direction of the Adda. 
Ae the fortress of Pixzighettone, where the main road erossei 

■vas still held by the Piedmontese, they turned aside, to their 
right, and approached it higher up at Formigara. There* on the 
following day (Hist of July), Aspre and Wratislaw crossed without 

tion. Their passage formed aline military spectacle. The 

n heauliful, the old Field-Marshal was present in person, lie 

us everywhere received with thundering shouts by the troops. wHp 

ere jo the highest spirits, and as thej reached the stream the bamta 

[i tlje Austrian national air. Thurn led hitt corps across a 

I ie lower down ; in effecting the passage they had a slight skirmish 

with the enemy. Aa soon as tho whole of their army and baggage 

had passed, and when the march of the Austrians to the upper part 

the river was ascertained, the Piedmontese blew up the bridge 

magazine, and evacuated the fortress of Pimghettnue. 

On the evening of this day afearful storm of wind and rain eamo 

■ h hurst with full violence upon their already wearied Bud 

led columns, and numbers of their men were killed by the 
fall of tree** on the road side. During its advance the Austrian 






CAMTATtttf Iff lOlTBlfiDT, 

army was flanked ou its right by a moat enterprising cavalry 
Colonel Wyss, with a light column. He pushed on close up toBreacia, 
then crossed the Oglio at Pontevico, and Bending his infantry back 
to the army, advanced with his cavalry and gima on Creina, whirb 
town lie surprised, and then prepared to advance on Lodi on th* 
Adda. 

When the Piodinontese army paused tbe Adda, the crisis • 
retreat had arrived. Two courses then lay before them, eit 
to retreat on Milan and give battle before that town, or . 
the Po at Piacenza, and by assuming a position there on their flanl, 
prevent the Austrians from advancing on the capital by m< 
their communication. The latter was the movement 
ble to the rules of the military art, and would have been i 
in principle with that on Go i to in May, which had so eenn 
foiled Rftdetuky's advance. But to this couree I wo objection* > 
First, the moral and physical force of their array was such 
d not prevent Radetzky's detaching a considerable bod 
mdly, the want of any central fortifications rendered it in 
le for that city to resist such an attack. The Piedm 
suffered so much during their retreat from desertion, and I 
cottragement prevailing was so great, that Radetzky. after U 
a force sufficient to cope with them opposite Piacema, could 
a strong body to march on Milan, where no fortification 
existed sufficient to repel them. Thcxe considerations 
Charles Albert to adopt the former course, and having, tm , 
line of march, thrown his reserve artillery and annum 
Piacenza, he continued his retreat by Lodi on Milan. Radetskj, 
imagining that he would retire on the former town, ad van 
In that direction, but as soon as he ascertained the true tine of ln« 
retreat he wheeled round to the right, and directed his army 
columns on Lodi, Wratisl aw" b corps, followed by Woeher's. l 
tbe right, Aspre's the left column. To protect his left flank anil 
communication during their march, Th urn's corps advar 
Pavia road to Fusterlengo, where its main body hailed 
one brigade to its kit to (iuanla Miglio, opposite Places 
observe the garrison of that place {who blew up the bridge 01 
river on their approach), and another to its front ou the Paris road 
to the Lambro Stream, a small river which, flowing past \\ 
perpendicularly into the Po, When the Austrians approoi 
a skirmish with the Piedinontese rear guard took place, but 
abandoned on the night of the 2nd August, and occttpie 
pursuers the following day, whose army lay that night 
on the Milan road. At three o'clock on the morning 

r^ky's army stood to arms, and commenced the final mar 
Milan. 

awhile, on the extreme right, Colonel Wvfi*i with his 
valiv, approached Lodi on the 1st; but, finding it <>. 

ended the course of the Adda to Visnate, which heivi 
the :ii\i, encountering in his march a column of 9,000 Piedinou- 
who Fell back before him. Then crossing the river, he dir> 
tree tbe following day on Milan, marching by his lelV T so as to 




».] 



CAMPAIGN 1ST LOMUAKUV. 



235 



me into communication witli, and flank the right of, the main 
On its left, Tkurn advanced with hie eorpa (with the exception 
the brigade left to mask Piacenza) on the 3rd to Pavia, which 
occupied without resistance, and where he took up a position on 
- ■ 'nil which leads to Milan, detaching parties to observe the course 
of the Ticino, the boundary between the Milanese and Piedmont, 
Before entering Lodi, a proposal was received by the Austrian com- 
mander from the English minister at Turin fur an armistice ; to 
which he replied, that "he would negotiate on the bonks of the 
Tk ino, when he had cleared the Imperial dominions of their invaders." 
"Vhen the Piedmoutese reached Milan, they found the greatest dis- 
nragement prevailing, and they were received with coldness and 
trust, Charles Albert, however, determined to make one mora 
ial of the fate of arms, and drew up his army in a strong position, 
If n league iu front of the town. His right rested on the canal of 
via; his centre, on the Lodi road, was covered by the farmhouses 
Gaiubaloita and Custegnedo ; his left was held refused towards 
e eastern gate of the eity. This position was one of considerable 
ugth, The main road, along which the Austriaus must, adva 
flanked by broad, wet ditches, which could only 1 l>v 

ridgos ; and the grounds on either side were covered by a oovoptete 
network of gardens, all progress through which was impeded by 
boundary walls, and rows of trees and vines, while frequent detached 
houses formed so many redoubts. 

As already mentioned, it was three on the morning of the 4th, 

when the A ustrian army broke up for Milan. They advanced through 

ii. >, which was deserted by its inhabitants, and soon eame on 

e Piedmoutese. Wnrtislaw's corps, which moved along the main 

ad, first came into action; Aspre'a was rather to the rear, on its 

rassoldo's brigade, which was leadings was soon brought to a 

and, by the tire of the enemies' guns. The Austrian field-pieces 

lined Lately galloped up, UDlimbered, and opened tire, under cover 

which the riflemen crossed the ditches on cither side, and begau 

i advance in extended order amongst the enclosures. As Asp re's 

jrp« had not yet come up, Strasaoldo was obliged to detach two 

ittalions to cover his left flank against a heavy column of the 

icmy, who had collected at the village of Eovedo, on their ri^lit , 

bil-4 Clam brought up his brigade on Strassoldo's right. As soon 

i tli -ire complete the attack began, Clam, by a 

nous attack, carried the farmhouse of Custegnedo, but beyond 

I he was unable to advance, and was even assailed by the Pied- 

iteee in the post he had won. Meanwhile, in theceutre, Strassoldo 

uuld- for long, make no way. The Piedmontese brigade, Oasal, was 

posted at Gnmbaloita and the adjoining houses, which were 

urrntuided hy thick masses of t ices, affording the best possible cover 

r their skirmishes. At last, putting hia riflemen in front, aud with 

e remainder of his brigade well closed up iu rear, Strassoldo ex* 

iited a decisive charge— the position was forced, and ten guns and 

U prisoners taken, This decided the combat on the Austrian centre 

Jit ; the PiedmonteBe fell buck, and were rigorously pursued 

ii, aud the remainder of Wratislaw's corps, to the very gates 



CJJIPATON IN LOKBABDT. jOci., 

of the town. Strassoldo, however, having exhausted all hi* aiaauk- 

nition in the long struggle in the centre, hud to halt on the 

he had won, and, towards evening, the troops engaged were nil re* 

liered by Woeher's reserve corps, who came up comparative!} 

Meanwhile, on the Austrian left, Aaprd, as soon as I 

attacked and carried the village of NoBedo, but was long <!■ 

by the desperate defence of the Piedmontese extreme ri^ht, iu tli? 

entrenched position of Yigetino. Tbia poBt was not carried uutil 

many assaults had been repulsed ; but, when it was, the 

over, and the whole Piedmontese army took refuge within i 

of Milan. That night the Austrian patrols appromhed ill 

on the eastern and southern sides. The times 

since the Piedmontese outposta hemmed in Badet. 

ramparts of Verona. The Austrian loss amounted 

officers aud 300 men, and their army lay around the d 

small stream of the Lambro, on the right, to the canal a 

the left. 

Meanwhile, within the walls of the town all was tumuli 
fusion. The mob, in the highest state of excitement, iil 
streets, and were engaged in throwing up barricades, and pn 
for a hand-to-band contest. But the defence of Milu 
defeat at Gambuloita bad become impossible. It would bj 
but to the destruction of the town. No supply of am in 
sufficient for another contest remained, and the communication mill* 
Piedmont might bo cut. Under these circumstances, it was 
mined in a council of war held by Charles Albert during the 
that it should be evacuated. When this beenum known tl 
day, a violent tumult arose, and the mob of the eit; 
of treason, surrounded the palace, threatening the king withinstaat 
death, if hostilities were not resumed. Nor did their wrath > \ 
in words merely; he was detained a close prisoner, u 
were tired at the windows of his apartments. Meanwhih 
in pursuance of the resolution of the council of war, a 
was going ou between the Piedmontese Chief of the Stall', 
Austrian Quarter-Master General, which ended in a mnv< 
beiug signed before night, by which the former were to 
Milan early on the following morning, the Austrian an 
by mid-day, and the whole Milanese territory to he i-Yite.u-ited bv 
the night of the 71 h. Dnring the night, a detachmej 
rescued Charles Albert from his confinement, aud es< 
amidst the howls aud execrations of the rabble, out of I hi 
in a few hours the lung columns of the army might b 
their way in deep dejection through the plain toward a the I 
At the request of the municipal authorities, to p r ■ 
the part of the cabbie, Aspre'e corps at ten o'clock m !he ui 
marched intn the town, Amidst the strains of trim 
the most superb order, they swept along j not a sound was baori 
from the vast crowd who witnessed their entrance , the dream* «i 
Italian liberty had passed away, the iron had entered into the mmI 
of the Milanese. As the old Field* Marshal rode by, many rnmf 

^ed the words he hud addressed to them ere yet a *hot w^ 

_ 






o9.] CAM2AIQK IK LOMBABDT. 237 

The ft word I have borne For fifty-But years with honour in the 

: vet remains tirin io my grasp. May I not be compelled to 

nfur) the banner of the double eagle. Its strength of wing will 

: found unimpaired." They had proved prophetic. 

Ou the previous day, Thurn had brought up his corps from 

and a strong detachment had seized ou Moiua, and thus 

t off from the capital Garibaldi's band, 6000 strong, which, haviug 

etired along the foot of the Alp, was now endeavouring to reach 

A. truce for three days had been concluded between the 

u»t nans and Piedmontese, on condition of an exchange of 

riaouers. Badetzky took advantage of it to countermarch 

liurn'a corps on Piaeeiwa, ao as to be in readiness to cross the Po 

icre should hostilities be resumed, No such necessity, however, 

isted, Ou the !'ih an armistice for six weeks was agreed to, to 

ve time for negotiations for a general peace. Its conditions were, 

ib Piednioutese were to evacuate entirely the Austrian territory, 

i withdraw from the duchies of Parma and Modena, and from the 

iwn of Piaceuza, to surrender the fortress of Peseiera, Rotva 

. ufo and Qsopo, aud the town of Brescia, and to recal their 

ops and fleet from Venice, liadetzky concluded his order of the 

,y to his victorious army with these words: " The Imperial flag is 

riving from the walla of Milan, there is no longer an enemy 

1 Lombard ground." 

have not interrupted the detail of the contest between, the 

.lui m-mies by those ot the events in the rear, nor are they of 

ucli consequence, llaynau carried on the investment and bom- 

ent of Pesehiera with great vigour and ability, and Weldon 

i the Venetian maiu laud not only maintained the blockade of 

from the land side, and a cordon along the left bank of the 

but when Badetzky began his final march ou Milan, occupied 

krreroolo und Borgoforte, aud crossing over to the right bank 

h Perglaa*a division, marched on Bologna, which town he was 

reparing to bombard when intelligence of the armistice, accom- 

iied by orders to retire, reached him. In compliance with its 

mditjous, Pesehiera and lloeca d'Aufo were surrendered immedi- 

i.ud the duchies ou the right bank of the Po occupied by the 

ustrians. All the Piedmontese detachments on the side of the 

Jpa had been cut off by Badetzky's rapid advance, but it was agreed 

j at tliry should withdraw unmolested. Many of the partizaus, 

lowever, rejected the armistice. Garibaldi, with 4,000 of the Free 

i>», retired into Piedmont, and Griflini, with 2,500, aud twenty 

la from Brescia, threw himself into the neutral territory ot 

itxerland. The greater difficulty occurred on the side of Qsopo 

the former being commanded by an Italian, who refused 

Ige the arm iatice concluded by Charles Albert, held out 

1 the 11th October, when it surrendered on good terms, With 

d to the latter, although it was only stipulated that the Pied- 

.-e troops should he withdrawn, yet the Austriana held this to 

that the detached Juris, held by the Piedmontese alone, should 

surrendered into their hands, whereas the Piedmontese contented 

Ives with making then, over to the Venetians, and a eonside- 



23S 



CAMPAl&K IX IOMBABBY, 



[Oct, 



table delay arose in the embarkation of tbeir troops from Van 

Badetaky was so enraged at these delays, that he seized 

park of siege artillery, numbering eighty guns, which had be 

deposited by Charles Albert, in Peschiern, and was tKft 

through the Milanese to Piedmont, and declared that he wo 

retain them until the provisions of the armistice were fully < 

and henee begun a series of mutual recriminations, which (althoq 

the armistice was constantly renewed), ended 

wards in a fresh war, but that belongs to the story of anoth 

The Italian campaign of 1848, with all its eventful change 

and the wearied armies sought within their respective frontiers that 

repose which both now so much required. 

To conduct a war without errors is impossible ; but, pr 
have committed ;i smaller number than Badetzky. The 
with which he avoided disturbing Charles Albert during \> 
movements on Mantua; the skill with which he rendered tl 
irreparable by his sudden attack upon Bonima Campagna, 
of the hilly range through which the Mincio flows ; the > 
which he concentrated his army, and directed it aga 
the PiedmonteBe had won in his rear; in fine, the masterly 
meats by which he turned the successive positions taken up L 
on the Oglio and the Adda, by constantly outflanking their I 
all deserving of the very highest praise, and arc amongst i 
brilliant examples of the military art which modern times cai 
But, perfection is given to no child of Adam; and the atl 
Bivoh by Thurn, before that on Somma Campagna by his own bH 
us well us the too hurried advance of the bulk of his forces 
Mincio, and neglect of his left itank, which led \'< the di 
Simbschen's bngiule, seem to be decided errors. Had Tin 
the l'iedmontese left at Bivoli at the snme tint? lliat he hi] 
their centre back on the Mincio, there cannot be a doubt that kh 
former would have been cut off to a man, for his advan 
only line of retreat to Peschiern. Again, had the whole of \ 
low's corps been disposed on the southern side of the pi 
the plain of Mantua, whilst Aspre's and Wocher*a denied kx 
on the Mincio, to secure the possession of the heights on i 
bank, Simbschen's brigade would not have been exposed alow 
shivered by the mass of Charles Albert's forces, or would 
have been able to win that position on the heights which it • 
the severe battle of the 25th to drive him from. 

On the fatal and irremediable mistake made by Charh - 1 
concentrating the mass of his forces around the rampart 1 M 
whilst he retained the original line extending to the «idi»irf 

Bivoli, sufficient remarks have been made in the body of the nann- 
tive; but the readiness with which he conceived, and the 
which be executed, Hie plan of concentrating the bulk of 1 
his own right, and throwing it on the rear and commu 
bis anVeraary, and, when that stroke had failed, the decided and mth 
tertv manner in which he gathered up biB repulsed tr 
Vilhifraueu, and carried (hem off, during the night. iu tl' 
perfect order, to Goito, on the opposite, bank of the Mincio, when 



I 



59.] 



IMMPAIGK IN LOMBARD}'. 



230 



weed Ilia natural line of retreat ; and the good order in which 
if remainder of that retreat was conducted are worthy of all praise, 
id relkvi the utmost credit on his tirunnesa, and on the scion 
?neral Jhtva, his confidential adviser on all military matters. During 
IB whole campaign the conduct of the Piedmonfcese troopy was 
tod; they uniformly behaved well under fire, and. in almost all 
■, hen compelled to retire, brought away with them both their 
dours and their guns. Had the ltoman, Tuscan, and Milanest 

gents been animated with a like spirit, and shown as much 

[■solution, the issue of the campaign would, in all probability, have 

different, and the Austrian colours been driven into the Tyrol 

■uimenccment, instead of waving on the ramparts of Milan 

its al 

The peculiar nature of the battles in this campaign must strike 

ie most inattentive observer. They in no respect resemble those of 

fapoleon and Wellington, which were generally delivered in the 

lidst of vast plains, or at least open ground, where manoeuvres on a 

it scale were performed ; they formed a succession of village fights, 

»sembling those of Movi and Ligny, Thia waa owing to the enclosed 

id peopled character of the part of Italy in which they took place. 

10 whole country is covered with villages, riHaa, and farmhouses, 

id intersected with eanals, vineyards, and rows of trees. In such a, 

ken ground, the regular movement of lines and columns was 

able. Usually, the attacking party found their opponents 

strongly amidst these obstacles; they then pushed their 

damns along the road till the head was arrested by the fire of 

rtiilery, on which they brought up their own guns, and, under their 

war, deployed a mass of skirmishers on each side, who, lining all 

16 walls and hedges, endeavoured to force their way on hy over. 

ywcring the fire of the enemy and turning their Banks ; both parties 

Hi'.forccd their skirmishers, detached houses were frequently car- 

iitndcd and stormed, villages had to be won by a desperate fight from 

louse to house, mingled with occasional charges with the bayonet in 

set*, and a complete route, or the cutting oil" of large bodies, 

ras almost impossible. JJolh aide* employed their reserves in feeding 

lie broken and desultory combat amongst enclosures and villages, 

)t in making great combined movements in mass, which in that. 

inliiu was impossible. This explains at ouee the compani- 

:\( h small loss sustained — for both sides fought much under cover 

-and the absence of those trophies in the shape of eann one, colours, 

large bodies of prisoners, which usually result from great actions, 

r consequence of this was the rare employment of cavalry; 

ECXtpt ft few charges in the plain of V iUafrnnea, hardly any were used 

the shock of battle. They were kept entirely for outpost eut, . 

[t was the light troops and artillery who were principally employed. 

"imongst the former, none distinguished themselves mors than the 

se Bines in the Austrian, and the Basagiietj hi the Piednon- 

inks, X" armies in Europe could b<u.-t of finer m- re highly- 

rained light corps. 
During the chut - : the strife between the contending 

iie», the tnoel marked difference was obserred, bet we en the attt- 
Mao . Mo. 371, Oct.. 1859. u 



PESTS FHOM THE IOOPKOLEB OF El 

ide of the town and country population. The former wen 
lemocratic in the bighesi and animated v. ith the ,, 

feeling of hatred towards the Austrian**. The iiihab 

Ji'CBcia, Padua, Venice, itc.. nil rose in urms at mice 
ifiijil Government. AVilh the inhabitants ««i' i! 
ilu' ease was totally different. Though they took iut ai 
tba Btrife, yet their pympathio at irely along with I 

rule, under which they had enjoyed the p otection of a e 
and mild government. Under it tin v reared their product- in 
carried it to the markets in safety, and found pi 
the legal tribunals before which tlieir disputes were tried. 
iit'iir alt, km the essentials of n good government; and, p 
they possessed them, they cored little that they had m> | 
rights. They listened with indifference to the tirai 
exotic leaders, and, contrasting the pillage and license of i 
corps with the strict discipline of the Austrian 
enthusiasm for that form of government, the first 
were insecurity of private property. Not only wan 
the joy with which they received the Imperial colli 
advance to Milan, hut in several instances durii, ipaiga thvy 

secreted the Austrian wounded, nursed them, and resl 
when recovered, to their comrades, and, ere its termination, tl 
montese came to look upon every peasant aa mi en 
they could qet neither supplies nor information, K. w« bc- 

quainted with all their movements, and supplied with even ' 
Sin -li is the tale of the campaign of IS is in Italy, fraught with mint 
a lesieo for the soldier, and, in its politico] causes and i • 
of much importance to the statesman. 



PEEPS FROM THE LOOPHOLES OF BETP.I 

Bt Retieed Major Hsjucufur, 

Brfobe 1 touch upon any of tin topics to which (he 
birth,! must recur to the evidence he hire the 
talion Commissi on, taken in tho last session of Parliament 
subjects which it embraces are <d* the liveliest in tun 
and il' their ventilation does not result in some. ■■ 
I shall begin to think commissions of this kind are rather dt\ 
stave off useful discussion than to promote an honest in 
into military abuses. 

L think it will bo rendilj admitted 1>\ even impartial 11 
lies olho hipide ttotaht when the <■ 
War was separated from the Seeretaryahip for the Colunic 
cent ied in tin- uersou of an active member "I' the .N • 

irith which Lord ['immure grappled witli the various brai 
uilttaiy administration, ami 

1' the terrible njgfatmaxe which bad pressed 




PEEfS FEOM THB LOOPHOLES OP BETEEAT, 241 

•*di ef w at) twrahue which had cramped Ihe energies 

I e Wellington m war, and allowed forty years of peaoe to glide by 
i "itli scarce I v a Bhade of improvement, We, whose faur has wfai toftOQ 
the service, and whose pulsation has Blackened with time, can 
ll tin- day* when nil military authority was awpposed to abide, 
d did practically abide, at the Hone Guards ; when every proposed 
lioration waa politely found out by a Military Secretary, or rudely 
— pulsed by an Adjutant-General. The Duke, by himself or his 
repudiated tlie right of an officer to appeal from the 
h negatives with whicli hia respectful applications were re- 
ived ; ami till improvements requiring tho preliminary sanction of 
e Horse tluurds. were pooh-poohed before they eould reach the 
ireahold of the War Office, or the office of the Minister for War 
d the Colonies. We saw the consequences of the via inertias of 
even before the army was received on the platen u 
Hm Crimea. From the landing at GaUipoli and Scutari to the 
■k on the lledan in September, 1855, every day illustrated tho 
consequences of upwards of half a century of official mininnnw. 
I true soldiers were, therefore, rejoiced when military administra. 
on became nn active reality, and though there were a few croakers 
new Secretary of Stale was not a general officer, Lord Pon- 
mre soon satisfied the most sceptical that his short service in the 
nny bad excited in him military sympathies, which he waa only too 
lad of an opportunity of exhibiting-. 
It is very doubtful whether, if the Duke of Wellington had lived, 
nfc under which the Secretary of State for War holds his 
uciit would have been made out ; but it waa precisely under 
lis Grace's rdgime that it waa most needed, and it is almost to bo 
-grettod that the change in the administrative department of the 
my should oidy have taken place just as the baton of authority fell 
■ 1 mnds of such earnest friends of progress as Lord lliirdinge 
id the Duke of Cambridge. Lord Hardingo, after as mucli delay 
sted with a decent consideration for the reputation of the 
uko. and a regard for his own position and the expectations which 
country had formed of him, began well, and augmented the 
rtillerv. which dad fallen t-> a very low pitch of insufficiency ; and 
; id that the Duke of Cambridge would have set no 
units to bin own exertions in thn cause of improvement. Hut the 
- grows by what it feeds on, and we now h'tid that the 
ive Secretaries of State for War have contrived to monopolize 
of military authority, reducing the office of Commander- 
to that of an Adjutant -General. "There baa never been a 
i given away, I believe," says H.R.H, the Duko of Cam- 
durine tho lime that 1 h I at the Horse Guards, with 

regard' to which there has not been personal oojumunieataan with the 
t.u-v i if State, and no regiment lias been given without hia 
[ge, mill the reason win one offieerwaa preferred to another^'' 
Ti,> is itise a pji rifled of the Duke's intention to 

Major to u I Jtuutenant- Colonelcy, in command >d" a regi- 
T|w standard of mili! i fcion is settled by the ttecre- 

* oi , ho armament of every fortreieia determined by that 

a 3 



242 



rEEl'S FHOlkl THE LOOPHOLES OF Tti:ri(l \i 






functionary; the Defence Committee reports tothe & 
the duties of the Board of Ordnance are eonducto 
meiit ; in short the Secretary in everybody, and t' 
Chief little else than an adviser, or the agent for 
certain arrangements dictated by the Secretary of '- 

Nor is it only the minister who usurp* 
patent, a power that might be quite as efficientl} d bj 

Commander-in-Chief. The Judge-Advocate General is the 
authority nest to the Queen in matters of military law. \ 
a beautiful piece of circumlocution is the 
bitercdurse of the Judge- Advocate with her Majesty. " II 
posed" (I quote the Duke of Cambridge again) "togiv. 
legal advice upon legal points, he is the legal officer atl 
army : be gives her Majesty legal advice in the case of 
martial; therefore her Majesty is supposedly 
consequent upon that advice, and the pleasure i ! to ti 

mantlcr-i it- Chief, which the Commander-in-Chief at/at'n tuhmitt 
Queen that such and such qfficrr should be cashiered, or as liie i 
may be, consequent upon the advice given her by her legal 
adviser!" "That," exclaims the Duke, 'Ma the process:" and an 
pretty roundabout undignified process it is. Surely, 
Advocate might advise the Commander-in-Chief onU , and Id 
might take the Queen's pleasure upon the case and g 
8ueh would have been the arrangement under Ns 
for that mighty genius loved simplicity and bnen the vain. 
The Duke is evidently not at ease that the office of Co 
Chief should be reduced to such n cipher; but he fa diffident 
a fault. The same cannot be said of the Ministerial offii 
Would concentrate all power in the War Office. !d i<» 

necessity of supremacy, and, unfortunately, nasi expen 
arguuienls in their favour. When I read that Mr. Sidnej lb 
had, of his own authority, directed experiment* to be made 
soldiers with the Berington knapsack, 1 could not help feeling 
an invasion of a prerogative which the late Duke of "Wei 
would have clung to with fierce energy; yet, as an old 
desiring the health aud welfare of younger men. I could not but 
sensible it was a good measure which otherwise would not h 
adopted. 

The evidence of Mr. Smith, the Commissary-Gener; 
I referred last month, is of much interest, for 
ami the suggestions which it embraces. The Com is a i 

practical man, who has not allowed the disas 
pass unheeded. He belongs to the school of progr> Veens I 

t'vc.i open to defects. We gather from his evidence I 
would have been no harm in issuing green coil- 
if they had had fuel and roasting apparatus, and h 
be a better and more economical plan to let the men 
coffee in this form, if they could be taught to help them 
way of roasting the coffee in the same manner a* 
learn to cook their own [>r<>\ isiana— " it: should form [ 
mental system instead of a general stall' system." A common 






peeps ntosi the Loopnoisa of betoat. 



243 



d small portable mills arc the best implements for roasting and 

inding Mr. Smith can Buggest. (j round coffee, hermetically scaled, 

ould render the soldier independent of all utensils — just as, the 

ommiasariat bakers at Aldershott aud the Curragh, who, with the 

■rtable ovens, can bake for 20,000 men daily ; but Mr. Smith very 

rly suggests that you may give the soldier too much facility — 

may provide him all resources, which will render him perfectly 

iclpless if he ie thrown upon his own handa nt any particular time." 

■ nt iv always in camp upon the same spot may be fed, cooked for, 

r, brewed for, and so forth, but how arc the outposts and 

tached bodies to act? You cannot send a commissariat and its 

ppurtenances, with fifty men, and it is, therefore, of the last 

iportance that every soldier should be rendered self-reliant. 

The ration question has engaged no small portion cf the attention 

the Commission. It is one of singular complication. There are 

o less than live or six rates of stoppage now in vogue. A man in 

dtal suffers a stoppage of tenpenee a day ; a man at home in 

jealtk, pays fourpence halfpenny per day for his bread and meat j 

broad he is stopped threepence -halfpenny ; on board ship the 

page is sixpence, and this is reduced if a man docs not take grog. 

il this occasions confusion, aud makes it difficult for officers to 

nder a soldier a clear and accurate, and intelligible account of bia 

ly. Mr. Sidney Herbert is, it is said, engaged on a plan for giving 

soldier a wst rate of pay, and on excellent rations, which will 

iinplify matters amazingly, besides providing him with a better 

ascription uf food. The Commander-in-Chief, however, who is 

u< li in favour of the change, aud win* reeom mended it two years 

go* as an aid to military discipline, has some '' hesitation about the 

•cling of the men." Ilia Royal Highness manifest** a thorough 

iquaiotance with the mental composition of the men, and the 

f education among them, when he adds ; "It is a very odd 

ling that the men will not understand these things ; and even if 

are belter off by such an arrangement, I very much question 

tny mind whether you can convince them of it, and I think it ia 

very awkward thing, and might lead to very awkward questions 

ing with the men now in the army, if you made this new 

rntngement ; that is, if you suddenly changed the whole 

liti^;, and tuld them that their rations were to be eightpenrr, 

instead of getting one shilling, they would get only 

ight pence." The duke dees not object to the stoppage, but 

i the proposal that everything be provided by the State. 

•rt;un!y if we remember bow many tricks arc played 

\ contractors, how difficult the surveillance, and how pertinacious 

Idler is on the subject of" his 'rights,' we may allow the duke 

have some judgment in the matter. 

The rations of the troops are perhaps the moat important of all 
uaidarationH that can enter into the <|iuxliun ol 1 the admiuis- 
:..n of ihr army. A French surgeon, writing on this subject, 
u n justly. " Weinaj run after, or to an enemy, without tents 
■ bed-*, but never without ;t daily meal. The bellicose disposition of 
. depended upon hh cuisine ; upon the nourishment of an army 




"1 



PEBPS iTtOM TWf. lOOFBOtES OF RETREAT. 












supply Mini wn n i > - urnes. vur i omnii 
they tire necessary to health, bur fchej 
i. They would only be supplied "in 
what would they consist? ~\Vl. 



on the field depends tin health or Is rolmid 

fiie w tv life or death cf the soldiers — in ili«l, 

cast by the countri into the struggle.' 1 T 

to describe of what the camp provisions shall i t these 

are, fur the most part, inapplicable! 

to quote them. There is, ho 

attention. Wbatovi taken that th 

plenty of beef and its indispensable accomparuro 

are taken to supply him with vegetables. * bir Con 

admits that they 

in the rations. 

and then of 

tawtiftloM carrots, turnips, cabbages, Ac, so prepared, t hit ' 

of ail perishable matter carries with it every W - aaw*. 

" Toutes lea tables de Criroee," exclaims le Mt'dei 

Cuignet, *' ont epronve jusuu' a une feroa !ttn fP 

repote* des conserves les mieux obtenues." A1 a epoch* it 

appears, that the French soldier*, tormented bj the obstiinf* 

presence of the English conserve, kicked it from them and 

Cabbage is the only vegetable which will admit of j 

pressure without, becoming insipid. If more 

withuiit the SoeOBiptmnumt of thy other vege! 

found »apid and wholesome. It lias a high rcpufcatii 

si'rirliutie pi'iipertiea. "Ilenrro dans tons lea bouillon* « 

il se marie an lard de mani&re 11 en corriger le gout : 

fatigant." Let this be remembered by uur 

proper provision made in good time. Mr. Smith will no 

to reply lu it War Commission, as he answered ' 

" Vegetables would certainly be a moxl desirable pai 

but it ia wry difficult during tear oj>cratt\ntit , a a 

rojttttLlcx ; and they can be only occasionally procured Bfl 

stances will admit of 

The whole subject of the Commissariat of the British Army to 
Ik en well ventilated by the Military 1 1 
think wu shall see, aa one result of the deli bcratun 
%e created in some measure corresponding with that < i-adbat 

General of the French Army. The Commissary-* . 
favnuiidiie to seeing the department placed on a n 

b means of transport separated from 1 3 >s»t» 

render il quite independent of tin 

armv on other military duties. Sir John Jl' iveotts 

much, for the manner in which he conducted '< 
the Crimea, was examined on the matter, and i of ha 

dwelt so eloquently ujon tin- Dnke 

of Wellington, that I cannot forbear transcribiu 

" I concur in much that the Commie 
as bo the difficulty of delegating to a Ilritii-!: , iiirers ramnss» 

iturate with thaw which an infant 

al ; T doubt very much whether it would stria, 

li| l 1 opinion that it is of the utmost important 

hole of this matter should be under them; 




FEET'S TTtOM THE T.00JMI0LE8 OE RETREAT. 



24-5 



•risibility nt" some officer of high military rank, who should be at 
elbow of the general commanding the farces. That opinion is 
partly on it consideration of what occurred during the 
?nrn3idar war : we b:id in command of the forces during I he IVmin- 
hir war a man of consummate genius, who was capable, m wb know 
cm his published despatches, of attending to everything great or 
■all \ lie not Ottly directed what was to be done, but he directed 

how it wiw to bo done. When he wanted iu the lines of Torres 
raa cattle from the parts of Portugal and Spain which wore ar- 

Btble by sea, he personally conducted the correspondence ntm 

ieh the arrangements for those supplies wore founded. In even- 

dBjg throughout (hose campaigns yon trace his individual hand. If 

u eould at all times command the secrices of such ■ man, I do not 

re what your system is ; he will make it suitable to the oww 

n. Tin.' Duke of Wellington was to us a system in himself, and 

left ub he left us without a system. I think that jroti must 

to conduct your campaigns, if you eh mild be engaged in 

■;n, v» it h men who may be very competent men, although far inferior 

him; that you must therefore establish your system on such ■ 

©ting as will make it possible to conduct the business of the army 

nder such a man as in ordinary times you are likely to find; he 

fc, therefore, have aronud him men who will do the work — Who 

tell how a thing is to be done when he desires it to be done. 

Duke of Wellington was, in a great measure, his own Quarter* 

cr-(ieneral ; he was, in a great measure, his own Adjutant- 

sl ; he was, in a fetill larger measure, his own Commissary- 

But if you cannotget a man who ram conduct nil these de- 

rtrne&ts as he did, you must endeavour to pat around him men who 

>h> it for him. Upon t!i:it ground, aa well as with reference to 

individual authority of the lnteudaut General in the French 

rmy, I have come to the conclusion, that for the management of 

1 sun [dies and transport of your army, you require some officer 
iO shrill be constantly at head-quarters — n man of military rank, 
leetcd specially for the purpose, who, when be receives tin- orders 

r Commander of the Forces for any operation to be earned 
t by the Commissariat, shall be responsible for their being carried 

r tire of the praises of the mighty Duke; it is 

mtcful theme, utterly without alloy. No one will gainsay a HBgta 

' that has been said by Sir John M'Nsill, or any one else who 

teaks laudatory of that incomparable chief. J think, however, that 

too often lose sight of the example, which he offered the army, in 

end conduct. He is usually deemed beyond imitation — some* 

kgnitieent for ordinary human beings to approach. We 

him — we read of the praises bestowed upon him with mimiM- 

ed delight— but we seldom eay to ourselves, "Lei; us try tu copy 

—alb gifted with his genius, we may, at least, imitate his 

And that urates consisted in studying everything which 

inthemosl remote degree to his profession. Inthal respect 

•■bled Napoleon the First, to whom Sir John M'Ntdll'B de* 

i of the I .hike would have applied wwfato wwwfaf with this 



•21G PEEPS TltOM TnE LOOPUOLE9 OF SETREAT. 

vast difference, however, in the result: Napoleon was • 
delegate military <-omin:iiifL to his Marshals, ami from l } 
centre, dictate the course of operations. Hi 
embueil the minis of hia subordinates with his sentiments — inspi 
tliini with his spirit — forced upon them a desire to emulate 
leader. Wellington, on the other hand, had tew generals u 
I ' whom it wto necessary to confide independent authority. Eft 
ing Lord Hill, (hero was not one throughout the Peninsular 
had bo opportunity of distinguishing himseif, when left to hia 
resources. Pieton, C'raufurd, Hope, Graham, Beresford, 
Dolhouaie, &0., Were simply employed as divisional generals ; 
singularly enough, when engaged at some distance from the | 
the Commander-in-Chief, they committed blunders ; tl 
successful when working under hia eye, Wit q Be 

Albuera, Uayoune. A> . 

It is very niueli to he regretted that the session of 1 
closed without receiving a Report from the Recruiting Con 
There i s an urgent necessity for an immediate reform in the en 
system of recruiting. It is quite Appalling to hear and rei 
number of deserters from our ranks, and all from no fault iu 
composition of the army but from the villainous chei 
boys enlisted. That "bringing money'" is the source of 
the evil. The people who " bring" seek for their objects al 
worst classes of British society, and the people who :ir. 
have no higher object iu view than to get the bounty ami 
Few an made ai-tpiainted with the real admit' the 

and those who do happen to have them brouj 
shrink from contact with the ruffians whom they every 
accepting the shilling. 1 do nut like the conscript system 
double reason that it is alien to our free constitutioi 
into the ranks too many thousands of unwilling soldiers; 

esses one recommendation of a very powerful char:! 
might, under another arrangement, be introduced iuto our service, 
and would go far to purify the ranks and render the profess! 
soldier not unworthy the adoption of a superior class of yon 
The authorities in France know to what pariah evaa 
belongs, and can obtain the fullest information as to hu chara 
and pursuits, and if he be a thoroughly bad fellow, the 
contaminated by hia presence, except in the shape of a /' 
whom nothing but reckless dare-devil conduct is ev< 
Now, what is to prevent our enlistment being conduel 
principle which shall give the recruiting officer a clue to the antece- 
dents of the youths who present themselves for the honour 
of serving her Majesty? A little correspondence wil 
parish or with the last employer of the candidate 1' 

ice would unravel as much of the recruit's 
would protect the officer from the responsibility of engagii 
■ perfect vagabond. Of small peccadilloes in hia career littl. 
need betaken, for the discipline of the army will reform what 
icivt laimably bad. It is againsl positive vice that we need pro! 
— the vice which plunders the State, and outrages, if it does nu 




BOOM 



1859] 



PtEPfi FBOM TttE LOOPHOLES OF RT?THEAT. 



247 



contaminate, what is respectable in tha ranks. A single coinmuui- 
eatiou with the parish of a candidate, and the noosed in ihe pnrish 
of * youth's having entered ia such sad such a regiment, would 
tfeguard against a double enlistment. Li' it did not prevent de- 
sertion altogether it would effectually cheek one of the leading induce- 
ments to desert — the chance of getting a second bounty — nud might 
trina the stray sheep, it it were desirable, I have my 
doubts, however, if it ia really worth while to reclaim a deserter. 
TluTi' ran be no advantage in having a dissatisfied scamp in the ranks 
— nil you want with him is to punish him, and by a process which, 
however it may be justified (and I am no enemy to corporal punish- 
ment), is unpopular with certain classes in the country. If he has 
robbed the service of anv portion of his kit, you put him under 
stoppages and increase his discontent, thereby leading to a second 
ion, Far better would it be to hold the parish responsible for 
the bounty advanced to a deserter, and any other monies he 

have received. The process would induce caution in i 

mending him as a fit person to be received into the Queen's service. 

The rout of all the evil to which I luive been adverting lies in the 

tmmrn of proper inducements to respectable young men to enter 

e army. The army is treated rather as a refuge for the destitute in 

nBMtancea and bankrupt in character ; it is not suJEciently held up 

the eyes of the agricultural and inannlarturing population, and 

r p.-pulatioii which does not belong to either of these divisions, an 

profession of a highly honourable find agreeable character. Jf 

erv market place contained a black board, on which should be 

mid inscribed in visible while characters that soldiers receive 

and rations in greater abundance, and villi more perfect 

■gularity than the humbler classes, whose earnings are precarious; 

at they are clothed and housed by the State; have medical 

tendance and care in sickness; enjoy the advantages of education, 

hich are extended to their children; and after so hottest service 

llty-one years, while they are yet in the prime of life, receive 

- and other advantages, such ad annuities, gratuities, and the 

m| lucrative civil employment as clerks, eoMuii&*iontiirt>ir t 

my life on it, numbers would enter for the sake of the 

m itself. Here would be a legitimate inducement to Mrve, 

finable in every way to the eternal pot-house persuasions, the 

ribbons, the ear-piercing fife, the large bounty, and other 

jar recommendations, We should not hear of desertions* under 

en a system as 1 have ventured to sketch, nor should we be told 

cry day that young men of good repute ;md correct feeling are 

i from enlisting by the dread of associating with the dregs 

il eeum of the earth. 

Although I have pretty freely expressed my concurrence in the 

Biiiions of those who look upon a volunteer force as an unreliable 
air in the hour of need, I am exceedingly glad to find so many nil.- 
forming in different parti of the country. From tin- 
ion I have made, it appears very probable that we shall 
liave two hundred thousand gentlemen and yeomen, 
marksmen, up in their drill, and appropriately costumed, tad 









when the fact conies to be known across the witter, the 

\j produce will not b:> [imperative in pro 
of pence. Still, I cannot divest my nrindofthe idea that we 
Have to look to another description of force for tmt 
Neither Buperior freedom, virtue, nor patriotism, are fjuaran ■■ 
Heonrity against the assaults of superior disciplined fo 
the Macedonian monarch, trampled upon the free b1 
the Parthiana of Persia baffled the Iioman legions. J I 
failed in America, it was because of the eniulliu sa of the 
its great distance from its supplies, the sluggishness of tf 
and the co-operation of the natives with the Americans. V 
the Belgic provinces did not find their patriotism a match 
disciplined troops employed in the subjugation; and 8O,000 J; 
were no match for the handful of Swedes who routed them at 
We must, as Sir Charles Paisley wrote in l v 
in the freedom, the public spirit, and patriotism of thii 
give way to the empty delusion, that by them alone v 
nniu-ihli\ It is our duty to make preparations fur t'ullv i muriil f 
invasion, exactly such as any other government thai had 
fldence in the patriotism of its subjects wonrid m:ikt*. Then, when 
the day of invasion comes, the enthusiasm of the natio 
useful aid, and may accelerate or contribute to the sootm *f 
measures wisely planned." By the way, Sir Char 

i*y volume whence I have quoted, prognosticated tl 
t he French navy, until it should be double the mrce of oora, manned 
hy seamen equally or nearly as skilful, and he hint 
'• likely eventually to lose the empire of the seas." He .-'■ 
the example of the Dutch, the French, the Spaniards, the Danes, 
Americana, and Greeks, thai superior seamanship is not " the 
sivc privilege of Englishmen." Steam, and the lead ' 
adapting it to our ships of war. has prevented the comply 
of Sir Charles's prophecy, hut the French have cerl 
selves on a par with us. All the ministries of the past 
have been supine upon tin* one great point of armament 
that the power of anticipating the decline of the pn 

ars to establish, has resided in the >y sad 

uavy, while the faculty of preventing that decline 
ministers, who have altogether disregarded the wan,! 
perience. 



in 

•ro- 
ar* 



It 



THE WAR OFFICE COMMITTEE AND TUETREVEi. 

W HEME, 

\Viii:n the Royal Commission oi' enquiry into tin 
of the purchase system "closed their long lal 
it, like the las! chapter of Rnssela^, w\ 

luded," the most censorious of i 
pdicted, nor the most imagin; 
red, the extent to which that character of it would be vci 



« 



ATtD TTtE TBTTTllT.T.VN SCTIFME. 



U9 



ore are now before us Reports of "War Office Committees and 

arithmetical statements?, averages, actuaries 4 

w, observations, cuunkT-iibservations, and counter-opin- 

ealcul&Hons and counter-calculations, filling 222 foolscap 

print, originating' not in the Royal Commissioners' Report 

;". for that would imply that it contained some decision tmtia- 

f;u-t >ry to one. aide or another, hut m a " reference " made by it of 

a proposition which it virtually admitted it was incapable of estima- 

i dense into one article, we might say into one number 

of this journal, such a mass, of conjectural and controversial matter, 

such a complication of figures and intricacy of argument, would bo 

mdertake a task that no labour would accomplish, and no hope 

access would justify. Nevertheless, as the army is umluubtedly 

interested in the questions at issue, it is oaf duty to attempt toco 

> count of them, as may at least enable officers to form some 

npiniou of the two side3 ot the propositions put forth ostensibly 

their advantage. 

In our number of last January we brought the controversy to 

lbe point which it had then reached, namely, the publication of the 

of the Wat Oliice Committee and of Sir Alexander Tul- 

i Ik- financial scheme of Sir Charles Trcvelyau tot abolishing 

• ■■, increasing the pay of officers, and diminishing the public 

■. We stated, necessarily, in very general terms, thai the 

I teportB, and of the Tables that accompanied them, wan 

lunllv n reversal of Sir Charles's hypothesis in almost all its par Is - 

d say, that In* scheme would diminish instead of increasing the 

ne of officers, and would increase instead of diminishing the 

iblie expenditure ; and it may be added, it would not abolish pur- 

We are now to take into consideration his reply to the 

'. the Committee's rejoinder, and what are called the 

'U which each party has founded its conclusions. It is 

first necessary to give the reader a general idea of the points which 

isidered. 

■ ccuniary part of Sir Charles Trevelyan's scheme is comprised 

tmth [owing nine heads: — 1st. An increase of the daily pay 

V.i«h regimental rank. 2nd. Exemption from the bond subacrip- 

10ns. 3rd. Abolition of non-effective allowance. 4th. Of wine 

■tee at home. 5th. Of rations and servant's allowance abroad. 

ih. Of extra pay for length of service and Brevet rank. 7th. Of 

•my f 6th. Of pensions to widows and children, Arid lastly, " 

lu pay fur their com missions." 
Tin-re- can be no doubt that, in making these propositions, Sir 
aarles contemplated improving the peeuniary position of oiHcerB. In 
dement of comparison between their proposed and present 
i\ he inserts only the difference of rates of 
nto account the relief from band subscriptions on the 
»hand,.n- the loss from deprivation of allowance* on I 

-o heads are included in his Table of increase or dea 
ilic public expenditure; but in neither Statement is there 
Frasjon to gain contemplated from not having to pay 
in lieu of the present retirement by mu!c 



250 



THE WAB OFFICE COMMITTEE 



[Oct. 



i,\' i-iijnnitHsuiiiH. the [I'i^i-s of which are paid by the oflkenvk 
succeed, he proposes a full pay retirement at toe public i 
optional tit certain agca, and compulsory five years 
first eight nothing appears mare simple than to u 
comparison between the state of things to be brought al> 
these propositions, and the existing condition of officers as to ti 
but when it is considered that it involves the interests of some Are 
or six thousand lu en scattered over the globe, in conttnui 
and in all the heterogeneous circumstances oF military Lii 
difficulty of finding even a principle upon which a compari* 
"be instituted becomes apparent; and tnking into accou 
variety of corps, rates of pay und allowances, diversified as the* vt 
by position and periods of service, correct computation is in 
able, The Committee seem to have been fully sensible c 
difficulties, ami, judging from the surface of their proce< I 
do not. seem to have agreed upon the best mode of meeting 
They examine the whole scheme, financially only, under tl 
lowing live questions : — 

"I. What do the regimental officers gain or lose by the tl. 
proposed alterations (taking in the nine heads of* Sir Cb*rk«'i 
propositiona above specified), 

"II. What are the relative advantages (iu a pecuniary son 
the present and proposed systems, taking into consideration t 
lowing points — 

"a. The result of the foregoing enquiry as to losa or gain e-i 
menial officers, 

'■ b. The officer's prospect of promotion under Sir tl 
velyan's scheme of voluntary and compulsory retin 
pared with his prospects under the exii 

* f c. The estimated number of general oil" 

" (/, The establishment of Staff corps with new rates of jar »nJ 
allowances in lieu of the present Stall 

" e. The proposed scale of full pay retireiw 

"111. What would be the maximum charge of In 11 pay i 
and half pay, under Sir Charles Trcvelyan's Bchcim 
him nt— 

Pull pay retirements .... £210,65 
Half Pay JOO 

" IV. What would be the probable cost of corapi 
now in the service who have purchased their commissions, 
may wish at any time to retire from the service r 

" V, Would there be any, and if any, what expeut 
the War Office by the abolition of army ag 

The results of these inquiries being entirely adverse to : 
sidiih of Sir Charles Trevelyan, their truth and ac« 
points of controversy hetwi en them. The solution of* tht 
question appears in a "Statement (Table I.) show 
gain or Iosk to regimental combatant officers who have n ■■ 
any of their -• ,.h, from the alterations in lli, 

ed by sir Charles Trevelyan." Of course 
minute examination of the Table itself that its detail 



.] 



AND THE TJIEVELYAN SCHEMC. 



251 



ul perusal of the observation a that accompany it is also 
sable to it correct estimate of its conclusions. Thero can 
table doubt that these conclusions exhibit great pecuniary 
vantages derivable to all ranks, except subaltern, from the 
i of Sir ('harlcs Trevelyau's scheme, and they show that with 
hi:* knowledge, and with all the pains that he took to display it 
hia various calculations, he was eitlier entirely ignorant ot, or 
'rely overlooked, effects which the moat common observer must 
■ii were inevitable from the practical application of them, 
t we by no means admit that the Committee's statements show 
nt of pecuniary loss that would be indicted on ofEeerSj or 
y represent the damage, moral and material, that would accrue 
the army from the scheme, The Committee have adopted a priu- 
le which, although possibly no other would have answered the 
ose which they laid down to themselves, is, in our opinion, not 
Ly insufficient for the attainment of the true result of the inanity, 
, above all others, inapplicable to the peculiar case. It is that of 
r age. They take the whole body of the purchasing portion of the 
iy, and under each of the Trevelyan alterations, they concentrate 
an abstract ideal officer of each rank, the average present eom- 
ted (pun or loss from each such head — a plan by which it is obvious 
cepl of course under the head of pay, not one of the stated 
ultB could occur in any one rank. Both gaiu and loss to one 
■ — the married officers abroad for example — are made to appear 
being spread over the mass of officers, and more to another 
the majority — who are not, and never will be, in the eireum- 
ees under which only the gain or loss can be incurred. By what 
action or combination can it be assumed and shown that an Ensign 
the Hue will lose £3 Os, od, a year by the discontinuance of pen- 
to widows and children ; He must have been married some 
or ten years before his appointment, in order to its being 
for him to leave a widow entitled to pension ! And can t hui be 
correct principle of reckoning, which, in the case of a Lieutenant 
nlnnel, places the loss of pension to widow and children at 
20. 10s, LOd. a year, when, upon the moderate supposition of his 
iviuir three children, it is in point of lint nearly t-iv limes that 
mount! Again, under the head of "discontinuance of rations 
>road," the amount of which depends upon the onieer being married 
id li Lving children, the probabilities are rarely greater for a Lieu- 
of upwards of seven years' service, being married and 
ring children, than for an Ensign, yet they are put down as 
Htl losers of the value of two rations each ; and this value is 
tied ; ry lowest rate known, as if there were no stations 

If exceeded (after deducting stoppages), the Committee's rale 
threepence a ration 1 The same anomalies appear in other heads 
Table, and in other ranks of officers. All Captains are through- 
omed to have a wife anil one child under seven years Ol 
field officers a wife, one child over, and one under seven years 
n. the combination of m\ arbitrary period of service wiih 
■lid and receivable by Held onieers as non-effective 
wancej the average loss to a Lieutenant-Colonel from its discon- 



m 



tne wab ornci: comnrrBE 



[On 



tin nance (£20 a year) is stated at £13 10s. M.; to a Maji*. 
£10 Qsl lid. The gain from relief from the bai 

me principle stated at X'lO Gs. for a Lieuten: 
tin 1 is, hi. fijf a Major; the lessor sum in the CMC of the Imp; 
ription! This pervading principle of average also neeaurar 
assumes the body of the army, that is, each individual i-fli. 
as in some portion of his career in nil the categoric <>f i 
station and period of service, marriage and patc-niil 
under the computations — an unwarrantable and imp 
tion. The poiut to be ascertained is not tin rtnpca 

effioen taken in their various rank?, as nil go 
career of service and circumstances, but 
each officer as to income, when cimmistanc 
l!if category of strict pay, which is at all times a> 
place it in that of dependence on the part of the world 
irt ordered, and on hie position as a husband and parent . 1 t'. um r»m 
officer must find upon triul, this elleet is widely did 
a hiid down for hiiu on the average principle, it is a mod 
hiiii that it in nevertheless the true rale of gain or loss wb 
incurs by new arrangements.* 

Leaving the Committee's principle to have such 
reader may think it entitled to, and looking at the pi 
Charles Trevclyan as applied to the exist in 
the only view, we verily believe, in which it will be ititeJli ' 
results will be In some degree attained by the foil, n-ntft 

of the immediate changes which will be effected in tin 
position of some of the ranks. The income proposed for a 1 . 
Colonel is .Cl a day, nr a year, . , . £31 

Add relief from payment of subscript imi 

Band fund f present annual rate 

Total proposed income, under all ohewttstatu 



The actual present pay of a Lieutennni 
Colonel at home is . 

Noii-elYeclUr alliiv.iueo 

Proportion of Prince Regent's allow- 
ance, estimated hy War Office 
Committee at, per officer, . 



£810 
20 



8 i 



11 4 



Annual gain of Lieut. Colonel, at home, by TivvuL 

scheme. . , . . " . , , t; ;," 

* Sir Alcxjii!i1er Tultoch, in liii judicious " Remarks;" oa tl 
Coiniuitar. when and Lnirl before liim, gjros an apt euough illu- 
|uitii-ij>If. After showing, in iwn tiie,uuiiT«, . tlw; trm 
in officers' in'-'.iu.-, lu 1 >: -. "<»i • 
perhaps do not require it, will lyiirt w murti u; 4rn;, i 

n lltDrii" 00 till ; ..illMti '!j;il In- xlliiiil.l mil i i 

jl'l liii'i Oil OH ;i»:..i>: ,1 foil 
lit. 



XVD THE TllETELYAN 6CIIESIE. 



253 



II is clear, but when the event which must happen to 
Colour], namely, service abroad, arrives, there is an end 
•otation. II' In- is ordered to India, iu command, to ■ full 
tta station, hb pay and allowances are si t or quintupled ; if not 
command* quadrupled j if to a linlf bafta station, in eommaud, 
iiijiK-i! ; if not in command, treblt'd. If ordered to China, 
or Mauritius, pay iu more than doubled in eaeh ease.* If ho 
t* other colonies, pay is augmented by the allowance of rations, 
rviiiii in value according to the colony, mid in eaeh case their 
dependent on his being married or unmarried, with or with- 
it children, and more or fewer, according to the number and ages 
Buch children. .Rations, after deduction of the prescribed si..p- 
«, may be valued in the Weat Indies at 8d., in the Meditena- 
at id,, and in the other colonies at 3d., a day. Assuming a 
ut.-Oduiicl in the first station, with a wife and four children, and 
, lilts — no unusual or extraordinary numbers — this entitles him 
i nearly five ration* a day, actual amount per annum, £56 15s. 6d. 
n the other hand, assuming the comparatively unusual circumstance 
' an unmarried Lieut.- Colonel, stationed at the Cape or New /ea- 
rl, this will entitle him to a ration for himself and one fin his 
rv ant , at 3d. a day each, or annually £9 2s. Gd. The former officer 
r by Sir Charles Tn uiyan's scheme of £19 2g, lOd. a year, 
id the hitter a gainer of .£28 10a. 2d. This disproportion of course 
tends through the various ranks, and it will be noted that it is upon 
• where the allowance is most required that the heaviest 
is made to fall. In the case of Brevet Majors there is over and 
iovc the contingent losses of rations, &c., a certain fixed pay loss of 
17s. lid. n year, by the proposed reduction of pay from 13s. 7<l. 
LSa, a day, and Lieutenants of seven years Btanuing are deprived 
th-' Is. a day additional, as compared with their junior comrades. 
B proposed advance in pay of the remaining subalterns covers the 
n f all allowances, and they, consequently, are the only officers 
rmanently benefited in income by the new rates of pay. 
thicb being the results, the indubitable and indisputable results 
a comparison of the "proposed and present" rates of remun era- 
Rpplied to individuals, we would request any officer in any 
.ik, quietly and carefully to examine them, and putting aside ail 
foreman to average, apply them to his past, present, and prospee- 
iv whether it in possible that, except in the unsup- 
case of bin whole service being at home, the proposed altera- 
eniild bene tit him in a pecuniary or in any other sense. When 
bas answered this question in the only way that even Sir C. 
m himself thus far must answer it, we would then ask him 
a nlate or a scrap of paper, with some quarter of an hour's 
ition of eaeh of the. heads of change ns they were taken down 
■ in the proposer, would not have shown and satin Ned any 
■ liable In ing that individually and collectively the nominal gain 

Ivmii ciimul liovu I'd n ignorant uf iIicm; uuiiil>iish; (lexiiiHary 
u In.' iocs not include tbera in any »lmue in hia oolunmoi " proMiiit 
Hade to tlicni in his cvi'lcuce, the inference i> thai In* uodei^UMMui 
L t«i l>e <liac;iititii.nl p iiml Ik'M iis '■"iii]K,'naatwl hy hi* nll-savtilg scheme. 



25 A 




TUB WAIL OFFICE COMMITTEE 






in pay was not ouly neutralized, but turned into po 
throughout tht? army, by tin 1 withdrawal of allow 
hitherto alleviated, in no inconsiderable ih\ 
quent on the miserably inadequate pay as it stood. 
examining officer has answered these questions to his own 
iiisu. let him turn his eyes or his reflections to the v 
formed the solace of his otherwise monofc 

n whose future well-being is the constant wi 
of his heart, mid let him recoiled the comparative e ■:]«<- 
he derived from the knowledge that, happen what might < 
would he at least above destitution after his death. W 
done, let him be told that in addition to the abstract! 
scant pay and allowances during his life, these objects 
and care arc to be deprived before his eyes of all provision at 
death, unless he is killed in battle, and then Let him say < 
he thinks such a proposition endurable, and whether any 
emanating from audi a source ought to he endured. 

In the part of Sir Charles Trevelyau's evidence pre-arranged ntfli 
Sir l)e Lacy Evans and Mr. Higgins (see question 4353), be v«U 
u deal of misapplied reprobation of the bad economy of' 
than the market rate of remuneration," na if the St« 
officer market and cheapened them like beeves, 
scheme, the fruit of so much cogitation and calculation, 
Unit he adds to the evil which he deprecate!*, by rrdttnnr) 
Deration much below its existing standard! His Frii 
Fonblanque, might have shown him. as ho afterward* did sin 
that the outlay for the insurance which ihe abolilimi 

pension would render indispensable, would alone i c 

the whole presumed addition to the income. 

TheSKCOKJi point of inquiry ofthe War Office IVimin 
important one of 'the officer's prospect of promotion iid 
Charles Trevelyau's proposed scheme of voluntary and c<>mpo!*drj 
retirements, as compared wit Ji bis prospects under the 
tern ;'* and the result is, that he would attain the muk of I. 
at the age of 23 ,t, years, or 11 later than the present 
Captain at 32 j-} or o ^ years later. Major a' 
8 ,| years later; Lieutenant-Colonel at 50 [\, or s ( - 
Major-General at 5S p r or ^ years earlier. This «;reat retai 
of promotion, winch is slower than that now r< 
by non-purchasing officers, would be incalculably 

ystrin of selection proposed by Sir Charles Tr 
and to the bitterness of disappointment and hot 
deferred, that system would infallibly add ;» sense, in m 
founded ity and injustice. For our own parts, we 

that the retardation is much under-statod, andlooku 
.ii-ii uhirli promotion is to be depen 

icI iiviuent, s\ ■- that hi i 

'■ t ti I be stagnation and incffii 
■ 







1839.] 



AND THE TBEVELTAtf SCHEME. 



255 



the dates of arrival at Sir Charles Trevolyan's permissive and com- 
pulsory retirements and expected resignations, as compared with the 
«t <if sales and commissions, exchanges, full and half-pay retire- 
ments, and augmentations, under the existing system, Tbey are 
drawn from laborious examinations of various periods ot'5, 15, 20, aud 
years of the Hue, the artillery, engineers, marines, and East India 
jinpany'a army, and must be as accurate ns any such estimates can. 
isaibly be. We of course eau only refer to the Tables and obser- 
itions of the Committee and of Sir Alexander Tulloch in Ins eepa- 
ite Beport, exposing the utter baselessness of tin- whole Trcwlyuu 
?heme. 
I'lii' rninn bead of examination of the scheme ia that of the charge 
the public of Sir Charles's full pay retirements, which he estimates 
£210,622. but the Committee estimate at £512,271. This diilVi - 
£301,649) ia shown to arise from the number of retirements 
i bring inadequate to meet the condition of retirement at the 
itrd ogee ; that is to say, the numbers of the various ranks of ami 
in entitled to retire and retiring would, by .calculation 
id experience of other branches of the service, be so much more 
Sir Charles Trevelyan allows for, as to amount to more than 
doable the expense estimated by him. 

It being agreed on all sides that, iu the event of the abolition of 

irehase, compensation, or rather re-payment, must be made to 

leers who have purchased, the Committee remark, in answer to the 

n n rit head of enquiry, that the cost of this compensation has not 

eluded in Sir Charles's financial Statement; but, computing 

about one-third of the whole number would prefer retiring 

kujiiig under his arrangements (in our opinion an absurdly 

estimate), the amount would be ^Soo.QSN, the gross actual 

ilatiui) value of the commissions of officers serving in 1S57 being 

7,126,030. 

To the &ajbt enquiry, " Would there be any, and if any, what 
expense thrown upon the "War Office by the abolition of army 
he Committee answer, that "they are not prepared I 
whit extent, but they believe that the additional expense wmi Id 
sorb a large portion of the saving estimated by Sir Charles u I 

I " We are enabled to give a much more conclusive and 

;! respect) more authoritative ami valuable answer to this 

i, from the Beport of the House of Commons 1 Committee on 

By and Ordnance Expenditure of 1850, in the following passage, 

onelusion of a comparative statement of the actual expense 

army agency, and that which would be incurred were its duties 

rformed by the public department: — 1; It thus appears that auexpense 

I 000 a-year beyond the present charge would probably be 

rarreo by an alteration of the present system, and it ia apprehended 

it a more extensive increase in the clerks of the public departments 

>itli the prospective charge of superannuation) would result than is 

iticipated by the advocates of the abolitiou." 

w general effect of the l ■■■ ittees' Labours, which, it is to be" 

iered, were eoutiued t<> the financial bearings Of the <\\w^A\r\w, 
Mau. ; 5 v. 371) Oct., ISj'J, 6 



25G 



THE WAB OFFICE COMMITTEE 






is to establish three distinct charges n gainst the hi heme . — ] 

instead of augmenting, as it professes to do, the incomes 

it would palpably diminish them, with the aggraval 

of llii.ii 1 widows and orphans. 2nd. That, instea I i 

officer*' condition as to advancement in their pn 

daaiage and retard it. And 3rd. Thai iuiabil 

annual public expenditure, it would largely 

an enormous present outlay to lay the foundation 

These three charges we deliberately assert are pi 

possibility of refutation, and we now come to h>ir Char! 

the whole Report. Looking at the names and | 

viduals of whom the Committee consisted (Sir B. U&x 

Hamsden, Sir Henry Storks, Sir Alexander Tulhxli, Mr. 

Mr. W. O. Marshall, and Captain Marrin), and at theenonnoaa! 

of calculations and argumentative discussion amonj 

afterwards to the public, which they have pr. rdii 

might reasonably thiuk that, as against one man who pi 

no knowledge of the army or of army aceoui 

that Committee might have a chance ot being the correct 

Sir I liarles Trevelyan is no ordinary man, and it nould 

ns, recollecting his absolute ignoring and superseding of tl 

of the vast majority — we migtit say (In 1 whole — of the inquir 

the purchase system, from the Duke of Wellington duwnwi 

would, we aay, be silly in bat be would 

weight at all to results differing from his (Sir l" 

opinions, arrived at by the six individuals in the kingdom 

patent to judge of the question at issue. Accordingly, he • 

objects" to the whole Iteport ; he " challenges tin 

meuts eoutaiued in it founded upon figures 

within everybody's reach, and he disputes conclusion 

data admitted by the Committee to he of an arbitrary 

commences this his " Statement of 

Eeporl of the Committee" by a sort of introduction, which 

eke than a aeries of misrepresentations and pern It 

take too much time to particularize and refute then 

previously acquainted with the state of the matters whicl 

to, will easily discover the {ruth. They do not bear uj 

diiile question at issue, but they are put forth in the 

ing the reader into the belief of assumptions either total! 

partially true only ns he may concur in the absurd and 

upiuionB and contradictory conclusions of Si 

'J h ■ statement of the origin of the purchase sj 

Govern inenfii measures is an error of ignorance (soow 

temptible in u man of Sir Charles's position and 

th& impression ^compelled 

own pensions," that in the military servii 
similar to those which were made from sail 
and thai the impn in uay and position 

medical an I commissariat branches since 1H57, h 
I r ,i]n sals which he asstris they have ; tbuecarc men — I re 
His lirst objection to the Committee'.-, Kepurl 






AND THE TIlEVELTASr SCHEME. 



257 



by assuming that in the event of an officer being dissatisfied with the 

inditions of service, he wilt be paid ;Af rgptlaled prfaa of his 

na by the public," ia really unworthy of nut ice, and should 

lot have here received it, were it not afterwards magnified i 

>oiut. If the Committee had entirely ignored the existence of the 

ttrs ; had in their computation of* values for 

'ir \ hurley's scheme, used the lesser sum tu his disadvantage, or 

id in any way taken it preferentially into account, there might 

Kiw 1 1 ee 11 ground fur complaint, although we entirely concur in the 

iwt'i* of the Committee thai it would ill have become them in iniv 

of the disillusion to have recoguized as a basis of any computa- 

au illegal, ramble, and uncertain estimate, " for which there 

jo authority beyond the assertion or supposition of an irres- 

jnsible individual, who adduced no facts or instances to support his 

jrtion," — but the Commit tee make no such use or any damagmfi 

use of the lower value, and it will be seen that one of Sir Charles 1 * 

most violent charges against them is, that they do not take any 

value of commissions at all into their consideration in their esti. 

e* of gain and loss. But when in theirTablee they compare pur. 

chasing officers' and mm -purchasing officers' prospects, they always 

arel'iHly note that they would be widely different, were the supposed 

taken in lieu of the regulation. The objection is 

-t;itly inapplicable to the statement, both in the position in which 

16 Committee make it, ami wherever else it occurs, they might 

ire left it nut altogether without affecting in the least degree) the 

Ideations before them. 

Sir Charles then complains that the mode of exhibiting bis propo- 

ts calculated to prejudice them, and lie charges the Committee. 

,ith au undue bias, and a spirit of partizanship, and attributes un- 

- to their calculations. The charge of bias and partisanship 

in be (minded only in iSir Charles's irritated feelings at the general 

>-n of bia theories, and as to error or unfairness in the caicn* 

it will be found that the charge is applicable only to the 

■ conclusions, drawn from the principle of average; and 

the fallacy, we had almost aaid the folly, of that principle is 

; if gives a shew of reason to .Sir Charles's objections 

ble Lis constructed upon the assumption of every officer 

■m:: married and having children. Unfairness may be more justly 

limt Sir Charles for suppressing, as he does, the expla- 

rvations of the Committee, stating that the losses to 

n the discontinuance of pensions to widows and orphans 

of rations abroad, " cannot be accurately estimated," and that 

i named in their Statement represents rather the contribution 

idd be required from every officer of the rank, whether mar- 

or single, to make a fund whence pensions would be granted, 

nit "T I"- t i individuals who had to provide deferred 

for their widows and orphans. These observation* 

he objections of Sir Charles to the deductions made by 

mmitteo from computations upon the average principle; but 

d to the true I os -attainable by officers uf all ranks and inall 

the figures, as Sir Charles remarks, are (unluckily for him}, 



25« 



THE WAU OVriCi: ruMMlTIIi:, 






"unquestionable and within everybody's reach,'* and by ad 
thein we have shown that upon application to individual 
Bf.de practical way of testing the point), the deductions 
Committee, bo tar from prejudicing the Trevelyau S< 1 euor* 

mousby short of representing its true di Sir Ah 

Tulloch's Report contains also similar specific statements 
the ruin that would result to the poorer class of married ■ 
from the scheme, lu some remarks on the Report and 
the Sub-Committee submitted to him and ufterwai 
gives a Statement "to show how very fallacious i h. tl 
of averages," in which it is placed beyond the possibility 
that, under Sir Charles's scheme, a Brevet- major, with a h 
only two children, in a foreign station, where the r 
5d, a day, would lose annually £80 Is, lOd. ; a Captah 
Bime family, £43 lie, lOd. ; and a Lieutenant of aev< 
jiig, £28 He. 4d. What would be their amouin 
the ration waa 8d. a day, and with families of live n 
Sir Charles, notwithstanding his challenge, does 
deductions drawn from these statements, and wo defy him i 
throw a figure of them, He uses an argument in thi 
subject that goes far to make us doubt whether he righth 
stands the point to be ascertained. He says (besides eoi 
correctness of the ration estimate on the strange gn 
officers often give them to the messmun, and do not draw the i. 
tliey are entitled to), the estimates cannot bo correct be« 
amount gives a much larger sum than was actually dis 
II uii by Government in a given year! "The Cuimuitt< 
various sums, from £57 IDs, (id, for I/enleiiant-Colunels < ' 
in the tropics, to £0 2s. Oil for Ensigns nol in the tropica, «• 
the average loss to officers from I lie discontinuance 
test the accuracy of this calculation it is onh m »jij<U 

these rates to the actual number of the officers of all tin 
of infantry of the line and of the colonial corps," And 
Statement in, figures of the Committees" rates applied to 
army (1,552 combatant officers), which shows that tl 
required for these rates would be f 5B,76W. whereas the 
• nly £17,015 ; and, therefore, he says, the < ili< i -' 1 
Las than a thud part of that stated by the Committee. Nov 
mane of Coclier and common-sense, does the officer the l< 
ration by the amount issued for it being spread over the 
army ? And even on the average principle, how 
be brought in as participators in n benefit when on! 
part of it is the recipient? Were this mode of reckoning « 
ac officer's income in the colonies would vary with i-m-v\ mul: 
tion or reduction of the army at home! — he won I 
richer according to the addition or reduction of a battal 
may be exemplified in the other ease, that if the " mess »H 
which Sir Charles applies the principle, lie Bays (hat th» 
£17,2 10, the expenditure under this head for the Iti 
been divided as above, which would give £-1 l», tfd. a.-* the kw 
to each officer, instead of upwards of £7, as stated by the ' 



».] 



AND THE TfiETILTAtf SCTIIMF.. 



258 



aw, in his Statement of saving to the public by the discontinuance, 
m of £21,110 is stated as the expenditure, lu that year, 
re, the officers of regiments enjoying the allowance must, have 
ad proportionally better dinners than in the year now chosen, and 
ould have lost proportionally more in niuney value had the 
allowance been discontinued I 

But the cardinal point in this losa-and-gaiu part of the controversy 

K5 the taking into account or not sis a gain to officers the "not 
aving to pay for their commissions." Sir Charles ftaya : — "As 
the chief advantage proposed for regimental combatant officers by the 
plan was the abolition of purchase, this ought to have been the 

Erincipat element in the statement of gain or loss, whereas it has 
een entirely omitted. If ev> .vaa a ease of the play of 

Hamlet being acted with the part of Hamlet left out it is this ;" and 
.forwards shows how Hauilet ought to appear. The Committee 
ply iu explanation that the Table (No. 1) in which Sir Charles 
be Commission values ought lo have been nut, expressly refers 
only to officers now serving who had not purchased their eommis- 
ions, and that, therefore, any reference to prices paid would have 
entirely out of place. They further state that "a second 
Me had been prepared and printed" (and which (hey now produce), 
showing what the result would have been by taking into account the 
ring of the regulated purehase-money j but as no allowance had 
iade for trie extra pay mid other advantage* gained by the 
iser during the period by which he was enabled to anticipate 
promotion, that Table was withdrawn, jis the reasoning founded 
it would have been altogether fallacious, and the Tables A and 
substituted, showing the gain and loss by purchasing, after 
these advantages were taken into account. 1 ' 

Best rained as the Committee considered themselves from entering 
to the question upon which the decision of this point must mainly 
pend, namely, the possibility of there being a gain attainable by 
e abolition of pun base, we think their reasoning, although 
ed by that restraint, quite conclusive against Sir Charles's 
n : and as in their original Beport (page Ti) they show not. 
dy that the item of the supposed money loss had been taken fully 
ir consideration, but state its average amount in figures, we 
ink that on the mere technicality or arithmetical principle, Sir 
larles's complaint is unfounded and unreasonable. 
Hut this is by iiu means the only light in which the question is to 
viewed, even in the commercial sense to which it is here confined, 
is true that Sir Charles Trevelyan, throughout his evidence, and 
Ids answer, raves about the losses to officers, causing total 
uTi to them elves, and their families, and relations; but he at the 
me time bIiqws that they are compensated by the general officer's 
v and pensions, half pay, pensions to widows and children of all 
e military and naval bodies iu the service — no small relief from 
iaes — and he now makes the additional contradiction to loss being 
eurred, by showing that their outlay is a provision made by then- 
ar pensions on their retirement; still the question remains 
her loss — definable money loss in a commercial, or in any sense 



2G0 



THE WAn nTFICE COMMFTfEE 



[Oct, 



—is in paint of fact incurred by officers in the purchase 
com missions, and, by consequence, whether its abolition would be» 
money gain. If a. man buy n furm, or a shop, or a share in a 
eantilo adventure, or a living in the church, or a practice in n pn 
sion, or (pace Sir Charles Trevelyan) n civil situation, in the I 
view of devoting his tiraB and service to make a profit of it. t] 
which lie may Maintain himself and his family ; if the prop 
chased, and the labour or service bestowed, do not make the 
return, there is a loss proportioned to the amount paid and the r< I 
expectedj if the property fail to make any return at 
loss not only of the capital — unless in bo far aa a i 
it — but of the interest that the money invested would have prodi 
in the funds, or on mortgage, or otherwise. But, on the other hand, 
if the property purchased produce the full expected return 
the possession of it the possessor is put into a position 
advantage of some casualty that be could not have taken wit 
having made such purchase, will any man in his &en»< -He 

has sustained and continues to sustain a loss ? .Aud will th 
acute quibbler that ever detected a flaw in a deed or an ini 
show any, the slightest, difference between the latter case ami 
of an officer purchasing a commission ? All incomes derived fi 
labour or service, of which original capital is a necessary adjo 
may of course he held to he diminished by the interest which stttfc 

ttal would have produced without such labour 01 
this cannot be called a hiss, for the plain reason that it is 
but kept with the addition to it of the increased rate of 
investment. It is never reckoned as a loss, and it is e\prea*Ij di»« 
allowed in the Income Tax Act as a deduction ' 
officer, however, may most fairly point to the eircutu 
for claiming an increase of pay, cr return for the 
renders; and this was done in his behalf in 1833, by the Dill 
Wellington, with whom the idea seems to ha\< 
again r> Per to Sir Alexander Tullocli's Report, for further illustration 
01 these arguments, 

The War Office Committee have constructed two very h\ 
and ingenious, but in our opinion more curious* than useful T- ; 
f \ and B) shewing a comparison as to pay between 
**f purchasing and non-purchasing officers, every item I 
to its present value. They proceed, of course, upon the arrratjt <rf 
promotions aod payments, and duration of lives, and tfc* 

pur. dicer, although gaining in every r:iLk by a sti 

as over the nonrpurehasing officer, yet as he baa had to pay a | 
for ii, be loses by the difference between that sum gained and lbt 
aid: thus, the present nominal value of th >t'*n 

dies General's rank, having purchased hit* > 



Of ui» officer who has purchased no step 

■ uf the purchaser .... 
But as J » gain this advantage tic has paid — deduct 
JJe Js supposed to lose aa compared with the 
nurcliasing officer , 




■ m 



1959.] 



A7TD TUT. THITELTAV SCHEWK. 



2G1 



Sir Charles Trevelyan and his assistants seize with aridity 

difference, as if it confirmed his absurd assumptions of the 

ruinous losses incurred by the whole army through the purchase 

system, entirely overiookuiff the gain of the £5.080 to the non- 

purehasing Captain for nothing; hut independently of what has been 

said ad to the impossibility of a purchase which pecuniarily gaim its 

being (i loss, the contingent advantage* gained by the purchasing 

officer, such as the probability of the higher Bcale of pay in India, 

Mauritius, and Ccvlon, in the higher rank, stall employment ii^ign. 

able only to the higher rank, greater chance of honours, increased 

share of prize money, and increased pension to widow and family, 

ibviotia that they neutralize the whole of the so-called loss, 

and, still speaking commercially, turn the investment into ;i pecuniary 

fain by at [east tl n the Captain's case, and still mote in the 

:ut<s, Tn like manner, Sir Charles puts prominently forward 
result of Tabh' H, shewing upon the same average principle as 
ahle A thai an officer intending to purchase all his commissions 
ould lose when arrived at f'a rank £1,416, but he omit* to 

this is only in comparison with an officer who had determined 
to purehaae none; and he takes care to avoid aU mention n-t only 
of the above countervailing advantages (which of course would he 
1 by tin' more rapid rise in rank), but to what is more 
lely to the . the Committee's explanatory statement 

in 185G there were only twenty-four Limit -Colonels in the 
who had purchased nil their commissions (and there was pro- 
3 an equal number who had purchased none) ; and that taking 
he actual total regulation prices paid, the sum paid by 
h purchasing officer was £942, "whence the proportion of the 

Senf value of average loss to each purchasing officer probably 
■I 6297. 
Whatever may be thought of the correctness in principle or in 
\ of the calculations which give these results, whether they 
push the whole pyre raised by Sir Charles 
relyan, and all it* mighty emanations, they indisputably -hew 
that the "not having to pay for their commissions, " was a n 
rineiit object of the consideration of the Committee. But 
ir with them in their answer that to have included 
Table No. I, gain would have been "entirely 

we think they might have bestowed a little more 
g to ahow the impossibility of treating that portion of their 
■ >therwise than they have done. \ - 9 C i uulerstaud Sir Charles 
Ml, and as he most undoubtedly means to be understood, 
'if the purchase system, combined with his plan, will 
be a pecuniary boon equivalent in all respects to the relief from a 
ipulsory annual tax, equal in amount to the interest of the money 
which the respective commissions of officers have or would have 
thai is to say, every regimental officer, intending and non- 
ading purchaser, from Ensign upwards, will have in hi 
of the price of his first and ever- BUi 
severally come to him. No doubt the cessation of any 
or of any retention from income hi the ehaj ttjfc 



I thai would otherwise accrue, is an intelligible ami legit imau 
just ns in the inetance of the band subscriptions, their proposed 
withdrawal is properly put down under that head by the Com 
but ia there any the most remote analogy between this -withdrawal 
of a specific annual tax and the investment of monei 
return of more tlian 20 per cent., and arc there twu sunt- an 
the world who look upon a voluntary, nay, an eagerly Bought 
competed for purchase, as a tax, an acquisition pecuniarily 
and morally gratifying, as* a loss; such acquisition reli 
always realizable at its original value by the possi 
all the farcical horrors imputed to it by the one man 
fail to see that it iastill a gain, still money's worth : 
t'liarlea Trevelyan ia no fool, and uo man knows better I 
:ill this outcry about loss to officers from purchasing thcii 
missions is (in the phrase of one of his Aides) "sheer noi. 
.Xo man know a belter than he that if, as is well remarked by Sir 

leiander Tulloch, "the purchasing officer gave his mou 
nothing, the aysteni would long ago have come to an end 
moreover, no man had more violently than he denounced 
and an advantage, although he is pleased always to state it as such 
at the expense of the non-purchasing officer and the public. 

Sir CharleB, however, leaveB no doubt of hist meaning 
tion with respect to the value of this "not having to pa] Cm 
commissions," for he takes the amount of the regulation ji 
actually paid at a given date by the whole purchasing port 
army, viz,, £-1,742,280, and, " adding to it one half for the iliflVr- 

• ence between regulation and current prices," he says, that th 
nual interest of this sum (£7,113,520), at 5 per cent., 
the premium necessary to secure repayment of the an 
interested in it, should have been divided among the offia 
different ranks. Verily, "the Table," as Sir Charl. 
"would then have shewn a very different result, even it" the 
elements of the calculation had remained the same." T, 
average premium at the very moderate rate of I per con: 
nual credit from the whole would be £Gt0.200, which, divi.: 
.jOCHJ officer?, would give to each about JC12S a year in tu 
hia pay, or if divided, as more probably is meant, in pro] 
assumed payments from the different ranks, the Enaign would 
£1)0 15s., and the Lieutenant-Colonel £607 10s, a year; and 
soma, and proportionally for the oilier ranks, Sir Char 
deliberately think? ought to have been put in a column hrsSed 
44 Gain by not having to purchase their commission*," in a 
composed strictly of solid, tangible sums of money, shewn Id 
illv gained and lost from his propositions, by officers " trho h«tt 
acd any oj their cowmissiQits ! : ' 
Wait ing the demonstration of the absurdity u idea, and 

issuraing it to be applicable at all, it must be applied either 
irereiit or to the succeeding generation of officers. Jf ; 

rmer, we persuade ourselves (not without hesitatii 
iir Charles will ndmit lh:ii with regard to officers who 
cil nnd have not the intention or means of purchasi. 



mm 
mm 



•] 



XJtJt THE TUTTELTAX SCHEME. 



2G3 



iiv niunt fitil in showing how they 



be gainers by n<>i 
commissions. To this class, consequently, 
probably two- fifths of the whole number, for whose benefit, almost 
exclusively, the new scheme is devised, there remain only the results 
of it without the assumed counterpoise. They are therefore doomed 
deprivation, 1st.— Of their power of immediate realization of 
6 value of the commission* which they hold, or may hold ; that is, 
receiving a. large capital which they never invested, And abaoluto 
edoiu from future service. 2nd. — Of alt advantages from foreign 
roe in the shape of higher pay and ration allowances ; and 3rd. — 
f the consoling knowledge that in the event of their deaths their 
widows and children will be provided for by the State. From their 
sufferings from these deprivations they have no relief in the prospect 
of early promotion, half- pay, exchange, or security against being 
ssed over through interest or favoritism. They must stagnate to 
i age, \\ hen they will receive a life pension not exceeding 
hat they, under the present system, obtain at any time by sale or 
eir commissions. There will then, however, arrive a solatium 
bieh Sir Charles Trevelynn will be the last man in the world to 
mit, but winch he and all the world with him cannot prevent, 
me] v.— purchase. The poor defrauded officer will receive compeii- 
by Becoming a marketable article, as the period of his optional 
ti cement arrives ; wealth will easily find its way to accelerate pro- 
>ti>-n in a much more pernicious degree than under the existing 
stem.* 

But there is another class of officers to whom, if it were possible, 

the gain from not having to purchase commissions would be still less 

tble, namely, those for whom there are no commissions to pur- 

asc, the Lieutenant-Colonels, purchasers or non-purchasers. Their 

wer of " losing," and, consequently, their future exemption from 

on to lose is exhausted. They are to be allowed the option 

hich they and all purchasers have at all times had (non-purchasers, 

also, at stated times) under the existing system, of retiring on re- 

ivtnent to them of their outlay for their commissions; but they 

usl decide immediately to take it, otherwise their right ia forfeited, 

id they are red need to the diminished income and blighted prospects 

'the uon-purehasing officer, with an unprovided for wife and family. 

Iiere remain, therefore, of the whole body of regimental officers to 

■ by possibility benefited bv not having to purchase their commissions, 

c .Majors, Captains, and Subalterns intending to purchase; and 

I losing their next steps immediately within their reach, or even 

nhmtlieir reach equally early as at present, it is not to be denied 

at not having to pay for them would be a gam of the usual price < 

allowed (with bitter mi willingness) by Sir Charles 

wi-lyan himself, that the purchase system accelerates promotion, 

cessation must consequently retard it, and the Committee show 

at the scheme will have this effect in the degrees which we have 

ready quoted. Our belief is, that these degrees are far within 

e limit of retardation which the absence of purchase woidd ocea- 

" Sw tho unanswerable statements to this effect iu (tic Committee':) observation 
Sir Ghnrfet't tetter, ptiges 2 nnil 3, 



264 



TITE WAR OFFTCB COMttlTTEi: 






aioti ; but, assuming them as they stood, they i ifaK- 

hite pecuniary loss to purchasing officers, by pr< 

Stable investment of their money — a Major of £31- \ 

Captain of £38 12s. Id., a Lieutenant of £50 1 

Ensign of £15 10s. 3d.,* to say nothing of postpone! advan 

in rank and position, loss of allowances, and chances of honours sod 

preferences. 

It is thus arithmetically proved, and we really do 
he disputed by Sir Charles Trevelyan himself, thai 
who by possibility con he permanently affected ) 
purchase, namely, those who have money in their ■ 
advantage of it, will abpotnlrly be losers by the deprivntio 
mant in their profession, and* this without taking into n 
many chances of getting the purchasable step withi 
death-vacancies, cr augmentations. 

Whence, then, — we ask both the Committee and Sir ( 
Trevelyan — w hence the gain In officers from ixil 
their commissions P By what conceivable proci 
computation could a present value be calculated upon n utw-existmt 
quantity, the gain to ft Lientenati(vC"h>ncl ;■ 
what did not exist to bu acquired by him ; to nti inn 
not having to do what ho never had and never r. 
of doing; or to another who with ample u 
loss from not being able to Invest tin in the. nil 

way that his brother officers and he, to a certain eil 
done. 

Having shown the baselessness of the idea that not hat 
chase their commissions can reasonably be 

gain to the existing officers, there remains the inquiry as to itt team- 
bilitv- as applied to a future generation of them. Thi-. r>. 

* A Mujor purchasing a Licutenant-Coloneli 

pay «nd command money, jit 4n. n day . . A year, i. 

Hut pays A'l,3ii(i, which at a per cent. Is 

PurduainL 

A Captain purchasing Majority receives additional ■*». 5d. a 



day. 



43 



Bui pays £1,400, which itt 1 t*?r cent, ia 

luMmg I'Aptuin gxjf**, 
A Lieutenant purriuwinn Captaincy receive*, additional 



Jm. ltl. a day. 
But pays £1,104, whaoh at S per <#n*. is 



£>-i 1'- I 




Purchaptiig LIi 

I Ml".. ' ■ ) I I 



!11K THBVEI.V'Alf SCHEME. 



jusiderable stretch of imagination. It implies the lapse of some 
rooty or thirty years, during which the Trevelyan scheme has heen 
full operation, and the army officered by the race of half paupers 
and half prigs that will have displaced the present gentlemen and 
soldiers. We do not know that this whole question of gain by not 
having to purchase their commissions could he better settled at a 
blow, as it were, than by putting it to a practical solution with the 
, In that state. If the alleged boon be not nn out and out delu- 
sion, a fanciftd something created out of nothing, it must have some 
rateable value at some period of an officer's career; it must iu some 
or other be convertible into pounds, shillings* and pence. Now 
>uld any mockery be more gross than to tell an officer in these 
>n-purc hosing, or in any times, that against his loss of non-effective 
id ration allowances, and his wife and children's prospects of maiu- 
mance before and after his death, he must put so much a year, 
ided to his par, by not having had to pay for his commissions! 
"ic whole Idea is too absurd for argument ; to put a negative quan- 
ity, a non-obligation to pay (what by the way there is no obligation 
pay), jib an offset against a positive abstraction, never Before 
itered into the head of an accountant or a calculator, and in the 
ense in which Sir Charles Trevelyan now puts it, never euteredinto 
na own head till now that it has been discovered to him, that in- 
id of adding to he has abstracted from the incomes of officers by 
scheme. 
But Sir Charles extends the idea still further iu his disposal of the 
>mmittee*6 objection to the very inadequate amount which he fixes 
the expense of the retiring pensions. Ho says, that "these 
i its are intended to be substituted For those which at 
tit take place by the sales of commissions. If, therefore, 
\ plan is debited with this large aenual amount as against the 
itate, it ought also to be credited with it in favor of the officer. 
After deducting £60,000, the cost of the present full pay retire- 
ments, the average gain to each officer from the remaining £360,000 
a-year, ought to have been shown in the Table *" That is to say, he 
is first to receive it as income during his service, besides having his 
annual quota of the seven millions which he has not had to pay for 
his commissions, and then to receive it a second time in the life peu- 
■ paid to him on retirement! These are no strained or perverted 
deductions, but the palpable results, as any reader may satisfy him- 
self by a moment's examination, of Sir Charles Trevelyan'a pos- 
tulates. 

Among the snurces id' advancement of which the Trevelyan pro* 
aition will deprive officers is that of exchanges, which the Corn- 
mate as probably benefiting them to double the amount 
1 death vacancies ; and considering that in the latter casualty the 
2ps are gained in one regiment only, while in the former they 
iply to two, we are inclined to think their estimate correct. Sir 
fnaflea and his assistants look upon this statement of the Com- 
as "sheer* nonsense," an "evident confusion of ideas," "a 
mipletely fallacious argument, which cannot bear a moment's dis- 
isaiun;" and they state to their own entire satisfaction, as well as 



266 



TIIE WAR OFFICE COMMlTTrr 






to every reader's who knows anytl the matter, that ol 

exchanges in the world would not artord one single promotion, Thr 
Committee's answer is conclusive. "Ah regards the effect 
changes in accelerating promotion, adverted to at page 11 of the 
letter, it is true that exchanges of themselves do not create promo- 
tion, nor have the Committee asserted thai they did so ;* hut the mod*: 
in which these exchanges opernted wae clearly pointed out 
paragraph of their Report quoted in the letter, and to win 
adhere." The singular part of the ease is that Sir Charles 
it, absolutely gives the whole etYect which the Commits 
exchanges. " The only effect of the shifting process would he that 
promotions would full on other individuals than it would have fallen 
upon if no change had taken place iu the order of succession." Un- 
doubtedly so-, and is not this an enormous benefit? Its el 
the frequent case of the augmentation for India, the less free 
death vacancy and general augmentation, may be ej promo* 

tion in each rank to officers, who, without the exchange, would hate 
remained unpromoted, possibly, to the end of th< 
Charles says that the Committee do not perceive that tin 
against hift phm of selection apply equally to i 
Charles "doeB not perceive" ihat the difference is lit 
the effect of selection is to keep down, and most proliaMv un 
every ollieer above I he selected : the ell'eet of exehango is to r 
every officer under the exchanging. Wir Charles, riot conteJ 
extinguishing exchanges us creating promotion, wl. 
said they did. says further that they have the effect of r 
he means that by being an escape from misconduct, whir!. 
compel an officer's resignation or dismissal, they prevent the \. 
that would thereby he made. Exchanges are excellent pr< 
for very many cases, and we entirely concur with the Con 
that to abrogate them would be a most unnecessary hardship tod 
injustice; but, like charity and many other excellent i 
maybe, and, no doubt, are, sometimes abused. To atti 
nelarious effect to them, however, is a simple assumption thai lw> 
or rather four officers will separately declare a lalsehi 
Charles ought to know that previous to grunting tl 
mission, the regulations prescribe that the officers command 
well as the exchanging officers, must sign aud certify a declai 
*'•' stating that the exchange recommended does nut in tar 

regimental proceeding of any kind, or in any cause a 
honour and character ol'the officers, and that there are n 

" personal objection which have in the smallest degree 
licatiou for Buch exchange." Moreover, Sir Charles 

low, and we believe does know, that officers are not, i 
iimu' permitted to purchase and exchange ■" the) are vx\ 

•roliih'rftd ho doing under penalty of cashiering and won 
misdemeanour. 

In all these discussions, it suits Sir Charles Trevelyan'a purm 
and, alas, he thinks that sufficient justification,— always to reprrnw' 

Alexander Tullucli expressly savs "Promotion is ol»u mattrfally tju-ilinw^ 
<t#h not afaolvtehf mated, by exchange or remom 



-V.t.l 



AND TUB THEVELYAN SCKKMfi. 



26? 



urchase as n compulsory impost, instead of its being, a^ he, well 

an optional privilege. Regarded in this, its true light, all 

s abuse and denunciation ot" it a3 a robbery, an iuipoverishmenfc 

nd the source of all sorts of possible and impossible damage to its 

ora, are ridiculously misplaced. It is silly to state as an 

swer to this, even if the statement were true, that the privilege ia 

sessed at tbe expense of those who possess it not, that it im- 

les advancement to all but those "who have large balances at 

ir bankers ;™ this confirm! rather than confutes what ia the point 

present under consideration— tbe existence of tin* privilege ; 

ides, the non-poaaesaors of it enjoy its advantages. Eun tin- 

unii'ut of its being an impediment to the advancement of merit 

futile as against its. value to officers who exercise it, however 

bly it might be urged as a hardship on individuals. If tbe 

illow deelaimers against what they do not understand would 

est themselves of the ignorant and vulgar prejudice with which 

,ey start on their Inquiry, and inquire n little more deeply, they 

uuld see that the purchase system, whether it be or be not, as they 

pleased to call it, vicious in principle, opposed to the spirit of the 

je, derogatory and prejudicial, is unquestionably a valuable raffle* 

ling attached to a certain position in the body politic, aud as such, 

■■lion of it, as proposed by Sir Charles Trevelyan, is a simple 

oobery of their professional and patrimonial rights. It is giving 

i< in an option which they already possess at their own discretion, 

ith the alternative of permanent forfeiture in case of refusal, 

II", unfortunately for our readers, we were as unrestrained as the 

and Sir (.diaries Trevelyan by consideration for their 

Mtience and our own space, we might extend our examination to the 

ling points of the controversy, but they are of minor im- 

>rtauee, and the limits necessarily assigned to our subject are, ex- 

l. We cannot leave it, however, without protesting in the 

rongest manner against the waste of time, labour , and money en- 

niled upon the country by these Parliamentary Military Com- 

i enquiry ; they smother instead of promoting reforms, 

id pre-eminently this upon the purchase system. The truly great 

ommiaaion of 1840 so conclusively and so satisfactorily disposed of 

<»u, that re-opening it was as mincceswiry as it has proved 

>ortive. It was a mere continuation of the system of truckling 

asion which we have bq often reprobated and denounced as 

bstitute for real improvement, such improvement as, if it were 

uly intended, would be announced and acted upon under a General 

rder from the Horse Guards. 

The agitation that brought about this nonentity of 1856 la said 

i pertain circles, wo kimw nut how truly, to have originated in the 

ounded feelings of a notorious anon >j me of the newspapers at his 

rejection by the officers of the Life Guards, The honourable and 

gallant member for Westminster took it up as a popularity bait, 

and afterwards made it an election cry ; Lord l'almerston in the 

pirit, but with diametrically opposite convictions, granted the 

Ion : the agitators procured the powerful and imposing aid 

CL Trevelyan, who pro-arranged with them and pr-dm d that 



prodigy of iinoi uraneeaiid absurdity called his K\ idcnccandi 

f inane ial scheme, which, after occupying the time and ii 1 1 

some dozen of public servants for the best part of a twelve mot 

has broken down no miserably. After all, with nM 

giuality fiud factitious importance, it la an idea that inu.-i 

nave occurred to any man who thought of the consequences o 

Lition of purchase; :i realization, with the additionofdisnin 

of the nlternatirea which the Duke of Wellington said would 

'■ inevitable result" of such abolition, namely, " an euorn 

entahliahment at the public charge, to furnish a 

wurn-out officers, or to leave the Commissions of I 

hands of those incompetent to discharge the duties attached i 






ADMIRAL HOPE IN THE PEIHO RIVi 






It ia always an easy and popular task to glorify a eu 
praiao upon the victora, but interest, and patriotism, no !<•*» i 
generosity, require us to be at least just to toe deft*;' 

Merit and gallantry of the highest order must not 
the vulgar and often fallacioua (est of a single result, ai • 
James Hope is so far "shelved" for the failure :it t li> 
should not Nelson have been ho for the equally du 
more damaging defeat at Tenerifle? All that has been said 
" raebneea in one case would equally apply to Bf ; ye 

land could better afford the loss of life (ninel 
the " Fox" tender, and forty- four killed in action) thai 
those bright pages in her history which record Copenha 
Nile, and Trafalgar, 

Admiral Hope was not an untried niau, whom we i 
want of antecedents, by this isolated affair, I> 
character for judgment and resources, as well as daring, years ago; 
we must remember not ouh llant defeat of t' 

brilliant success due mainly to his skill and devotion at the Obli 

• Two anecdotes of Admiral Hope, well known to m 
Ttjii.ii -what muy well tip culled ft noble eharacter, At the bdttl 
ilio Piusuit, he commanded the Firebrand. The progress of I hi 
hy u line of small vessels moored across the river, secured to each nUwr I 
and covered 1 • v the enemy's artillery and musketry. If"!" 1 , v 

| English mnl French) w-i iv unable to fmive their way I 
much bam the enemy's Are, took his own bout, mid, i 
him,]. I rcwls. I'liv-dnir n miihII J 

(J wink) by Lictltcunn( Kcginnld Levhi^c, which, after gutlnnt i 

lei] ultiTTgnide ami took in a few of 1 
•tan Wiib these mluntm 

iitry, he then reached the bridge ur Imoni, 
coolly net about the wu 

laat effected. To this coolness on : - quiakacei ■ 

day « 
Fennci),'* which bis standing on the list insert i m fairly i 

, iiiy that other officer* with ei[»al 
traits of aa ordinary character He i»ni « medni a* cadet at 

QbBaj 



1859.1 



ADM1BAL 110PE IN TOE PEI1IO BIVETl. 



260 



If ho was too modest to claim his full share in the victory, let ua not 
of his well-earned reputation because ho has been unfortu- 
\\V have prudent chiefs enough, not likely to waste British 
blood or Chinese either; hut we have few James Hopes — few men 
equal to him in natural abilities, acquired knowledge, or in the moral 
(um\ of a character which may he truly called heroic. This may 
»nk like partiality, but the fact is, that no one personally intimate, 
.ith Admiral Hope can speak or write of him without enthusiasm, 
KAUte it Is the nature of such a character to excite it. He is no 
man, either in respect of the courage and fortitude which 
■ can deny him, or of those high mental endowments which the 
public will hardly associate with imprudent rashness. In the eyes 
of many he ifl now, perhaps, the desperately brave hut thoughtless 
mid not very judicious officer. How unlike the real James Hop* — 
thoughtful, i mlii strious man! — the only naval officer of 
is day, perhaps, who, bent upon improving his great natural abili- 
; be utmost, actually studied at Cambridge, aud took his degree 
fter acquiring all thnt was taught at the senior department of 
i College. 
Let ua look, however, at the facta of this defeat, bo far as they are 
cuowh, and the strictures upon the chief assumed to be blaineuble 
fnr it. 

As already said, Admiral Hope was no unknown or undistinguished 

1 won his C.B. not when orders fell in showers upon all 

ihad been within certain geographical limits at a certain time, 

>ut for his individual merits upon a scene not unlike the Peiho. He 

id borne a distinguished part in the remarkable river expedition 

[*asana, and had learned what success may await a trifling 

force when opposed to less warlike races. 

Row, setting aside the Brat crude attacks made on Admiral Hope 

anj particulars wi-re known, we come first to the charge that 

nought very Lightly of his enemy. Of course this is true, or be 

been mad to attack them, and so would all his successful 

ssors, Sir W. Parker, Lord Gough, Sir AY. Syuinnda, 

Keppel, and all others who mode war in China. Nothing but a 

;ttled belief in the superiority of British prowess would rescue our 

ttaekf upon an empire of 300,000,000 souls from the imputation of 

Admiral Hope, then, it may be conceded, assumed as certain the 

iperior gunnery of his own flotilla, and further believed the Chinese 

be what they had invariably proved on former occasions. 

tected their gunnery to be had, because it always had bean 

it proved the reverse, as we nil know now, and as Admiral Hope 

rould have known had he been a prophet; but this sudden pro- 

. involves a mystery which possibly Russia might boIvc. To 

an cncTiiv without reason is foolish, but the admiral who 

it's the equality of a Chinese enemy ought, logically, to decline 

pi. with an equal or superior force. How long 

Hurh an admiral ? lit the second place it has boon 

ashly) asserted that Admiral Hope did not suflicieutiy n 

:d<- enemy. From the only authentic evidence, the Adnvit&Vft 



ADMltt.lL HOPE IJT THE 



despatch, it would seem that every practicable reconnaissance bid 
been made by sea, and, under the circumstances, none could be made 
by land. Now, does the sequel show any evidence of the " surprise " 
first reported ? 

Lastly, the Times affirms that the land attack should eithei 
been made by proceeding up the river to "the upper end of t 
of defence*, or delayed until next morning. 

Of the obstacles to the first proceeding, as well as its 
advantages, we are at present equally ignorant, and it is elmrilabk' 
to suppose that the admiral on the spot, assisted by aim 
neer officer*, judged better than we can. 

The reasons for not delaying the attack until morning 
bably, 1st. The sinking state of several vessels. 2nd. Ti- 
the enemy's receiving reinforcements, repairing his works, and n 
covering his confidence. 3rd. The danger of daylight r< 
smallneas of the attacking force, Other reasou3 may have < 
tu over-rule the general objections to night attacks ; and 
further remembered that the gallant Admiral, when wounded and 

weak from loss of blood, had been forced to give up the 

diate command of the squadron at 420 p.m. i> 
command. 

Much, however, of which we now know absolutely uotl 
no doubt, be alleged ''pro and contra," if we knew all tni 
At present, one figure is proudly though painfully prominent in the 
scene — the figure of the wounded but still resolute Admi - 
gling to the last. 

If the commander who fights gallantly is to be condemned I 
he fights unsuccessfully, we may have very svfe admirals, 
shall hare no Nelsons. Bold enterprises imply, of < ■■ 
bility of A reverse, and the same '* dash n> which was so fatal 
Tenerilfe^was crowned with glen' at the Nile. Let u* cherub high 
murage though defeated to-day, and we may have tu salute il 
pliant to-morrow. But the country does not deserve \ i« 
is ungenerous to defeat. 

"We can spare the Chinese one victory — the hour of 
cannot be far off; but rather let our defeat go for ever mi. 
than that we should call upon foreigners to avenge us! i 
forbid that, as suggested, we should only supply France wit! 

tiort, and ask her troops to go out and avenge our di It wt 

md enough to have our allies asking in Sebastopn! 
Anglais dans noire ville '(" but to see our Auibas> 
Pekin by French troops, and perhaps assigned French sentries 
the shadow of bis French colleague's house, would be too mot 
defeat could equal thai humiliation. No doubt our nllies will bt 
ready to earn another "salvage medal," and unly aturio 
usual official slowness may giu- them the opportunity. Bur •,. 
troops in India, and ships, too, enough to manage our own ! 
Our sailors know how to retrieve a defeat, and, in spit 
critics, would follow their'gauaut Admiral with unabated 
,iud esteem. 



271 



THE 8EIKHS FOE CHINA. 

I \* times, like these, when wars and rumours of wars are unfortu- 

ttt'lv too prevalent, when nu country knows how soon its turn 

ie for being engaged in the horrid strife of nations ; it be- 

wes each nntinn and kingdom not only to be prepared, but to make 

lb beat use of the means at its disposal to render war if not 

lpossible, of as little duration as possible ; and thus to teach the 

*or, be he a potentate of European. Asiatic, or other Oonti* 

origin, that might neither makes right, nor that the weak 

Med with impunity. 

One year ago who imagined that Prance and Austria would have 

and measured their strength on the banka of the Tiehiu, or 

one summer's day fifty thousand men would have been vie. 

js to an Emperor's ambition? One year ago, who would have 

1 that Austria and France would have concluded the war, 

id that Sardinia's kiug would be forced to refuse the sovereignty 

kingdoms which, in the confusion of affairs, had become Jringless r 1 

-not because the dream of liberty would he unaccomplished, but. 

mse his master willed it otherwise. One year ago, who would 

*ve prophesied war between Spain and Morocco, or our having to 

einflnd an explanation from Spain for insults oft'ered at Tiirifu P 

>ne year ago, who would have imagined that the possession of a 

iaH* island commanding the entrance to Vancouver's Inland, and 

ms to our newly-found gold mines, would lead to Ul-feeKng 

fcwecn us and America, and cause vessels of war belonging 

both nations !o assemble in that bay, and, fur aughl 

know, have a trial of strength? Then, who would have 

I that the result of the transfer of India to the Crown 

mid deprive her of mauy thousand trained soldiers, that through 

ie blundering obstinacy of an incompetent official, a question of 

and right should be misunderstood, nnd nuances already 

Ejahingdown under the enormous pressure, be still further weakened 

expenditure of half a million of money. Lastly, who would have 

loughl even sis. short months ago, that, nearly 500 of our country - 

sn would have fallen victims to Chinese treachery . and instead of 

iving our Ambassador at Pekiu, and the flag of England floating 

judly high up in the waters of the Peilio, we should know that 

tree of our gunboats hod been sunk therein, and our ships, seamen, 

id soldiers routed and vanquished ? Yet such it is, and to regain our 

line — to prove to the treacherous Chinaman that treaties are sacred, 

jst be the duty of England, and in this short paper we will point 

it where the means may be found. 

The Time*, in a leading article written immediately after the news 
the disaster bad arrived, called attention to the use that a wise 
<r might make of those soldiers now taking their disci 
e Indian Army; and *bst by the offer of a bounty, man 
M be induced to volunteer for China ; but this wc 
■ be done. We have seen enough of Lord Canning's mating - 
i'-ni of the affairs of India, to know that at his hands nothing 
'wl country's bene lit will arise. Let India perish, \iet ^erj 
U. & Mis., No, 371, Oct., 1959. x 



272 




SETICH9 FOtl rillVA. 



soldier, Bailor, or civilian in China 1 of hi* srtB 

then, would a determination on nerslacl 

changed to avert the dauber. We hav< 

leralof India prove himself unfit to cope with a d --Im 

at hand. We shall tind him utterly incompetent i>> manage a some, 
u-huf similar trouble further away. 

Let England ftot entirely for herself in the present diflV 
not leaving anything to the decision of the governing power* in 
India, but issue such orders as she thinks lii. anelmal 
mif-Gonend responsible for their being 1 earned out in tb< 
The European force of the late Company cannot all ha India 

before ordew regarding them may be sent, and let tl 
obeyed by Lord Canning. If bounty will induce the mcu to tohur 

: for China, then let bounty be given, and lei them at * 
1h< at pace added to her Majesty's line, their service* to be hv;« 
for every quarter of the globe. Such offi 

op advantages supposed to exist in the Indian army to be- alknre* 
to attach themselves to them. The necessary sei •-orporah, 

&c., could 1"' obtained partly from other regiments v. 
China, and from among the men themselves, formcrl; 
positions in the Company's " service," character rolfs bring easily 
obtainable from the Adjutant's office. " Where there is n v 
is a way," and if the Secretary of State for India will insist on bi» 
Orders being obeyed, there may, ere long, be ft well-trained and useful 
body of BngHsn soldiers ready to avenge the ti of I 

herous nation. 

India is a land of soldiers, and can furuiah more than «uuiC» 
conquer the wbolc of China. With the numerous warli 
he louud from t'aubnl to Calcutta, surely an arm 
large enough to put us independent of France. 
pnibans, and (Joorkhaa are better than Turkos. 
and bastily-eolleetfd eonserijits ; and yet. We hear that !' 

id ihe army and we find the ships ; in fact, to plaj 
tn the E):i}iin\ Many would have supposed we had bad < 
this in the Crimean war. That the laun Is 
us there, ami the suddenly concluded peace with Rm»sta, would i 
us wiser; or that Sardinia's treatment, would forewarn us w 
danger in trusting to such an ally ; but no, it is cheaper, and t\ 
tlic quality of the article may be inferior, yet it r t so 

iuj aonie slight Buccess attends the proceedi 

The Seikha as a bodj have fought well for OS- They I 
well against us, and without leaders, proved the I 
ever before encountered in India. The rebellion in India ah 

- nerally friendly to us, and their 1 u at Delhi, 

d iiu'onti 
i.e., British soldiers, there wad none like tb 
and discipline will make regiments n mjijm ~t d of lite S 
little, if al all, inferior to anything that can I 

ir prejudices arc vi :uil the*e w« 

ii on the man's removal from India. 1'he Cow w 
■■nctity were her worshi p^eis Free from the Brahmiaiam of II i 



1859.] SEIKHS FOB CH1KA. 273 

That the Seikhs have no objection to crossing the seas has been often 
proved, latterly in taking charge of the Pandies, and at an earlier 

Seriod in the Burmese war. They are, moreover, as a nation, noma- 
ie, and few things are more agreeable to the Seikh than wandering 
over distant lands. This love for change might now be encouraged, 
and the riches of Pekin promised to regiments volunteering. 

In the present state of Indian finances, when the expenditure 
exceeds the income by million?, such an opportunity of reducing 
expenses should not be lost sight of. The native army, more 
particularly the Punjaubee portion, is far too numerous, and 
yet its reduction is no easy matter, and cannot be entered into 
without some danger to the State. To turn adrift men inured 
to fighting, well disciplined, and brave soldiers, to seek employ 
in agricultural pursuits, is in any land hazardous, but in India, far 
beyond such a term. The soldier learning his profession and his 

Sower in such a school as before Delhi, or under such leaders as 
iicholson and Hodgson, is not likely, on being paid up and discharged 
to turn Corydon, and be content with driving his bullocks at the 
well, whilst the rich Katila passes by unguarded and untouched. 
The bands of discipline will and do hold these men, but nothing 
else will, and when not employed for us, they may seek employ in 
other ways. 

Ten thousand of these men could be easily spared, and under such 
leaders as Renny, Rattray, or Lumsdeu, teach the Chinese a lesson 
as one thousand years should not obliterate. Their pay must come 
from China, thus relieving India from pressure and all incidental ex- 
penses, to be carried to the debtor'3 side of the Chinese account. 
Their absence from India would for the present be an advantage, and 
on their return in more peaceable times, they could tell of England's 
power in other worlds, and of English prowess. In leaviug India 
they would leave their prejudices behind, and in visiting lands far 
away they would learn that other nations besides those in Ilindostau 
own our sway. The experience thus acquired would tend much to 
consolidate our power, and the would-be rebel or sneaking coward of 
the north-Wv.st provinces and Bengal hear, from other lips besides 
. those of his white conquerors, that the Queen who rules ovor him has 
a territory on which the sun never sets. 



* 1 



274 [Oct., 



EI) I TOE'S POUT FOLIO; 

on, 

NAVAL AND MILITARY KEGISTEB. 



England and Ajiejiica in the Pacific. —The disaster at the 
Peilio presents one redeeming feature.in the benevolent aid afforded to 
our wounded countrymen by the American squadron. "We. welcome it 
as a new proof that the old animosities of the two kindred nations hive 
all but disappeared. Such exhibitions of good feeling, on the pait 
of one or the other, have been frequent of late years ; and form the 
noblest presage of the age. That both England and America may 
put away all petty jealousies, and draw closer and more close the 
bonds of brotherhood, is, indeed, devoutly to bo wished. What can 
be more flattering to our national pride than to see a people who 
share our origin, speak our language, and maintain an advanced 
form of our institutions — who, in fact, are an offshoot from ourselves 
— proceeding on a course of greatness and prosperity only com- 
parable with our own ? Aud, on the other hand, America should 
learn to feel the same pride in the untarnished honour of the parent 
country, and regard any reverse or humiliation she may sustain, at 
reflecting in a certaiu measure on herself. .So many interests unite 
the two nations, that such, we may hope, is the sentiment that will 
gradually spring up, if the present generation priwverc iu 
maintaining a good understanding. But here lies the danger. The 
animosities which it has required half a century to suppress, may, 
without our interposing, all be revived by some untoward incident, 
and carry down their bitter spirit to our children. Certainly, the 
provocation is more likely to come from America than England. On 
the frontiers of our respective territories, brother Jonathan U de- 
posed to be a little overbearing, and manifests a great liking for his 
neighbour's vineyard. "Wherever there is the smallest opening, he 
is sure to break bounds, evidently clinging to the Saxon tradition, 
that possession is nine points of the law. The seizure of the island 
of San Juan is only a new version of an old story. Our treaties 
with the United States, which ought to be framed on the sharpest 
model, always have a flawj and this invariably leads to further dis- 
pute. Jonathan makes a Gordian knot of the " difficulty," and 
tuts it through with a bowie knife. In this case nothing could 
have been easier than to use precise ternis ; for the territory itself 
furnished to each power natural limits, which the treaty had only 
4o name. After it had been determined to make a deflection from 



NAY AT. AXJ> MTT.TT.VRV KTHaiSTER, 



27.1 



rie49lh parallel at Vnin-ouvi r's Island, the negotiators had their choice 
f iwn l.iMiuidaries, the Canal de II aro Which washes' the shores <>\' 
ivcr, or an outer ehaimel> cut oft" by a group of islands, of 
hich San Juan is one. This is the Strait of Fuea, and laves the 
■island. The wording of the treaty would imply that it is ben 
the boundary line should he famed, especially mentioning thp 
channel that divides Vancouver from the mainland • but it is conten- 
ded that the inner channel, rather than the outer, effects thia sepa- 
ration. If such were the boundary- intended, would not the treaty 
iave indicated the channel formed by the group of islands, instead 
f referring to the mainland ? We shall, of course, adopt our usual 

Kif tamely surrendering our right ; hut it maybe worth while 
>r A meiica to consider whether she has effected a settlement in a 
ay consistent with her own dignity, or recnneileahle with her oh- 
igations. 

The Operations is the Peiho. — It h a novelty to sustain a defeat 
ithrnit disgrace, and to win a triumph without honour. The later 
^counts represent our disaster at the mouth of the Peiho as exactly 
iltilling these conditions. Our repulse was BOt, us ut iirst sup- 
ed, owing to a want of ordinary discretion in (In- Commander 5 
nu one ever dreamt there wan any Jlinching in our seamen, 
•<( that can be laid to the charge of Admiral llnni; is, thai 
i' was a little too eager — a good fault in ■ ssiilor; ami if our Ad- 
lirata during the iiiisaifin war had been tarred with the same brush, 
might have cut a better liguiv. Fl is true. Admiral HOP! 
M n« it successful; but the result, however lamentable, is oothing 
1 be ashamed of. We fell into no trap ; the strength of the forts, 
the formidable character of the obstructions in the river, were 
!. seen; aud the resolution to force a passage was deliberately 
•ddpted It is futile to say that the enterprise was attempted with 
1 inadequate force; for, though this is literally true, our previous 
iCdunten with the Chinese hud not prepared us for a stubborn re- 
iow what would have been said of Admiral Hope 
giving from Her \1 uusrv's Ambassador n requisition to 
d, lie had ignominiously turned his back on the enemy. In- 
hift despatch shows how near his force waa to proving sulli- 
nl probably a couple of hundred marines would have turned 
scale in our favour, The Admiral lias been censured for making 
ik late in the day, when his men were exhausted; but whin 
itder how dexterously the Chinese repaired during the night 
c damages they had sustained, it' is by no means certain that any 
vantage would have been gained by waiting till morning. The 
ith is, our force proved too small fur the object; but this was a 
itingen cy that could not be foreseen, and after rewarding ao many 
druirohi for doing nothing, we may show indulgence to one who 

pted ;i little too much. 

At pi 9 not known what steps the authorities are taking, 

plan has been formed, to retrieve our laurels, and, at the 

le, inflict a signal retribution on the Chinese. Let us hope 

no truth in the report that we are to act in concert with a 



276 



EDI TOE B POHTFOLIO ; OH, 



a 



Iffge French tatce. Lord Cai stha can afford to 

European soldiers, who almost alone he! I India 

odds ; and surely, in this emergency, he may spare from tli 

that remain n sufficient force to read a severe lesson to ■ 

It has been proposed to reorganize ihe European h 

tliis service; and though the objection* to th .- ■ 

great- — though the camel rather sticks in our throat — tl 

resource bul to swallow it. A few line regiments, and n 

of Sikh corps — not too large a number, would form aii i • 

BTlftdently powerful to proceed to Pefcrn ; and this n 

patched without delay. If we are to wait for a j 

force, we shall nht am small profit, and lesa ^1< ia it hki 

that, our filly will leave the East till be has esl 

proximity to our possessions, a permanent lodgement. 

The Last Aectic S»abck, — The fate of Sir Jon s !'■ 
known. The honour of this discovery is due as much 
widow, ltd to the hardy penmen by whimi if was made. A\ 
vi'vument abandoned the sacred duty, her n flection and devofl 
i.i-jrd renewed efforts, and. with tin- last remains of 
fitted out this expedition. "We borst of the grea 
carried out in Knghmd by private enternru 
undertaking compatible with the equipment of the F< i 
daring and successful voyage. They unite in a sublime a 

i iustincts of woman and (lie highest aspiratkmi 
reeordtbe success with which both has been crowned v. 
satisfaction \ for this journal stood almost alone in ndvooefi 
continuance of the search, and we pointed to the n 
pit! red aa its obvious direction. A frail yachl b< 
British pcamtn to this dreary spot. Their footprints 
anew, their course over the ice, their explorati 
bensdariee of nature— all are traced in the plain, unvar: 
tire Captain M'Clintock has furnished to the Admiral! 
will be found iu another portion of our pages. The 
gation contain no chapter of equal interest, since the li; 
Con mbvs, That, indeed, was pursued over an unkuown n 
v.n.s amidst Buinmcr waves, and with auspi 
duir terrors, beset every step! The - in tc 

disruption, the ice packed in a field or broken into n 
roue floe and the rushing berg, in this awful regii 
itli a mgiog aea and 1 1 j . iiicc. I- 

overcome the ardour of these brave men, who, unil 
previous discovery, have with surprising ro] 
survey of the Arctic shores, Their gallant Con 
generous tribute to their exertu ' 

loi>o and Lieutenant Honsoir, and we I 
services will not be left unrewarded by the (Jovertu 
mt rlonaoif tell the enviable fortune of di 

expedition, AVhat can be added 
account <d' bis search ? The emotion he must I 

where he disinterred the evidence of Frasku>s death, h*» 



?n Bhared on every English hearth. We follow his footsteps with 
'atblesa interest till he unearths the last record, and cornea upon 
the abandoned sledge-boat, and the frozen skeletons. How sugges- 
tive is everything here of the depths of despair, vet revealing, at the 
same time, the presence of human sympathy. We seem to see the 
drooping band part reluetautly with their exhausted comrade, hut 
Gnat secure him the best provision in their power. What a tale of 
aaguish in that loaded gun, the heap of clothe?, and the heap of bonci 
beneath ! Perhaps, a fate still more horrible befel the survivors, 
who, proceeding on their hopeless journey, dropped one by one on 
way, with nothing to alleviate their last agonies, and none to bid 
sm adieu. 



The Afbicajt Squaijeon. — Letters from the eoast of Africa 

lounce the death, by disease of the heart and lungs, of Captain 

A'NXHinsoK, eommunding H.JLH Archer, Commodore Wtsb haa 

ren an order to Commander Hewett, Y.C-, H.M. Steamer Viper, 

to take command of the Archer. This active officer, before leaving 

Tiper, captured a slaver under Spanish colours ; and since he 

ied the command of the Archer has effected the capture of two 

era. There were no slaves on board these vessels, but they were 

m letely equipped, and a considerable sum in specie was obtained. 

iiiiiiiuiioiv Wtsb has also captured a slaver. The Viper has gone 

Ascension to repair her boilers. 



iin Jons BuaoovsE and Genebaj. M'aci stosu-— The lethal 

smitted to us on the subject of the Military Opinion.* pi Sir 

m Bcbooyne, as compared with the prior reports of OMMMfl 

UttHTdBH, cannot be inserted, unless they are authenticated with 
name and address of the writers — which, however, are required 

ly for our own information, and will not be published. The only 
tter that lias conformed to this rule will be found under the 1mm 

CorrrxpfnnhiHc. 



CRITICAL NOTICES. 

■OCT a Heroise. By the Author of *' Charles Ancheater/' 3 vols. 

Almost a Heroine intimates that the standard is nearly reached, hut not 

Perhaps many will he better pleased with a character that, however 

1, U not Ik-uvi- than themselves. Nature is never perfect, nnd the ln-i 

,ve their blemishes. The author <>l the work before us seeks 

up a mirror that will present the delects of the sex an well as their 

rig. The story a rather involved, hut its diacunavti character, <-.tr- 

»g ii out of the ordimiry channel, gives it a. charm. It exhibits a eon- 

lerablft knowledge of the world, fair powers af deiiscatkjO) and on the 

more limn ordimiry ability, Ernest Luflus i* (lie son of n Rattan 

lv„ I In; widow of «n Englishman; anil fin«ls himself under the 

,- lit' :« ite pfat ber, af ;in age when it ia !«••* mutpcRetabfe. Hii rather 

Lis importunity to set him free, by dispatching him to an nude in 

! who had ottered to he hh protector. Mr, Lpmtt, an English gen* 



critic at. sot* 







(Ionian of the old school, gives him u cordial reception, ami alter 
regards him with such evident favour, that lie begins to look uin>n hinucif 

'u heir. At last, the uncle dies, and it is found that his property in- 
volves on on old servant named John, while Ernest is left only 
pounds. A inystei ions box ia ordered not to he opened for three ywr» ; 
ami the faithful John, who belongs to a type of servants not, we lc 
common, wishes Ernest to remain in possession till the time expires, 
however, he declines, and quitting the ancestral roof, proceeds to seek be 
fortune. Chance brings him in contact with Lord Lyndficld, who appear* 

be an amateur physician — a novel pursuit for a nobleman, but wntrkii 
very well supported) and gives a now aspect t<i the story. To him ho maba 
a promise to shun a neighbouring cottage, and, of course, he ia thrown in 
the way of it* occupant, who proves to be a young Lilly or > .traonliturv 
beauty, and they form an attachment, He informs Lord Lyndtield o 
fact, and too late discovers there is a fatal bar to their union. 1 >(!.■ 
ventures follow, lill, at length, (he time has aiiivcd for n bar, 

when it is discovered that Ernest is the true heir, and that John only oera- 
pied his place till he reached a more sober age. Such are the cuitliwtrf 
this remarkable fctory, for which the reputation of its nuthoi 
admirer*. 

HaI8E1> TO TJIK i'EKHAfJK. By Mrs. Ud alius I'll' I. ( 

The Peerage i« still accounted the highest object of ambition. \\ 
tells us it was made so cheap by George the Second, that it was imr 
to spit "in of window without spitting on ,t mnv 
shall hereafter be told the same thing of Lord Palmerston, But. wliei 
nr not, there will be the same run on nobility, lb 
of the national passion, m\ as it would be more just lu -ay, il. 
weakness, The author makes it point a moral while it His. 
a light is thrown on the slippery steps by which the eminence is ultn 
attained- The story is well conceived, and pleasantly r idjng a* 

way through a chain of incidents to the final m , 
racU-rs are powerfully drawn, and this may especially be said 
ticM. whose worldliness is the moving power ot the tale. The wM 
opulent manufacturer, she still looks uacfc on her ari 
aspires 1 1 - resume her connection with the peerage by obtaining its bowwri 
for her husband, in this object she succeeds, hut, meanwhile, tier 
has formed a m$talliance with a French singer, which for u tiim- 
though it comes to the knowledge of his mother, who, on his return Imaw- 
takes means to prevent their meeting again. Daruley is pre* 
form an aristocratic alliance, hut bis heart is still with Kstelli 
fortune smiles, lie becomes more and mole unhappy. Tin 
rounds Li.- wife, whose death frustrates the views uf Mm. Sln-di 
at the same time T relieving her son from the peri! he had ti» . 
illegal marriage. Darnley and Estelle again meet, when all . 
and the future heir of the peerage, which Mrs. Sheffield was so 
ennoble, was traced to a foundling hospital, A story so full of action i» turv 
to he ft favourite: but this novel has higher merits, and may chum iw 

an ephemeral popularity. It appears to be t! 
:in«l, :<s nicbj is a moal creditable pufumaure. 

W ur amp lloi-i.. By John Edmund Reade. 3 vols. 
Mr. Eeade devoted the earlier portion of his literary career ii 
and some tweso ago his poems were well known. FI^ «.i< t 

aal friend of the great poets of that period, whose name 
literature. Great interest, therefore, was excited, 
announcement of a novel from his pen ; not onh 



1859 



CJEKETCAT, COTntEaPOVDEWK. 



279 



miliar writer, but introduced him in a new field, ltd publiention wa-i 
til ■ n Jed with such success, that it bus encouraged the author to follow it 
mil i!ic result is another entertaining story. His diction and mode of 
treatment resemble those of James. The similitude, however, never 
HBxeats imitation ; and we are always sensible of a picturesque colouring 
which is entirety hia own. The present tale has some olever sea scenes, and 
they possess so much force and truthfulness, that they e*mld only have been 
written by a close observer of nature, Mr. Readc's smugglers, indeed, aw 
bona fide specimens who must have been photographed on the coast. As 
the chiss is now fortunately all but extinct, we may hope that the bold 
fellows who still follow such a lawless occupation, will be attracted to the 
I'liannel fleet, which, from all we hear, contains some worse characti -r b. 
The author has turned to good account his knowledge of Italy and the 
Italians. Pearl, the heroine, is the daughter of an Italian lady, married to an 
English nobleman ; and the fortunes of this family group, as unfolded in the 
tale, posses,* » romantic interest. The character of the mother is thoroughly 
I Lilian, and is most effectrrely brought out. The story embraces a fund of 
incident, and is at times powerfully sustained, leaving an impression rarely 
produced by ordinary works of fiction. 

"We have seen a vcrv neat Writing Case, made by Parkins and Gotto, of 
2L Oxford Street, to which has been awarded, by the Society of Arts, the 
Prize iif £20 and n Silver Medal, for its weight, size, durability, and cheap* 
, over G2 competitors. To officers going on service, it will prove 
Invaluable for its portability, while its cheapness, considering that il 
embraces every requisite for use, and is handsomely got up, is a miirvel, thf 
price being only Is. 6<L ; or, fnrnithed, J j . 



( i R X EH A L COIIKESPONDENPE. 

4 tii'.rui promoting ilsi." Int*reMi cf the Service, Dili depiirtiiu-ut nf the MAKAilne is npan 
to *tl wtbenUc eoinmunlFAtians, »mi, theretiirr, the Kdltoreurnot hold hlmwl' rnpontihle fur 
theuiil U— Ed, I*. S. Mao.] 

T<> He Editor of the United Service Magazine. 

COAST DEFENCES, 

To guard against the contingency of an attack upon our shores. 
the following suggestions arc made: — 

It is [lfissibte (<'<mindering the facilities which steam would afford 

»!•) .111 enemy }, that the Channel fleet might not arrive in time to pre* 
\entihe landing of a hostile force. Military expeditions are now 
v quickly disembarked, and the delay of even a few hours might 
In- almost fatal 10 us. Let 50,000 men be suddenly thrown upon 
our fertile shores, where foraging parties might easily find supplies, 
I the dari] :ni_'lit laugh at the rivaling armament arriving 

hour it two after the disembarkation. 

In these islamU, there are many lines of railway which approach 
and skirt the sea const. There are upwards of 100 towns and 
vUhiges upon the coast accessible to these railways; and at or near 
these there are points along the line of railway wluiv a 
ranging gun might menace an approaching enemy. 
the favourable points be selected. Three or soar companies 
of engineers would erect several hundred earth-works at a small 



280 



<lE??EBAt coititEaposru^CE. 



[Oct., 



expense, in the course of a few month?. Upon those points, then, 
let a simple parapet without ditch be erected, and platforms hud. 
Then upon an alarm being given, a sufficient number 
guns 01 largest calibre, with gunners and amm unit ion 

I down from a depot to I he part of the coaal ued by 

tin 1 enemy. 

To facilitate this arrangement, provide a number of trucks calculated 
for the transport of the new gun, constructed m such, manner tl 
gun could be run onto the truck and shot off on to the plal f 
the batter j. Tlie line of rails might be laid down tn tl 
the platform of the battery. Bj ana, with a little rontri- 

vjiiuc, the guna could he withdrawn from the I 
oil' with the utmost rapidity to another point. The following 
might perhaps answer for the depots of guns. 



Woolwich 

Portsmouth 
Plymouth 
Pembroke 
The guna might be kept 



Liverpool Dublin 

"Newcastle Belf 

Leith CSorii 

Aberdeen 

in rewlineBS on the ti In tbr 

sheds of the Eailway Company or in others eroded specially for tin* 
purpo 

In certain districts it might not be found impracticable kg 
a kind of moving battery of light pieces. This might be constructed 
in the shape of a train of long carriages, containing each four 
breech -loading light guns, of which the recoil would not I 
able. The carriages might either be open <>r pierced wit I 
the Bide of a ship. A locomotive battery of Mich h i 
moving rapidly about, baiting to load and h're, and dulling itragsin, 
would in certain portions of our lines of railway prove an 
the invader. 

A rocket train might be formed upon the same principle. 

Every possible, advantage, it is evident, should be tnkeu of the 
facilities of railway communication. For instance, ii would 
vantageo us if avast number of horse-boxes were construe: 
purpose of transporting horses suddenly to points menac 
per proportion of these, as well as trucks for the. trannpoi 
guns, should be kepi at such stations as are nearest those pi 
where Artillery find Cavalry are quartered. 

On the alarm being given, guns might be sent to Ita 
■«'d points by these means in any number. 

Look-out posts might be estabhshed at intervals all along the t-co< 
wherever telegraphic communication is poesjfctex 

Immediate notice of the sudden appearance of a In ■ 
be gi\ ■ Horse ( I luirda, and means of opposing * wiiula 

be install! died from the nearest dc 

Some distinct pfcin of i will, of c< 

certain divisions to undertake the defence of certain poi 

to be quickly reinforced brothers when ti 
becomes < ei lain. 

The facility of the above plana would, of eours ' upon tin 

( iinvrnment having the entire control of the railways and te!*t?»pJrir 
wires of the United Kingdom, in the event of an 



GEyHEAL COEBESrO>'DLyCE. 



281 



mlnliun were not made, the railway ntutions would bo besieged, 
and the 1 ruins loaded with countleaa numbers Hying from the- coast, 
ffering prompt resistance to the invader would be 
once annihilated. Fitzbunne, 



SIB JOHN KCRGGYNE AND GENERAL MACINTOSH. 

T« the Editor of the United Service M<igu~: 

5m, — In your number fur July upbears a Ictt-r I'mm Liculeuant*Geni?ral 

sb, referring to his having first indicated the importance of the no* 

iI.l- MnkkofTaa the key to Settufopol, arid your Angus! number 

roud letter from (Lis oflker, showing the identity of reports 

the Authorities by him, with opinions afterwards furnished by Sir 

nlm Bqrgoyne, and just promulgated in J?ir .IuIui'k Military Opinion*. 

General Macintosh claims to have communicated to Lord llarclinge and 

■»rd Raglan, the important information he had already bid before the 

avernmeut respecting Sebnstopol, prior to the despatch of the expedition ; 

nl, subsequently, to htcn agaui specifically called Lord Raglan'* utteotiofi 

> the dominating situation ei I Ij l- Malakofi htight at a criLicul period of the 

MK. whan, in consequence, as may be inferred, of this con mm ideation, the 

sckof tlie allies WttH directed against it. The honour of 'indicating this 

,uk has hitherto been attributed Ijy common report to Sir John Bun.' 

what ground does not appear ; lor it has never been claimed by himself; 

he ha* now permitted the claim of General Macintosh to pass un- 

stioned, we may presume that it is to this officer, and not to Sir John, 

merit really belongs. I must confess 1 am not dissatisfied with such 

lion ; for 1 have always considered it a reflection on tlie other officers 

the Royal Engineers engaged at the sieg", that none uf them mu able bo 

"be the discovery so patent to their chief, who had no better mean* of oh* 

n than themselves, not having seen the key of the position before it 

1 by the works. 

With regard to Sir John Burgoyne's Military Opinion*, as the book ■ 

lpoiied chietly oi* papers that have appeared in your pages, yon may 

rinit me lo inquire whether die coincidences pointed out by General 

ii his reports and Sir John's opinion-, are to be regai dad 

Were such tin* case, the fact would constitute a curious inci- 

military science, testilying that our officers, instead ot behr^ the tyros 

ay are usually described, possess an oracular accuracy : lor here we hud 

i-i! (Jilieers of totally different anus struck in exactly the same 

mar, with all the var ied characteristics of an entirely new country, tod 

. the results of their survey to the authorities, if nut in tlie same 

jueiue, with the same particularity and minuteness. But, sir, we must 

it make a marvel of a very natural result. What are the facts ? General 

«h furnishes his reports lo the authorities, ami recommends that 

of engineers " should bo seat out to Turkey to make a 

inspection, His suggestion U adopted, and its execution is intrusted 

ihn Bargeyne. Ii is reasonable to suppose that, prior to setting out t 

Ji.hu would l< put in possesion ul' the information idlbrded to tl 

jamanding-in-t Itiefnud the Ordnance. Department by Genera! Afaaiatoah ; 

id certainly Sir John would be supplied with General Maein'odi'- Turkish 

-ports on arriving al Constantinople, where they were m the possession of 

ratford, who knew the object of Sir ■fohn 1 ! mission, mil would 

tturally aflord him all the aid in his power, 

.it i.- creating some talk, you may consider these ipectdaliom 
of a phne in your valuable journal. I inclose my cud, and hn. 

>o (<> be, &c. 

.'«•/- 22nd H. ft 



ass 






IVAL AND MILITARY INTELLIOE 



F ATE OF THE FRANKLIN EXPEDITION. 

The following are. ibe official reports ci incoming the long l«t Friakfa 
expedition, and the proceedings of the yacht Fox : — 

1L To TIIK SECttEf ART OF THE ADMIUAl.Tl , 

"Yacht Fox, 

" Sir, — I beg you will inform the Lords Commissioner? of the Admir 
of the sale return to this country of Lady Franklin's final searching cxp 
tion, -which I have had the honour to conduct. 

"Their lordships will rejoice to hear tlt.it our endeavours to MM 
the fiite of the 'Franklin Expedition* have met with complete success. 

"■ At Point Victory, upon the north-west coast of King William's I 
a record has been found, dated the 25th of April, 1(HH, and signed 
taint clro/.itr and Fitejamcs. By it we were informed ti 
ships Erebus and Terrtfr were abandoned on the 22nd uf April. 
ice, five leagues NNW., and thai the Hiivvivorn— in all [miountimj 
souls, under tin- command of Captain t'mxier — were] roee< 
Fish River. Sir John had died on the lltli of June, Ih-17. 

*' Many deeply interesting relics of our losl countrymen 
up upon the western shore of King William's Islund, imJ oil 
from the Esquimau*, by whom we were informed that sttlise<| 
abandonment one ship was crushed and sunk bv 

(breed on shore, where she lias ever sit been, affording llu i 

iiir vim n.-*1 iljlf mine of wealth. 

" Being unable to penetrate beyond Bellot Strait, the 
Brentford liny, and the search, including the estuary 
River and the discovery of 800 miles of coast line, bv which we h»vr 
the explorations nf the former searching expeditions tu the nortli 
of our position with those of James Ros*, Dense, and Simpson 
the south, hits been performed by sledge journeys this spring, conduct* 
Lieut. Hobson, l',\., Captain Allen Young, and myself 

u As a somewhat detailed report of our proceedings will don 
teresting to their lordships, it is herewith enclosed, together > 
our djaenveries and explo md at the earliest opportunity 1 will 

Bent myself at the Admiralty to nftord further information, ana 
their lirdships the record found at Port Virion. 

* I luivo the honour to be, 8tC, 

» F. L. U'Clutm k 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE YACHT FOX 

(YiXTl.V'TEI> 1'IiOM Mat, 18.58. 

It will be remembered that the Fox effected her escape nut 
pack in D.'ivts' Straits, in Int. ti;U deg. N., on April 2.1. 1858, afk'r n 
»cc drill of ], MM geographical mi 

The small settlement of Holsteinborg was reached on the isih. ... 
i»lies obtained as the place afforded. 

On May 8 our voyage to recommenced; Godhaven and t~f *•<■•»• 
vialtgd, Melville Ray entered early in June, mid crossed to < 
the SJfltta; here some natives were communicated with; 
Jjjoogmsed Mr. I'etersen, our interpreter, formerly known tn 
Griiyli expedition nnder Or. Kane. In reply tn our inquiries for I" 



lflflB.1 



NAVAL AND MILITARY INTELLItlEBCE, 



288 



Esquimaux dog-driver " Huns," left behind from the Advance in 1858, they 
told us that he was reading at Whale Sound. Had he been there, I would 
most gladly have embarked him, as his longing to return to South Greenland 
continues unabated. 

On 12th .July communicated with the Capo Wavreoder natives, near Cape 
Horsboi'g ; tbev had not seen any ships since the visit of the PitOHtix in 1 854, 
nor have any wrecks ever drifted upon their shores. 

^It wits lmi until 27th July that we reached Point Inlet, owing to a most 
i usual prevalence of ice in the northern portion of Damn's Bay, and which 
metered our progress since leaving Ilolsteiuborg one of increasing struggle. 
Without steam power we could have done nothing. Here only one old woman 
id a hny were found, but they served to pilot us up the inlet for twenty-five 
iles, when we arrived at their village. For about a week we were in ooa* 
int and most interesting communication with these friendly people. BrielU, 
ie information obtained from them was, that nothing whatever respecting the 
'raivklin expedition had come to their knowledge, nor had any wrecks 
irliiii the last twenty or thirty years reached their shore*. 
The reinnins of three wrecked ships are known to them ; two of these 
i have been the whalers Dexterity and Aurora, wrecked in August, 
J§L~ *ome seventy or eighty miles southward of Pond's Inlet, The third 
i, ..(1, now almost buried in the sand, lies a few miles east of Cape Hay. 
.'his people communicate ovei-lund every winter with the tribes at Igloolik ; 
icy all knew of Parry's ships having wintered (here in 1822-3, and had 
tardof lute years of Dr. llae's visit to Repulse Bay, descrihing his boats as 
imilar to our whole boat, and bis party as living in tents, within snnw- 
-iii' 'kiiif! pipes, shooting reindeer, &c. None died. They remained 
lere only one wilder. 

Ho rumour of the lust expedition had reached them, Within Pond'a Inlet 
be natives told us the ice decays away every year, but so long as am* re- 
tain* whales abound, Several large whales were seen by us, and we found 
1 the natives a considerable quantity of whale-bone and many nur- 
. which they were anxious to barter for knives, files, saws, rifles, 
■ml wool ; they drew us soma rude chnrtsoftbe inlet, showing that it expands 
into <ii extensive channel looking westward into l'riuce Regent's Inlet. 

~\\ • could not but regret tluit tun four own whaling friends— from whom 

w< had recently received so much kindness— were here to profit by so favor- 
ilde an opportunity. Leaving Pond's Inlet on Gth August, we i cached 
leccliy Island oo the 11th, and landed a handsome marble tablet, sent tin 
ird Jbr this purpose by Lady Franklin, bearing an appropriate inscription 
lo (be memory of our lost countrymen in the Erebus and Tenor. 

The provisions and stores seemed in perfect order; but a small boat was 

iTiiH-li damaged from having been turned over and rolled along the beach by 

a storm. The roof of the house received some necessary repairs. Having 

embarked some coals and stores we stood in need of, and touched at Cape 

lot ham on the Kith, wc satled down Feel Strait for 25 milea on 17th, but, 

Holing the remainder of this channel covered by unbroken ice, I determined 

make for Ilellnt Strait on 19th August, examined into supplies remaining 

it port Leopold, and left there a whale boat which we brought away from 

Ibithmu for the purpose, so as to aid us in our retreat should we be 

objured eventually to abandon the Fox, The steam Launch lent been lowed 

higher up "ii the beach, and somewhat damaged hy the ice. Prince Regent's 
■ was unusually free from ice; but very little was seen during our run 

down to Brentford Bay, which we reached on the -Oth of August. He)l<>i 

roinmunicates with ihc Western Sea, averages one mile in 

lh by 17" or 18 miles in length, At lids time it was filled with drift in, 

bat, M tb« season advanced, became perfectly clear: its shores are in many 

places' faced with loft) granite clifls, and some of the adjacent bills ri 



284 VATAL AWD MtMTAET UTTELLiaESTCE. [Od, 

1 600 feet ; the tides arc very strong, running six or seven knots at the springs. 
On the 6th of September we passed through Bellot Strait without ohstrat- 
tion, and secured the ship to fixed ice across its western outlet. From hoc, 
until the 27th, when I deemed it necessary to retreat into winter quartea, 
we constantly watched the movements of the ice in the Western Sea or 
channel. In mid-channel it was broken up and drifting about : gradoaHr 
the proportion of water increased, until at length the ice which intcm-Md 
was reduced to three or four miles in width. But this was firmly held fast Iff 
numerous islets, and withstood the violence of the autumn pales. It wbj 
tantalising beyond description thus to watch from day to day the free water 
which wo could not reach, and which washed the rocky shore a few miles to 
the southward of us. 

During the autumn, attempts were made to carry out dojxrts of provisioaj 
towards the magnetic pole, but these almost entirely failed in consequence of 
the disruption of the. ice. to the southward. Lieutenant llohson retained 
with his sledge parties in November, after much suffering from severe wefr 
ther, and imminent peril on one occasion, when the ice upon which tk*j 
were encamped became detached from the shore, and drifted off to leeward 
with them. 

Our wintering position was at the east entrance to .Llcllot Strait, in a snif 
harbour, which I have named Port Kennedy, after my predecessor in the* 
waters, the commander of one of Lady Franklin's former searching expedi- 
tions. Although vegetation was tolerably abundant, and our two Esquimau 
hunters, Mr. Petersen, and several sportsmen constantly on the alert, yet tfc 
resources of the country during eleven months and a half onlv vielded « 
eight reindeer, two bears, eighteen seals, and a few water "fowl aid 
ptarmigan. 

The winter was unusually cold and stormy. Arrangements were completed 
during the winter for carrying out our intended plan of search : I toJt hto 
be my duty personally to visit Marshal island, and in so doing purposed to 
complete the route of King William's Island. 

To Lieutenant Ilobson I allotted the search of tho western .oliownf 
lioothia to the magnetic pole, and from Catcshead Island westward to W'«- 
niatr's furthest. Captain Allan Young, our sailing master, was to trace "uV 
shore of Prince of Wales' Land, from Lieutenant Browne's furthest : awlab" 
to examine the coast from llcllot Strait northward, to Sir James Ri*'» 
furthest. 

Early spring journeys were commenced on the 17th February. 1KW, Iff 
Captain Young and myselt; Captain Young carrying his depot aeroj-to Prince 
of Wales' Land, whilst 1 went southward, towards the magnetic liole, iutk 
hope of communicating with the Esquimaux, and obtaining such nifoniistwo 
as might lead us at once to the object of our search. 

I was accompanied by Mr. Pctersou, our interpreter, and Alexander 
Thompson, quartermaster. We had with us two sledges drawn by dop. 
On the 28th February, when near Cape Victoria, we had the good fortune l> 
meet a small party of natives, and were subsequently visited by about 45 
individuals. 

For four days we remained in communication with them, obtaining maty 
relics, and the information that several years ago a ship was crushed by the 
ice off the north shore of King's William Island, but that all her people landed 
safely, and went away to the (Jreat Fish River, where they dica. This trike 
was well supplied with wood, obtained, they said, from a boat left by the white 
men on the great river. 

We reachesKpur vessel after *25 days' absence in good health, hut sow 
what reduced by sharp marching and the unusually severe weather to wkk» 
we had been exposed. For several days after starting the mercury eoe* 
tinned frozen. •. ■ - 



'v 



HAVAL AXB MTLITAItT IVTELLIOENCE. 



285 



On the 2d April our long-projected spring jgqrneya wen commenced. 
Amtengnt Hobson accompanied me as fiir as Cnpc Victoria. Each of us 
ad a sledge, drawn by four men, and an auxiliary sledge drawn by six dogs. 
"his was all the forte we could muster. 

irjitiiig we saw t vo Esquimaux families, living out upon the ice 
snow huts. Prom them we learned that a second ship had been seen oil' 
ing William's Island, and that she drifted ashore in the tall of the some 
»r. From thb ship they had obtained a vast deal of wood and iron, 
1 BOW gave Lieutenant Hobson directions to search for the wreck, mid 
How up any traces he might find upon King William's Tsland. 

nponied by my own party and Mr. Petersen, I marched along the 
m of King Wulram's Island, occasionally passing deserted snow huts, 
it without meeting natives till the Kth of May, when otl Cape Norton W( 
riv-'d ut a snow village containing about thirty inhabitants. They 
theivd about us without the slightest appearance of fear or jfbyness, 
though none had ever seen living white people before. They were most willing 
nnnicate all their knowledge, and barter all their poorb, hut would 
rything had ihcy not been very closely watched. Many more 
s <if otir countrymen were obtained — we could not carry away all we 
ight have purchased. They pointed to the inlet we had crossed the day 
■foro, and told hb that one day's march ap it, sad from thence four days 
erl rod, brought them to the wreck. 

people had been there since 1857-58, at which time they 
said hot little remained, their countrymen hfivinp: enrried away almost every* 

of OUT information was received from ru intelligent old woman: 

;t was in the tidl of the year th:tt the sliip was forced ashore ; many 

' the white men dropped by the way, as they went towards the Great 

i*er. but this was only known to them in the winter following, when their 

rere discovered. 
Th'V all assured us that wo would find natives upon the sooth shore, at 
t River, and some lew at the wreck ; but unfortunately this wfJ not 
is* 1 . Only one family was met with oft Point Booth, and none at Moii- 
bhind or any place subsequently visited. 
Point Ogle, Montreal Island, and Barrow Island, were searched without 
-tiug anything except a tew scraps of copper and iron in on Esquimaux 
ling-place. 

K osaing I he Strait to King William's Island, we continued thu e.vuuii- 

the southern shore without suecesa until the "24th of M;iy, whoa, 

mt ten miles eastward of Cape Jlerschel, a bleached skeleton was found, 

und which lay fragments of European clothing. Upon carefully removing 

mow ■ small pocket-book was found containing a few letters — 

ae, although much decayed, may yet be deciphered. Judging from the 

lain- of lib dress this unfortunate young man was a steward or ethVor's 

servant, and hi? position exactly verified the Esquimaux's assertion that they 

opped as they walked along. 

On reaching Cape Herschel next day we examined Simpson's Cairn, or 
•r what remains of it, which is only four feet high, and the central stones 
been removed, as if by men seeking to find something within it. My 
prcssion at the time, and which I still retain, is that records were de- 
sited there by the retreating rrews, and subsequently removed by the 

After parting from me at Cape Victoria on the 28th April, Lieutenant 
made m« Cape Felix ; at a short distance westward of it he found 

\>:i'\ large cairn, and l-i- in it three small tents, with blankets, old 
and other relici of a shooting or a magnetic station ; but although 

- c*irn was dug under, and a trench dug all around it at a dhrtan.ee of tea 



TfAViL ASD MILITABY INTELLH- 






feet no record was discovered. A piece of blank, paper folded up *« 
found in the cairn, and two broken bottles, which may perhaps have con- 
tained records, lay beside it amongst some stones which had fallen fr 
the top. The most interesting of the articles discovered here, memdngt 
boat's ensign, were brought away l>v Mr, Hobton, About two miles 
to (he S.W. a stnall cairn was found, but neither records nor relit 
About three miles north of Point Victory a second small cairn we* ex* 
amtned, but only a brokeii pickaxe and empty canister found. 

On the 6th May Lieutenant Ilobson pitched his tent beside a 
upon Point Victory. Lying amongst some loose stones which had fallen 
from the top of this Cairo was found a small fin case containing u 
the substance of which is briefly as follows: — "This cairn wji 
Franklin Expedition upon tlio assumed site of James Ross's pillar, which 
had not been found. The Erebus and Terror spent their first m 
Beechy Island, after having ascended Wellington Channel to Int. 77 
and returned by the west side of ComwalHs Island. On the I 
fcembcr, 1 846, they were beset in lat, 70. 05 N, and long W 23 W 
Franklin died on the 11th June, 1647. On the 22nd April, lfi.58 
wen: abandoned five leagues to the XNVV of Port Victoi 
vors, a hundred and five in number, landed hereunder tin? command «f 
Captain Crazier." This paper was dated 25th April, 1848 
following day they intended to start for the Great Fish R 
loss by deaths, in the expedition up to this date was nine officer* ami J.* tuett. 
Avast quantity of clothing and stores of all sorts laid strewed about, n- 
cvery article was thrown away which could be possi 
pickaxes, shovels, boats, cooking utensils, iron work. »nvi». 

i 'lip circle, a sextant engraved "' Frederick Hornby, !».X. " small mpdkwr 
chest, oars, &c. 

A few miles southward, across Hack Bay, n second record was 
having been deposited by Lieutenant Gore and M. lie? V»eit\ in >bi 
It afforded no addition ;d in Ion notion, 

Lieutenant Ilobson continued his search until within n li 
Cape Ilerschcl, without fiuding any trace uf the wreck or ol 

left full inibllUilti Hi nf hi> jjiij iorf.li i1 discoveries I"!" tin : 

returning' northward by the west shore of King William Island, 1 kaJthr 

advantage of knowing what had already In-i-n faiutl. 

Soon after leaving Cape Hersehcl tlie trace- of trnli- 
uicrous and less recent, and after rounding the west point of tli 
aeascd altogether. This shore is extremely low, and alnu>- 
o/ vegetation. Numerous hanks of shingle and low islets ti< 
beyond these Victoria Strait is covered with heavy and impend 
lee. 

When in lat. 60 deg. 09 N, and long. 99 <!eff. 27 W, wc cnn 
boat, discovered by Lieutenant Ilobson a few days previously, 
informed me. It appears that this boat had been intended foi the sucntt ^ 
the Fish River, but was abandoned apparently upon a return uuiro< 
ihips, the sledge upon which she was mounted being pointed in «1 
tion. She measured 28 ieet in length, by 7J feel wide, was most cai*hu 
fitted, and made as light as possible, but the sledge was «>l -"lid oak, **• 
almost as heavy as the boat. 

A large quantity of clothing was found within her, also two l< 
L ins. One of these lay in ihc after-part of ihe boal i p* * 

clothing; the other, which was umeh more disturbed 
was Ibiuul in the bow. Five pocket watches, a ipiniitity > ■ < siUi 
fork?, and a \'vw religious books were alsti found, but n 
or even names upon any art it 
fcood upright again t the hoal 






XAVAI ANf> MIMTAHT IWTELLIGBirCE. 



287 



eleven years before. On <i barrel in each was loaded and cocked ; there was 
ammunition, in abundance, also 301b. or 40lb. of chocolate, toma lea ami 
tobacco. Fuel was not wanting ; adrift tree lay within ]0O yards of the 
boat. 

Many very interesting relics were brought away by lieutenant Hobsou, 
and some tew by myself. On the 5th of Jam*, T reached Point Victory, 
without having found anything further. The clothing. Sec, was 
examined for documents, note lunik-, Xv., whlumt sura ■ > i-' I placed 

in the cairn, and another buried ten feet to the north of it. 

Nothing worthy of remark occurred upon my return journey to the ship, 
which we reached on June 19, five days after Lieutenant Hobsen- 

The shore of King WUHam Island between its north and west e&tnemi i, 
Capes Felix and Crosier, has not been visited by Esquimaux sineethe aban- 
donment of the Erebus and Terror, as the cairns and articles lying' strewed 
I it, which are in their eyes of priceless value, remain untouched. 
Jf the wreck still remains visible, it is probable she lies upon some of die 
tf-lyiu-j the southward between Capes Crozier and Herschet. 

On the 28th of June Captain Young and his party returned, having 
It-tnl their portion of the search, by which the insularity of Prince ofWalee 
..and was determined, and the coast line intervening between the extreme 
points real hud by Lieutenants Osborne and Browne discovered; also be- 
iwi'tn 1 '...-Hi >t Strait and Sir James Ross's furthest in 1849. at Four Btvgr 

Fearing thai his provisions might, not last out the requisite period, Cap- 
tain Ynuug sent b:ick four of his men, and for forty days journeyed on 
through fogfl and gab-- with but one man and tho dogs, building a snnw hut 
each night ; but tew men could stand so long n continuance of labour and 
privation, and its effect u[nm Captain Young was painfully evident 

truant Hobson was unable to stand without assistance upon his return 
uii board; he was not in good health when hi* commenced his tang journey, 
and tbi* sudden Kvere exposure brought on a serious attack of scurvy : yet 
Ik- also most ably completed his work; and such facts will more clearly 
ivmce the untliiuliing spirit with which the object of our voyage has been 
d iu these detached duties than any praise of mine. 
We were now at length all on board again. As there were some slight 
f scurvy all our treasured resources of Burton ale, lemon Juice, and 
lima! lood were put Into requisition, so that in a comparatively short 
rero restored to sound health. 
our sojourn in Port Kennedy we were twice tailed upon l>> billow 
to the grave. Jlr. Ueorge Brands, engineer, died of apoplexy on 
the 6lh of November, 185B ; he had been out, deer -shooting tor several boon 
that day, and appeared in excellent health. 

On the 1 Hh of June, 1859, Thomas Blackwell, ship's steward, ilicl or' 

this man had served in two of the former searching expeditions. 

The summer proved a warm one ; we were able to start upon our homeward 

voyage mi the 9th of August, and although the death of the engine-driver in 

id of the engineer in 1858, left us with only twu stokers, yet with 

- assistance I was able to control the engines and steam the ship up to 

Point. 

tix days we lay there closely beset, when a cliaagu of wind removing 

iee, our vm-agu was continued almost without further interruption to 

Hum n, in Disco, where we arrived mi the 27tlt of August, and were re- 

ivi<l with great kindness by Mr. Olick, iuspi etor of North (Jrcenlaud, and 

H local authorities, who obligingly supplied mir few want?. 

I In two Esquimaux dog-driver.-, were now discharged, and OH thu 1st ot' 

I her we sailed for England, 
"roui all that can be gleaned from the record paper, and the evidenes 
U. S. Mao., No. 371, Oct., 1359. u 




238 



NAVAL ASD MILITABT IKTELLTf,! 






afforded by the boat, am) various articles of clothing and i-qui] 
vored, it appears that the abandonment of the Erebus nnd Terr 
deliberately arranged, and every effort exerled clviri 
render the travelling equipments complete. 

It 13 much to be apprehended that disease Iilk I greatl. 

(i onboard — far Wore perhaps fhan tiny tin 
The djatanoe b\ -sledge route, from the position of tin* ships when llMh 
cloned, to the boat, is I • pineal miles, nnd from the ootml 

Island, 220 mile 
The most perfect order seems to bate existed ilinni-ln.nl 
In order to' extend ns much ns possible tbe public uiilit vojssj, 

iiiugncficu], meteorological, and other observations, 
purples, and for which instruments were supplied through il" 
the Royal Society, have been continually and carefull) 
opportunity lias been embraced by the surgeon, J). Walker, Ml'., of fonnisg 
complete collect ions in all the various branches of natural 

Tlua report would be incomplete did I not mention tin- I h>tr 

been kid under to the companions of ray voyage, both oilict rr< and man, Iff 
their zealous and unvarying support throughout, 

A feeling of entire devotion i" tin* i-annc, which Lndj Kranklin hs* ■ 
nobly sustained, and a firm determination to i 

seems to have supported there through every difficulty. \\ uli lew of Ik* 
enthusiastic spirit, ami cheerful obedience to every eotninani 
number — twenty-three, in nil — would not have lumoed for the lUUj—fiil 
performance of so great n work. 

F. L. M'CLINTOCK, I 
Cumiuandiug the Final s- 
The yacht Fox, B.TJ8., off the Isle of Wight, 
Sept. 2), 1019, 

Relics naotGHT fhom thi- boat found i>t i.at. tlit i>k< 

69 peg, 24-42 w., treaji the west coast or k< im's 

MAT 30, 18u9. 

Two double barrelled guns, one bail'-! of each 
up against the side in the after part of the boat, 

Tii one pnrcel. — A srutdl Projcr-book, cover of u small I 
Prayers ; " Christian Melodies" an inscription within the 

diam Gore) ;" Vicar of Wakefield;" a jumII Bible, interlined in 
places, and witli numerous reference* written in the margin 
ment, in the French l&Bgui 

Tied together.— Two table knives, with white handle*— one i« nuuM 
" W, B., a gimlet, an awl, two in nine inches loujt kt 

supporting i weather cloth, which was round the boat, 

lied together. — 26 pieces of silver plate — 11 spoons, 1 i 
spoon?, 8 pieces of thin ebu hoard (ting)* 
measuring 11 bj 6 inches, and S-lOt! - inen Ini 

All wrapped up in a pic f canvas.- ! 

short clay pipe, roll <f wa*cd twine, a wooden ; 

i hargi s of shot lied up in the nngi r of a kid gl 
■:' ;: seaman's lilt 

..part of a grass cigar uife, Irngrninl ■ 
im.', piece of scented snap, '.) «hot ehurgi 
d bullet (tied together in a piece of .silk pc -k>t hand 
-tout leather, and wire gauze, instead 
. Im, 2 Bmull brass pocket compasses, a founding hue 

uid thread case, a bayonet scabhan' . -hMil 

/& xr a knife, tin water bottle for the pocket, 2 shot pouches, full of 



>*] 



JfAVAL ANJJ MELITAEY INTELLICtEirCfi. 



28D 



Id caiivas.~-Three spring hooks of sword belts, a gold lace band, a piece of 
: ~ gold twist or cord, a pair of leather goggles with crape instead of glass ; 
rmall green crap* veil. 

ped together in canvas. — T wo small packets of blank cartridge in 

per, part of a cherry-stick pipe stem, piece of & port tire, a few 

nails, ft leather bootlace, a seaman's clasp knife, two small glass 

! bottles [full) placed in medicine chest, three glasses of spectacles, 

t or a broken pait of silver spectacles, germau silver pencil case, pair of 

Liver (?) forceps, such asa naturalist might iise lor holding or seizing small iu- 

a small pair of scissors rolled up iu blank paper and to which adheres 

I Government paper such as an officer's warrantor appointment, a 

iring hook of a sword belt, a brass charger for holding two charges of shot. 

Wrapped together in canvas. — A small bead purse, piece of a red seling- 

;, Kiopper of a pocket flask, German silver top and ring, brass mateh- 

, one oft he glasses of a telescope, a small tin cylinder, probably made to 

Inciter matches, some of the loose grains of shot have been put into it; 

I »ag of percussion caps of three sizes, a very large and old-fashioned 

I, stamped "Smith's patent ;" a cap with a flange similar to the present 

met cans used by Government, but smaller ; and ordinary sporting caps 

bo smallest sine," 

Watches in n paper packet. 
V pair of blue glass spectacles, or goggles, with steel frame, and wire gauze 

s in a tin case. 
. pemmicnu tin, painted lead colour, and marked " E" (Erebus) in black; 
i its sue it must have contained 201b. or 2*2ll>. 
wo vellow glass beads, a glass seal with symbol of Freemasonry. 

Ii Mock strapped, with copper hook and thimble, probably for the 
['» ».h< 

ICa *EES IN LAT. 09 HKfl. 99 Si., LONG. 99 DEC. 21 W, NOT BROUGHT 

away.— Mat 30, 1859. 

bout, measuring 2$ft. iii extreme length, 7ft. 3in. in breadth, 
•lin. in depth. The markings on her stem were — XXII. W. t'on. n,61, 
_\ 181, It appears that the lory partof the item baa bees cut away, pro* 
»ly [ht, and part of the letters mid figures removed. An 

!<i- the boat, 23d. tin. loiur, and 'J ft. wide ; mx paddles, about 
y bit horns of deep-sen lead line, ammunition, lour cakes of navy choco- 
i shoemaker's box with implements complete, small quantities of tobacco, 
tail pair o! very stout shooting hoots, ■ pair of very heavy iron-shod 
Is, carpet boots, sea boots and shoes — in all seven or eight pairs, 
,td, elm tingles fur repairing the boat, nails of various 
I tor boat, and sledge irons, three small axes, a broken saw, leather 
r of ■ sextant ease, a chain cable punch, silk handkerchief (black, white, 
towels, sponge, tooth-brush, hair comb, a mackintosh, gun 
r (Market) in paint "A. 12"), twine, files, knives, a small worsted work- 
liiiid with calfskin, bound with red ribbon ; a grent quantity of 
ling, and a wolfskin robe ; part of a boat's sail of No, 8 canvas, whale 
with yellow mark, and while line with red mark; twenty-four iron 
.hums HJiri. high for supporting a weather cloth round the boat; a 
chion for supporting a ridge pole at a height of 8ft, 9,in, above the gun- 

\BOBT BOSS CUES, OS I'OIST VICTORS', MAY AYU Jl'NB, 1859, 
UBOl'GItT AWlf. 

in-le, In Robinson, marked I -i' t \. A ease of medicines cou- 

lY-liv. small bottles, canister of pills, ointment, plaister, oiled 

«c. A two-foot rule, two joints uf the cleaning rod of a gun, and a, 

V 'i 



29U 



JTAVAX ANlt MlUTAtTi TNTE1LI0EKCS. 






small copper spindle, probably for dog vanes of boats. The ri 

plate broken out of a wooden gun case, and engraved C. II ; 

Thu Held glass and German silver top of a 2-ft. telescope, a toffee c«oalcf. 

u piece of a brass curtain rod, The record tin — tin. n h ApriL 

184*, has been taken out. A 6-in. double frame s-extant, cm which U» 

owner's name ia engraved, Frederick Hornby, It. N. 



rmtND IN A Stt-UA CAIRN 

A tin roeord case and record. 



OS THE SOt'TH SIDE Or Bjt 
The latter lias been taken 



SEEN ABOUT ItOSS OAIHK, 1'OINT VICTOR*, NOT BROL"<:|i 

Four sets of bait cooking apparatus complete, iron hoops, eoppt? 

lightning conductor. Hollow brass curtain rod, } in. diameter, three pefc- 
HXfift, one shovel, old canvas, a pile of wnrin clothing hi. ink 
tin canteens stamped 89 Co., Win. Hodge, »> Co.; Win. Heather, and i 
third one not marked, A small pannikin ninth 1 on hoard o 
ser.ed meat tin (and marked W. Mark), a small deal box for 
The- heavy iron work of a large boat, part of a canvas tcnl an mi 

sawed longitudinally, ami :i blanket nailed to its Sat side, thjve i" 
staves, strips of copper, a 9-in. single block strapped, apiece 
.Hpunyam. Amongst the clothing was found a storking in 
green, and a fragment of one marked '* W. ,S." 

EEI.1CS OBTAINED AT TUB NORTHERN CAIRN NEAR CAfE trK«.|\ 

Fragments of a boat's ensign in a bag, metal lid of a powdi 
eye-pieces of sextant tubes, brass button (in small duck bag), ; 
colours, red, white, and blue, bang stay ol a in 
bras- ornament to a marines shako, brass screw for sere win 
a copper hinfje of Urn lid of powder case, a few patent wire < urtridge* a«- 
tainting huge shot, part of a pair of steel spectacles, gla^ 
wood, 'having a narrow slit in it; two jtaiall rib bones, probably out 
pork, six or eight packets of needles, small I Inline I cartrh eftiag ■ 

ounce of damaged powder — these articles are in a small du a sxuIL 

lily made copper apparatus for cooking, same bruraton* 

■ articles included in this line are packed togcthei 
apparatus, and secured in a bag. Piece of white [taper folded 
the unrtli cairn, two pike beads, narrow strip of white 
under one of the tent places; their tentplac.es Here within -i tew yards d 
(lie cairn, 

Heside a small cairn, about three miles north of I 
pickaxe with broken handle brought away, an empty tea or cjA* 
caniHt' i . 

ASTICLSS NOTICED ABO IT THE NORTH CAIRN, SOT UK..I,.HT »Wil. 

Fragments of two broken bottles, several pieces of broken ha«ins "«r r^»» 
bine and white delf ware, hoops of marine's water bottle, small inw hasp 
fragments of white lin<', spun yarn, canvas ami twine, three si. all can*' 

, under which lay bearskin, blankets, and fragments of blank* 
blanket frocks, several old mita, stockings, gloves, pitol cloths, ami " 
cloth jackets and trousers, Urge shot, piece of tobacco an«l ln-ukea 
metal part of powder case, top of tin canister, marked chev- 
pc-tato tin, feathers of ptarmigan, and salt meat bones. 

M.I \ M AH < WE MAB1A UBA 

I of a drift tree, white spruce fir, IK feet Ion", ten inches in diat»*v- 
it appeared to have been hut recently (i.e., since thrown on tin 
•awed longitudinally down the centre, and one half of it rem.. 



1 8*9.] 



KAVAT. AND MltlTART IlfTELI.TOESCE. 



HIT.MNKD FlUiM THE nOOTHIAN ESQUIMAUX NEAR THK MAOSErlf 
POLE IN MAlCCH AND APRIL, 1K59. 

»ven knives made by Hie natives out of materids obtained from the last 
xpeditiou, one knife without u handle, one spearhead and staff, (the latter 
aa broken ott) t two tiles, a large spoon or scoop ; the bundle of pine or 
one, the bowl of musk ox horn, six silver spoon* and forks, the property 
f Sir John Franklin, Lieutenants H. De Vescomhe and Fairbolme, A. 
['Donald, assistant surgeon, and Lieutenant E. Couch (supposed from the 
■if ial letter T and crest a lion's head), n small portion oi n gold watch 
iain. a broken piece of ornamental work apparently silver gilt, a few small 
aval and other metal buttons, a silver medal obtained by Mr. M'Donald 
i a prize for superior attainment! at a medical examination in Edinburgh, 
.pril, 1838, some bows and arrows in which wood, iron, or copper has 
een used in the construction — of no other internal. 

Remark.? iti-on tiiksi; Abticlss. — The spear *lull measured 3 ieel (J 
icbes in length, and appears to have been part of a light boat's sail, it 
measured (before being partially rounded to adopt it to its present use) 
x.ut 1| Ly I J inches, is m»de of English oak, ami upon the side has 
pon painted white over green. The spear head i- of steel, riveted to two 
iee<-- . with bum* between and ln.dted on to the staff . The rivets 

rr of eopper nails. The native who sold il said lie himself got it from the 
tmt in the Fiah Hiver. Another spear of the snine kind was seen. The 
made either of iron or stce! riveted to two strips of hoop, between 
'h the handle of the wood is inserted, and rivet.-: passed through, seeming 
The rivets are almost all made out of copper nails, such as 
ltd by found in a copper -fastened boat, but those which have been 
lined do not bear the government mark. It is probable that most of the 
its of the Erebus and Terror were built by contract, and therefore would 
the broad arrow stamped upon their iron ami copper work. One 
ill knife appears to have been a surgical instrument A large knife 
>bt»ined in April bears some marking, such ns a sword or n cutlass might 
lave. The man who sold it said he bought ii from another, who picked it up 
in the land where the ship was driven ashore by the. ice, and where tbo 
wbit*' people bad thrown it away ; it was then about as long as his arm. This 
ms the fits! information he received of one of the. ships having drifted on 
bore. One knife ami one file are Mumped with the broad arrow. The 
i iiu lies me variously composed at nak, ash, pine, mahogany, elm, and bone, 
The spoons and forks were readily sold for a few needles each, also the 
rations, which they wi ire as ornament-, on their dresses. Bows and arrows 
irctT readily exchanged for knives. Previously to the stranding on the 
ning shore of the last expedition, these people must have been 
ilinost destitute of wood or iron. Some of them had even got only hone 
knives and s|icir points. Some of their sledges were seen consisting of two 
rolls of seal-skin listened and frozen, to serve as runners, ami connected 
Itv cpom bars of hones. Many more knives, bone, and buttons, 
those brought away, might have been obtained, but no personal or 
t mt relics. 

IN A SSOW HUT IX LAV 71 PKO. *., 20th APRII., 1859, NOT B HO I GUT 
AW AT. 

T,Mi wooden shovels, one of them made of mahogany hoard, some spear 
and -i bow of English wood, a ileal case, which might have served for 
telescope or barometer Its external dimensions were — length, 3 feet 
depth, J', inches; width, 9 inches. Two bra-is hinges remained 
»d to it. 



NAYAl. AND MTMTABT nJTEU.Ii. 






HELIOS OOTAIXFC FHOK TITE i:S(iVIMArX JiHAK CAPE BO M OW , ITOX T*I 
EAST COAST OP KING iVILMAM's ISLAND, IS MAY, ! 

Two table spoons ; upon one is scratched WW, on the other Wfi ; lht« 
bear (lie Franklin crest ; two table forks, oik; bearing the Franklin erwtuv 
other ia also crested, probubly Captain * 

Wm ; two tca-spoona, one engraved A.M. D. (A. M'U ..- oika 

bents the Fairholme crest aud motto : handle of » dessert knifi 
h;ul been inserted a razor (since broken ell") by MUlikni, Strand; button, 
wood, jiudiron were herein abundance ; bur as enough ot I nbrtAt 

be?» obtained, no more were pmrttiHind 

Taken out of some deserted hut* (snow) near here, some scraps ot d &w 
ent kiiula of wood, such as could not be obtained from a boat, leak* 
African ouk. 

Found lving about the skeleton, nine miles eastward «>f Cape Uvrttbd, 
May, 185!). — The tie of a black silk handkerchief, fragments of :i 
•d blue cloth waistcoat, with covered silk buttons, ami edg' 
braid ; a scrap of a coloured cotton shirt. silk-< owred buttons ol 
great coat, a small clothes brash, a horn pocket coml, 
which fell to pieces when thawed mid dried ; it contained nine or 
a few leaves apparently blank. A sixpence, date iHftl ; and 
date 18'H. 

From beside an Esquimaux stone-mark, on the ca 
laud. — Part of a pi cserved meat-tin, painted red. Part id the rim of wo* 
strong copper case or vessel ; pieces of iron hoop, two piece* i>f flat iron, in 
iron hook bolt, apiece of sheet copper. 

Articles seen amongst the natives at Cnpe Norton, not pi —Bom 

made of wood, knives, uniform and plain buttons, a sledge *o li«; 

- of hard wood, 

Articles seen about a snow hut, near Point Bootli, not p 
or ten (ir poles, varying from live loet to ten feet in leu 
2$ inches in diameter. Two wooden snow shovels ab 
Mi;ide of pieces of plank painted white or pale yellow ; it c» hip lfcl 

the pieces of plank might have been the bottom boards of n 1 
wm abundance of wood fashioned into smaller an 



CONTENTS OF BOATS MKIUCINE COKST. 

I Mi-' bottle labelled jinzib R. pulv., full ; do. spirit reel., empty ; do. is*, 
hytlrnrg, wren-eighths full; do. oh coryphyll., one-lift h full. 
im„ j'ull \ do, "1- ninth, pip., empty; do. liq. amnion, 1'»rl,, th 
fall ; do. ul- -ilie., full ; do. tinct. opii. ciinph., three nun 
»m. euk-k, full; do. d"., quarter full; d<>. calomo^ full i 

urg. nit. oxyd., full ; do. pulv, Grogor, full (broken); do. inagnra. «rk. 
fu'l ; two Vmttle* tinet. toln. (each) ipjarter full ; one Lull 
lull; do. jalap R. pulv., full; do. seammon p"dv„ full ma. busnf*i 

: ill. (not labelled) rinet, opii., three-quarters full ; 

pills full; do, ointment, shrunk; do. cinp. k 
one ]• t»e pen wrapped up in lint, one lead pencil, i 

tibra (test) wrapped up in lint, one farthi 
lint, thread. 

(Signed) LAViD WALKER, M.D., 

Nugcn to Expedbwn. 
Fox, Port Kennedy, June, 1S5*J. 



found by ' 
of Wales Island : — 






FATAL AflD MIL1TABT INTEIXTaMl'l. 



203 



" — of May, 1S47. 
Her Majesty'* Ships Erebus ami Terror wintered in the ice in lot. "0 
teg, 5 uiin., long. D8 deg. 23 min., W. 

" Horns wintered in 1846-7 at Reechey l?lnit 1, in Int. "4 dig. 43 min., 
26 gee N, long, 91 deg. 3° rain, 15 see. \\ . tiding Wellington 

Channel to lat. 77 deg., nnil returning by the west side of Corwwallia 
Island. 

•» SIB JOHN FRANKLIN, 

Commanding tin- Expedition 

- All Well, 

u Wboerer finds this paper is requested to forward it to the Secretary of 
the Admiralty, London, with a note of the time and place at which it -was 
found, or, if mure convenient, to deliver it fur that purpose to the British 
consul at the nearest port." 

The same in Fieiul> 
The same in Spanish. 
The si me in Dutch 
The same in Danish, 
The sane iu German, 
Left the ships Monday, the 24th of May, 1847, the party consisting of 
two orlieers and six men, 

'■<;. M. GOEE, Lioutenant. 
M (.'HAS. F. DFCS V«EUX, Mate." 
i<- words "wintered in 1846-47 at Beechey blond," should be "in 
Hl-47 they were beset in the ice, and ships rdinndimed in 
ipril, 184s. The same mistake occurs in both papers. 
Admiralty. Sept. 22. 



THE PEIHO DISASTER. 
nFI-TCIAL lists of jiik killed and wounded. 

of Killed ninl Hissing in the Sipuirlroii un<t Naval unit Murine Brigadcl em* 
ployed during the attack on the Forts at the mouth ol tin.- lVilm. mi the 25th 
June, and subsequent days. 
( le aapeake — Then. Maikeuan, eaptoln 1st Royals; T. II. Herbert, mltUlii 

n ell. Leading seaman; Kdwiinl Mutton, A. B; Daniel Kennett, A. II.; An- 
il.; .Mm Cascv, A.B.; Geo , A, 15.; J. Neal, A.l'..j 
li.j J, Daughly, A.B. i 0. Reed, A.B.; W. Letli- 
, onliiniry; \V illiMTn Cooper, gunner, R.M.A.; David Bunee, prJMfetj R.M.; 
tolly, 1'viiii.ii . li.M. j William Howell, private, R.M 
Highflyer— H. L T. Iragiis, 1st lieutenant, li.M.; Henry Nias, captain afterguard; 
George McLachkm, captain i<n*ecastlej George Dawson, A.B.; Christopher Irwin, 
Alt,, trasatng; William Barrett, armourer's crew; .Mm Powell, l^t class bo j; 
Mirhnel Malmsey, gunner, R.M, V.; Robert Moon, gumnf, R.M. A; William Daw 
gnimi r. R.M.A, 
Magicirnne— Richard Ahhott, private, R.M,; Edward Turner, emtuor, R.M,A, 

frown, stoker, mining; John Ridley, gumcr, R.M.A, missing. 
Assistance — Alfred Groves, lieutenant; James New, A T B,; Charles Milhnati, 
A4'..; James Chandler, ordinary. 

! Marine Bripidc — Hamilton Wolriilge, l*t licuti'iunit; William I'itce, pri- 
vate-, George Wood, private; George Gibba, private, iiiisMiij*; William Marion, 
Ste veil?, private; Richard Davis, private, inigsing; George MoXham, 
Biasing; saute* Smith, private, missing; Charles Adams, private, missing; 
private, killicl; Stephen Harper, culniir sergeant, missing; Pa 
van, private, missing; Charles Hatter, private, killed; Thomas SheAi 
ing; Joatah (irentorex, private, missing; Willirun Memory, private, missing; 
Henry ulrrer, private, missing; John Havekin, private] (.'liurles'Hull, sergeant, ran? 



294. 



WATAL AKD MTIiTAItY IXTEITJfi EVCT 






sing; William llcnstie, private, missing; George Bryan. ]irivi 

Giflegan, private; Ambrose Carroll, curjtorul, missiug; Benjamin Finch, priva*. 

Philip Dnun, private; Frederick Croft, private, 

Cruiser — Peter Roberton, ordinary, nii- 

Ximrocl— George Fuller, sailmakers* id 

ITnuyhty— Henry Austin, A.R.j William Dixon, A.H., missing. 

Forester — Charles Turner, stoker; John Thompson, m fcer{ John Iwiu ,<jnlmnj 

Kestrel — Alum, officers' cook. 

Plover — W. 'I. Bason, lieutenant iml eotnmflndev ; .J. Su 
Matthews, A.B.; E. Fillamore, A,B,; It. Slnupe, prnnie; J. Thomas, private 

Royal Engineers — Joseph Fennington, corporal; John Andrews, corpon 
rick Atkins, sapper 



List of Wounded in tb: Bombarding Squadron mid Naval and Marine Bhgadei, em- 
ployed daring the ui tack on the Forts .d the mouth of the P 
June, and -iili-rf|iient days, 

Chesapeake — James Hope, Hcar-Admind mid t ,]},, C< uander- 

severely; C. II. Clutterbitck, Lionienani, since dead; W. ('<. K, M 
Royal Marines, severely; N. Bowden Smith, nctiuj! i 
Wagstafle, assiatanl paymaster, slightly; Fwrteri' 1. 1 "ay, assistant imgtti 
slightly; Joseph Snorkel], stoker, since dead; George Martin 
lunch, since dead; Ceorge Bennett, captain inninhn 
of the mast, dangerously; Peter Ferris, blacksmith, slightly; Km I 
sine© dead; James . I limes, A, R., severely; ( i i-im^ij Symuns, All.. -■ 
Davit, A.IJ , slightly; Barnd Killarney, A.B, slightly; Joseph Stiuirt. . 
John Frazer, A.B,, severely: Thomas Grant, A.B., slightly, W, W 
■ j",. John Haines, ordinary, severely; John McLeoo, 
Hammond, ordinary, severely; Win, Collet*, ordinary, very severely; John Wsfca, 
ordinary, dangerously; John Hirst, ordinary, dangerously; Win. Dudley, imlinsry 
very severely; Tames M'Donnld, ordinary, very severely; John Wi 
severely; Michael Shea, ordinary, severely; George Copus, Ofdinary, slight i 
Delias Champ, boy, 1st class, since dead; George Pyne, l>ov f 1st etas, 
William Harding, sergeant, R.M.. very severely; Joseph < 

Ij ; fieorgc Bevan, private, R.M., very severely; George A \ 
severely; George Pnllen, stoker, severely-, Charles Due*, ordinary, 
Sherman, A.B„ slightly; Thomas Burgess, ordinary, slightly, 

Highflyer. — C. F. A. Shad well, C.B., Captain, m vercly; F. 11. I'm 
fitly ; John Jackson, boatswain's mate, slightly; Jmi>< l"o 
:ly ; Lnkc Crawford, lending seaman, severely ; .John l;all 
Joseph" Jewitt, A.B., severely; William Alder, ordinary, 
Gardiner, ordinary, severely j Joseph Tyler, ordinary, severe! ' 
ordinary, -everely ; Jaincs Mc A rthy, ortlinaiy, severely ; Ail* ■ riiaaij, 

severely; William Biirritl, ordinary, slightly llamsher, l-t dan Krj, 

severely; John liar man, 1st class bay, slightly; Peter] ILMA. 

ely ; Fred, Richardson, Kt class boy, severely. 

Magiciennc. — Nich. Vuiunttnrt, Captain, C.B., seuvrely ; I Usckk 

Untenant, severely ; Nicholas Skelton, blacksmith, slightly, i 
boatswain's mate, severely; Florence Sullivan, Captain of the man 
George Maync, carpenter's mate, severely ; Richard Mitchell, I 
severely; Henry Croft, carpenter's crew, severely; J<-> I'... 

Charles Collins, A.U., severely ; James B.Mist, ordinary, severely ; '. 
ordinary, severely; Wm. See, gunner, R.M.A., slightly; Jvli 
R.M-A,, severely; Emanuel Kclhnvay, gunner, li. MA ,>.\eivh . !» 
gnnner, H.M.A., severely ; A. Taylor, gunner. KM A . - Uarksl 

drummer, severely ; 11, Downey, stoker, slightly ; A. Clarke, carpenter's 
slightly : John Jackson, gunner's mate, slightly ; James Hopk 

Ftiry.— Henry ixggc IVreeval, lieutenant, slightly; Arm and T. Fowled, 
-hipman, dangercauly ; Jamea Gibson, Captain of the maintop, badh ; Willisa 
Wnrk, captain, foretop, badly ; Richard Barton, leading seaman, alig 



N'AVAI, ANT) MIT.TTAHT TNTET>LTG1WCF. 



bompsoo, leading seaman, slightly; Mark Ctiuninghiuu, touting stoker, slightly; 

rye Waller, engineers' steward, tadly ; William Fry, carpenter's crew, dau- 

r>>u-ly; Patrick Buckley, stoker, severely; Benjamin Thivaite.s, o rdi 1 1 ary, slight ly; 

cr, ordinary, severely ; William Payne, ordinary, slightly ; John 

nary, (lightly; William Godwin, ordinary, slightly; Henry Water, 

f,*©ydangerottaT/ ; Willium Goodwin, corporal, Royal Marine Artillery, 

Boraii Mauisk Artillery. — On board Fury, — Charles S, Williams, lieutenant. 
Royal Murine Artillery, slightly; John C Crawford, lieutenant, Royal Marine 

rtillery, badly. 

Assistances-John T. Partridge, master's assistant, slightly; Alfred Jacobs, 
armourer, dangerously ; John Clarke, captain's steward, slightly ; Joseph Purchase, 
stoker, severely ; William Churchill, stoker, dangerously ; Charles Gillani, stoker, 
-liirhtly; Jctfery Weston, A.B., severely ; Robert Battleraore, snip's corpoml, 
slightly. 

Ruvju. Maui.m: IinioAui:, — Un board Assistance. — Thomas Lemon, C.B., 
i j p lwl iwnmwrwi iag brigade, severely} the Rev. Hugh Hulentt, chaplain to the 
tort tutsly; Charles Slaughter, captain, slightly; T. E. A, Brvuan, first 

lieutenant, slightly ; R. J. H. D. Douglas, lirst lieutenant, slightly; C. W. 
3a*riaytou, first lieutenant ami ijuartennflster, slightly ; M. A. H, J. Hcriot, first 
.end HJiut, .-lightly i Edward Willia, first lieutenant, slightly ; R, L.Price, first 
mill 'ii.iiit, slightly ; Barry L. Evans, first lieutenant, slightly ; Sainuel T. Collins, 
irvi lieutenant, severely! John Btragban, second lieutenant^ slightly ; P. M. 0. 
Yoker. captain, brigade major, slightly ; A. W. I). Smith, first lieutenant, 
rreteh ; Charles F. Copiiiu, first lieutenant, slightly ; Michael Sullivan, lanec 
etgwiNt, eiigbtb Kdward Moore, private, slightly ; Thomas Askwith, private, 

B lightly; John Sttihbs, private, slightly; William Archer, private, severely-; George 
1 mate, slightly; Charles Fisher, sergeant, severely; John tvttlcchilil, 
private, severely ; John Mortirnore, private, slightly ; John Terry, private, 
rely ; Thomas Firth, private, slightly: Robert Gradwell, private, severely; 
William Wood*, private, dangerously ; George Hamilton, private, slightly ; Frtik. 
ni.iii. private, slightly; Edward IlallMvurth, private, slightly, Frederick Davis, 
"riviitr, ihghtly; William Cornfield, private, severely j William Johnson, private, 
iangi K, F. Morris, bugler, dangerously ; George Melliuish, private, 

William Blount, private, dangerously; William Coult, private, severely ; 
1 .ivnlier. private, ■;. ; J. DonneU, lance sergeant, dangerously ; 

■rgc Bickmore, private, dangerously ; James Martin, private, severely ; James 
ohnaon, private, dangerously; John Paterson, private, severely j William Urim, 
rivate, severely; Henry Smith, private, dangerously; John Doyle, private, 
ivrn-ly ; Luke Duffy, private, Severely; Mielmel Carrighan, private, Severely ; 
Wilkin, private, dangerously; Thomas Leaky, private, slightly; Janus 
rivate, slightly ; George Lees, private, severely ; John Dailey, private, 
\ ; Stephen Arnott, private, severely; Charles Roberts, private, severely ; 
EcttaeJ Hu^lii'M, private, severely; John Darling, corporal, severely; Usury 
turn, private., slightly ; John Mansfield, lance corpoml, severely; John Cninp- 
privat«', severely* William Hmvdeu, private, slightly; Thomas Gibbous, 
tc, sererely ; James Cooper, private, severely' ; J. H. Bryan, private, slightly; 
■ 1 1 or Owens, private, severely ; Henry Tippets, private, severely ; Alfred 
WseU, private, dangerously ; Edward Knowles, sergeant, slightly j Thomas 
ones, privnte, slightly ; J. Childs, private, severely; William Wyilie, private, 
lightly • Daniel Payne, private, severely ; Elins Woodmffe, private, severely *, 
lames Webb, private, severely ; John Bennett, sergeant, severely ; John Seandrett, 
it, slightly ; John Gibhs, private, slightly ; Thomas Frances, colour ser- 
cant, savenly ; Ji Fry, private; severely ; Thomas Hcrlxjrt, privnte, dangerously; 
Vtllium Evans, sergeant, severely: William Welsh, private, severely; lleiny 
Joltn Dyke, private, severely : Isaac Barnes, sergeant, severely; C. J. Churchfleld, 
i porat, severe Jy ; Henry Jan is, private, dangerously ; Thomas Kitehemau, 
ivatc, sevurely : Joint Hundley, private, dangerously j Jamcsi Hardaetv, private, 
iHgerousty ; William Walton, private, slightly; Henry Walter, private, severely; 
Jaracs Langley, private, dangeroosly ; John London, private, ilangerously ; .James 
7ltflf, private, severely ; Thomas Wyke, private, dangerously ; John Bilby, private, 



290 



NiVAi AKD MILlTiHY IKTELLiGE>~CE. 



slightly ; lknry Kent, private, severely ; George Holmes, ton 
oualy; Edmund Dean, knee corporal, dangerously ; Edward Hulmc, 
severely ■ William Foster, private, severely; TV. J. Bailey, privat 
"HbotaMH Howard, private, severely ; George Bowman, priv 
Baker, sergeant, severely ; John Turner, private, severely j 
slightly; Thomas 8t*ccy, private, slightly; Frederick Mc 
severely; Michael Heritage, prinite, severely ; William Robert Title 
dangerously; Michael Donovan, private, severely; William Baci 
severely ; Thomas Fen-ins private, severely ; Charles Garter, privati 
Charles Gritltuh, private, Mvexejy ; ThottuMt I 
Weeks, private, severely ; Henry Rollingson, i 
private, severely ; Thomas Dale, private, severely ; . 
William Taylor, private, severely ; Patrick Carroll, y ■> ■ 
Howe, private, sdigh fly ; E. Pell, private, slightly ; J Cross, priv*t 
m, sergeant, severely ; (j. Tyler, private, slightly ; J. Eva 
severely ; William Buntlev, lance sergeant, slightly ; WiUmiu Be 
slightly; Charles McDonald, corporal, slightl; Law, print! 

.lames Will, private, slightly ; Edward bhrimptom, private, slightly 
Angcll, bugler, slightly; George Clarke, private, slightly; William Tom 
slightly; Jam.> Hill, jirivate, slightly ; Hctn-i AMridge, jti mi re, alight 

Cormorant — H, L. Ley, master ; A. Watson, M.I)., 
Pi'jiril, mate, slightly; James Hardy, Quartermaster, since dead; W. t 

A.li., Beraery; j\ Jolfrey, A. B., slightly; J. Knight, A.R.. -li-; 

jhtly; R. Elliott, ordinary, since dead ; II. Mf 
Hetit, ordinary, severely; <_}, Ward) private, H.M., sew 

i raiser— ft, J, Attnytage, midshipman, severely i E. ii>< 
severely; W. Fuimdngw, ordinary, seven ly; J. Kell 
slightly; I. Berry, private, B.M. A,, slightly; J. Mitchell, ; 
<». Flmiirtcnd, dnjniiiii.il-, f-lielith. 

Nimrod — S. Whiter Parker, paymaster, ray slightly; George. 
mate, severely; Janus Goddsrrd, AB, severely! Tfaoouu Alder, ordini 
onsly; William Lent, onlimii y, dangerously; Edward Non 1 : 
George Hnwcs, private, JIM., severely. 

Ojnmssub: — Jonathan Gale, A. P., very severely John VI 
Charles Dyer, private, R.M., dignity. 

Haughty— George Brand, gimuer, slightly; Ch*n 
slightly; .lames Gould, stoker, slightly; John Brj 
NevuJi, ordinary, slightly. Niejiai'ii Allen, private, li M , lightly 
private, R.M., slightly. 

tm — W. .'. Boothy, second master, slightlj ; J >tt i l<< 

ridle, A B v slightly; Charles Lockett, A.B., sliglitjyi 
A. IV, severely; * i km, A.U., sligUrh ; .lame.- Wuuh 

J ami Jitly; Charles Lee, ordinary, severely; 

ordinary, slightly; William Huore, stoker, severe! vj 
M.. slightly, 
Baaicrcr— A. .1. Burnkton, roister, badly. 

- ' -'lafTord, hfwtsvvnin, slightly; Wm. Painter, 
John Howe, private, r*vi 

Kortrel inartennaster, slightly; Will 

J. Chaitorton, stoker, slightly: tticlmrd Powers ordinal 

, private, I 
assistant Bad clegs, si 

itlv; Michael \Vil» 
' [I v. 

.slightly; W :, 
naeter, slightly; W. Swamon, stoker' shgli 

icrcP , \v. Dunn. All . E. flu 

TV. Padian, private, K.M., sevcrcli 









1959.J 



SATAI. AST) MILITARY INTELLIGENCE. 



297 



J*im<* — .John Morgan, -'irJ class boatswain, bliglilly; David 0'Bricn t stoker, 
StigllUy ; Arthur TWnsctui. ordinary, .slightly. 
II**per— Richard V\ lure, A.U., sovemhri Thomas But ton, ordinary, severely. 

ll KsoijfEEas— George LoDglcy, lieutenant, dangerously; Andrew Grcig, 

: John McQueen, conpofw], (Inngcronslyi IJenay Kirwan, eorjmrul, 

severely; Thomas Chaplin, < . jhllyi it. Thompson, corporal, sEgetb/j John 

James Buchanan, sajjjcr, severely; John rYiggle,saiv 

Charles Daiagc, sapper, st-vcrely; John Griffiths", sapper, eHgttlyi F. 

Attwocd, upper, slightly; James i hompson, sapper, sli^lulv, Tboiuas Hart, 

slightly. 

rSigtic<l) WALTEK DICKSoX. M.D,, 

Stuff Surgeon, Her Majesty's Ship, Chesapeake, 



OFFICIAL DESPATCH OF ADMIKAL HOPE. 
(From the Limdtm Gutette.) 

AliMIBALTT, SbI'TEMBKH 16. 

A despatch, of which the fbllowingis a copy, has been received by the 
Lord* Commissioners, of tin- Admiralty from iiear- Admiral James llope, 
Commander-in-Chief of her Majesty's ships and vessels on the East 
India and China station : — 

N". 77. Chesapeake, Gulf of Feehili, July 5, 1859. 

Sir, — I request you will inform the Lords Conunietioners of the Admiralty 
AM having od Ihe ITthult. arrived off the Island of Sbalui-tien, in the Guff 
of I'eebili. where I reported in my letter, No. 06, of the 11th ult., the 
squadron had been directed to rendezvous, I proceeded nn the following day 
to the month of the Peiho river, with the object of intimating to tbe local 
authorities the intended arrival of the lion, Frederick Ifruce, her Majesty's 
Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, and Monsieur de Ilourboulon, 
Minister of Iris Imperial Majesty tbe Emperor of the French, and of recon- 
noitoriiig the existing State of the defences of the river. 

' II ie«c lust appeared to consist principally of the reconstructjorj, inearth, 
>iv an improved form, of the works destroyed Inst year, strengthened by 
additional ditches and ahattts, as well as an increased number of booms of 
very ranch more formidable nature, a description of all of which will be found 
on the annexed plan, furnished by Major Fisher, of the Royal Kn^inecvH. 
jratis were seen, but » considerable number of embrasures were 
masked with matting, evid nth' with a view of concealing other.-. 

Having sent an officer on shore to communicate with the authorities, fee 
was i . uitrd, Apparently of country people, who prevented him from 

lan>b ii.:d him tnat there wens no officials nearer than Tim-tsin, ami 

on his teqaeinting them with niy wish that too obstructions at the month of 
i i sr should be removed, in order to enable the ministers to proceed to 
tsin, a fjromisc was given that a commencement should be made for this 
within the next forty-eight hours. 

'owing day I moved the whole of the squadron up to the aneher- 

2i« oir tin month ei the river, placing the gunboats inside the bar. On 

tin- edinn to examine the entrance un the 20th, and finding thnt nothing hud 

teen done towards removing tbe obstructions before referred to, I addressed 

to the Tnntui, at Tieu-i.-iii, acquainting him with the object nf my 

rrivid, and requesting lice communication with the shore. Tuthis an evasive 

> days subsequently. 

I >n the VlKt I received a letter frees. Mr'. lSrnrc acquainting me that M. de 




298 NiYAlj AND MTLITABT iHTEIXIOENCK. [OCT,, 

Hinirboutoiinnd himself had come to the conclusion to place the matter in my 
hands, and requesting me to take any measures I niipht deem Gxpedhsl 
clearing away the obstructions in the river, so as tn allow them to proceed *l 
once to Tien-lain ; in consequence of which I acquainted the Tnntai th;> 
ministers having arrived, and the obstructions still existing at the mart 
the river, I should proceed to remove them, using force if necessary, th- 
sponsibility of the consequences resting with those by whom I migti 
opposed. To this communication no reply w;i-> received, and cousequend 
the 24th I took tin.- force inside the bar to prepare for operations., and gave 
further intimation that after eight o'clock in the evening, if I re» 
satisfactory reply, 1 should feci myself at liberty to take my own course. 
On the same night the parties named in the margin, under the dir 
of Captain G. O, Willes, cut one of the cables of tho boom, marked 
the plan, and blew two away with powder. These last, however, were (•■ 
reunited on the following day, tlic supporting loga of wood to whicfc 
were cross-lashcd being probably moored head and stem, i 
availed himself of Ibis opportunity to examine closely tho construction of 
the inner boom (plan E), and he found it to consist of large baulks, 
crossed-Iashed together, forming a mass of timber not less than 
wide, and about three feet in depth. The opening shown in the phut n 
liuve Admitted of the passage of a gunboat, but the strength of s ! 
would at any time have rendered such a passage a mutter of < 
dillirnlty and doubt. Under these circumstances it was clear that no • 
mole of attack wai left open to me, except that ot the front of the vi- 
and a subsequent endeavour to carry them by storm, should I 
silencing their (lie. 

The morning of the 25th was occupied in placing the vessels in p <• 
free plan), the Starling, J ami*, Plover (flog), Cormorant, Lee, K< 
Batiterer being on a line parallel to the works on the south ii>rt, and 
Nimrud in the rear of the line, with her fire bearing on the north (urt. 
Opossum, under Captain Wflies, ivhs placed in advance, < l<»< up i 
stakes, and the Forester and Haughty m reserve, in rear of the line, the 
former having directions to move up into the Plover'i position, ahonld 
vessel advance ia support of the Opossum, 

The vessels on the right were voider the direction ol Captain C, 
Shadwoll ; those on (lie left under Captain N. Vnnsirtart. The 
tlic tide and narrowness of the channel (about '2 llH > yards) had rendi i 
niiiilt'i of extreme difficulty to take up the position above detailed : and 
Hi. Bmterer and Starling, the vessels on the extreme ri»ht and left ol 
line, had both taken the ground, the former, however, in ■ 
the hitter in one which incapacitated her from taking BHM " d* 

action. 

At 2 p.m. I directed the Opossum to open a passage through tl 
hairier, which beingr eifected by 2,30, aim moved op to the second bai 
supported by the Plover, closely followed by the Lee and Haughty, wli'u-h 
Teasels I ordered in for that purpose. 

On the arrival of the Opossum <it the second barrier, iho fort <>penedi 
BUimltaneous fire of not less than between at) and 10 l 
32-pounders to 8-inch, on which I directed die shl|w to cng 
Plover took up a position close to the barrier- The • 'possum, Lvr. awl 
Haughty, in succession, astern of her. 

- p.m., finding that the ships inside the barriei 
and Opossum, were becoming disabled by the enemy « fire 
/r< •: i"d out into freah positions outside of it, where, havinc 
men, they renewed the action. 
oneequence of the Plover's disabled state i] my flag totk 



1850] 



NAVAl AKB UlUr.VK? INTFLLIOIWCE, 



299 



Cormorant, and at +.20 a severe wound I had received about an hour pre- 
ious!y compelled mo to call Captain Shadwcll on board the Cormorant, and 
entrust to lutii the more immediate command of the squadron. 

At 5,40 the Kestrel sunk in her position ; and It became necessary to put 
the Lee on the ground to avoid the like result. 

At 6.30 the ore from the north forts ceased altogether, and half an hour 

aui\ that on the south Bide wag silenced, with the exception of that pro- 

ling from one gun in the outer or south bastion, one in the curtain on 

each side ot it, and one in the flank of the centre bastion, also one in the 

detached fort to the south. 

At 7. JO a landing wus effected opposite the outer bastion of the south fort, 
the position which appeared most injured bj the lire of the squiulron, and 
here the attack could be best supported by the guna of the vessels. 
The force consisted of a detachment of Sappers and Miners, under Major 
Fisher, Royal Engineers ; a brigade of Marines, under Colonel Thomas 
Lemon; a division of seamen, under Captain Yanrittart, assisted by Com- 
manders John E. Commcreil, and W. A. J. Heath, the whole under Captain 
Sliadwell's direction, accompanied by a small detachment of French Seamen, 
under the command of Commandant T rieault. 

They were encountered by a heavy fire proceeding from those guns I have 

• Is nauvd as not completely silenced, as well as from gingalls andrilks; 

but, notwithstanding these and either serious obstacles presented by the elm- 

Or of the ground to be crossed, and the nature of the defences, 150 

:uid men having reached the second ditch, anil about 50 having 

<\ close under the walls, hud the opposition they experienced been that 

usual in Chinese warfare, there is little doubt diat the place would have been 

-ii. ■ BHiuUy carried at the point of the bayonet. 

Captains Shadwell and Vaosittart aud Colonel Lemon, R.M., baring bean 
disabled in die advance, the command in front devolved on Commander 
unerell, who, after consultation with Majors Fisher, R,E., and Richard 
Park* 1 , K.M., aud Commandant Tricault having reported tn Captain Shad- 
well that they could hold their present position, but that it was impossible 
"mi without reinforcements, received from that officer the order to 
retire. 

This operation was effected with a deliberation and coolness equal to the 
llaiitry of the advaiu-t!, under cover of the night, which had d in, 

force sent down to the boats by detachments, carrying the wounded with 
and eventually the, whole were brought off by 1.30 a.m., of the '26th, 
anders Cornmcrcll and Heath being the lift on shore. 
have already stated that the. Lee and Kestrel hud sunk in their positions 
from the effect of the enemy's fire; and I regret to add that, in proceeding 
dowu the river, after the termination of the action, the 1'lover whs grounded 
within range of the forts, and the Cormorant, in endeavouring to remove, 
was also found to have taken the ground. Under these circumstances 
t desired the officers and men to be removed from them for the lime, 
in order to obviate the loss which might occur, should the enemy be enabled 
to re-open the fire. 

The Kestrel, 1 am happy to uay, has since been recovered; but, notwith- 
rt>I)d*f*g every exertion which was subsequently made, under the direction 
of Captain Willes, to recover the other vessels, the Plover and Lee proved to 
be so hopelessly aground, that it was impanels to move them ; while the 
Cormorant, which got ntlont comparatively uninjured on the night of the 
Ih, was siguin anzortunately grounded, within range of the ("oris, on moving 
; and on the following day such a heavy tiro was opened on her that, 
b again afloat, she sank nt her anchors, and the omcers and men 
employed in removing her were withdrawn as she went down. 



SAVAL AND MILITARY tNTtLLTOKIfCe. 



2 



Tbe firC of the enemy being renmrkahh will tl 

ioned the squadron considerable Insa, amounting to twrnl 
and men killed, and ninety- three wounded, of which fifty-four un 
Among the former I have to regret the low of Lleul 
commanding the Plover, a very promising yom; 
M'Kunnn, of the 1st Royals, who mi attached to me h_v i 
uonnnanding the Forties in Ohio*. 

In the subsequent attack on share sixty-four officer 
and '2o m 2 wounded, of which ninety are plight. Amongst i 
to regret the. loss of Lieutenant A. Graves, of mt Ap^ 
tenant 0. H, Clutterbuck, and Mr, T, II. Herbert, midship 
ship; of Lieutenant Hnuriltrm WolrL'c-, of the II oval M 
Lieutenant II. L. T. Inglis, Royal Marines, both of the Highflyer, at 
to (be 2nd Battalion. 

Amongst the severely wounded are — Captain Shadwcll, I '.I! 
Highflyer ; Captain Vansittart, L'.B.. of 1I.M.K. M:: 
tenant'C. F- Buckle, of II.M.S. Miigicietmc ; Mr. \. J. 
of tin- l!::nN'!vr; Mi'. N. II. Smith, acting mate of the (in 
A. Powlutt, midshipman of the Fury ; Mr. George 
of the Cruiser; Mr. W. Ryan, gunner of the Plow 
Longley, Rnynl Engineers; Colonel Lemon, Roysd Marin 
W. &. K. Masters, Royal Murines, H.M.S, Chesapeake; Lieni 
Crawford, Royal Marine Artillery, nnd the Rev. 11. Hulcntt, Chapbun hi 
the FflWJit, 

The loss" on the part of the French amounted to four men killed ;uid Ma 
reminded, including two officers, one. of the latter, I rcgrwt to state, hfjny 
( 'oiiiiiiiiii'.lanf Tricault. 

My warmest thanks are due to Staff Surgeon Walt* 
Dr. Jobs Little, of the Royal Marine Brigade, and the modii 
the force generally, to whose unwearied exertions I have to 
present satisfactory state- of our wounded, and I avail 
tunitv of bringing under their lordship" special notice the v< > 

in which (HI. I.< i speaks of the services of Dr. W. J. 1" 

V.--!stant-Surgeon of the Brigade. 

It is a more grateful duty to request ynti will bring under th» 
notice the valuable assistance 1 received from < 
isittart, in command of the respective tlivis 
Jenkins is hig ly recommended by l ulwell for 

he fought the Ban ton r. 

Captain Vanslttart speaks highly of Acting- Commander It. J, 
of the Niinrod ; Lieutenant A. J. James, of the I 
J. L>. Bevan, of the Kestrel, and Lieutenant W. 11. Jon 
able conduct in covering the landing, after he had been ol 
his vessel on the ground to prevent her sinking bad 
notice. 

To Oommaader A. Wodebouse, of tli>" Cormorant; Lieut, tl. J. Balibw, 
of the Opossum ; J. P. Broad, of the Haughty; and II. P. K 
Janus, r*y thanks are also dne for the manner in which their vr« 
fonght and handled. 

My thanks are also due to Mnjor Fisher, lL»yiil I 
being distributed its riflemen in the gun vessels and gunboats, w 
board the Plover, 

The Kozn^aw, l-Ycm-li gunboat, not being armed in u nm 
enabled her to share in the attack, Monsieur Tricault, Coi 

iayla, did me the honour to attach himself to me froi iussjw 

meat of the action until he landed. 









NATAL AND MlLlTAItY INTEUJGESCJT. 






Mr, J. W. 51. Asbbt, my BBcftffatfy', besides being on duty with me, tonk 
as! duty when my Flag Lieuteniurl took command of the 
'lover. 

To Commander J. E. Commerell and W. A. J. Ilefitb, for their conduct 
using tlie operation on shore, my warmest acknowledgments are doe. Com- 
nder Commerell brings under my notice Lieutenants George Parsons and 
tibn ('. Wilson, of the Chesapeake, and C. E. Buckle, Acting, of the Maai- 
lonno, Messrs. George. S, Peard, John Shortt, and Viscount KiLeoursic, 
Fates, mid Messrs. George Armytage and C. L. Oxley, Midshipmen. 

■ ..loitel Lemon my warmest acknowledgments are also dne for the wfty 
i which he led the That officer strongly recommends Major Parke, 

bo commanded the first, and Captain Musters, who ciiiiiiimiidi'd tlie second 
jm ti.nl tu n. and brings under my notice the assistance he received from Gap 
M. C. Croker, Brigade Major, Lieutenant L. Rokeby, acting as his Aide- 
Caxup, Lieutenants and Adjutants Jolin F. Hawkey and IF. L. Kvans, and 
tenant John Strogbam The conspicuous gallantry of Sergeant Major 
food and Quartermaster Sergeant Hailing also attracted his notice. 
Major Fisher, Royal Engineers, speaks highly of the gallantry of Lieut. 
. X. Mutlliind, K.E.. in endeavouring to get the sealing ladders up, a ser- 
ine in whieb Lieutenant Lnngly, R.E., was also engaged, and in i fortunately 
otmdad. 

i plain J. O. Willes my warmest thanks are due, for bis exertions in 
barking the force when it became evident that the attack had failed, on 
lie remitincd till Commander Conuxterel] reported to him that 
List man was re-embarked. 
He speaks highly of Lieutenant J. C. Wilson and M. John St. John 
WagstalFe, Assistant Paymaster, on that, occasion (tlie latter of whom aceoin- 
mied him throughout the dny). Upon Captain Willis also devolved the 
dnons duly of directing the gallant attempts which were subsequently made 
recover the PloTor, Lee, and Cormorant, and whon that became hopeless, 
i effect their destruction, and to his unwearied zeal I am indebted for carry, 
gout (he repairs of the gunboats, all of which have been placed on the 
pound tor that purpose. 
1!» speaks highly nf all the officers and men employed on this service, and 
ly of the gallantry of Lieutenant N. P. Knevitt, of the Janus, in 
•ying out an anchor for the recovery of the Cormorant, under a heavy fire, 
that of Mr. Oscar Samson, Second Master of the Starling, wh> re- 
vered that vessel under a sharp tiro from the enemy, on her floating: of the 
effort* iiimle by Lieutenant Wilson mid Mr, S. ft. Broome, gunner of lln; 
> destroy the vessels which were no longer recoverable : and 
>t tin energy displayed by Mr.W. D.Strang, Master of the Cruiser, in raising 
Haughty, which had sunk. 

further colls my intention to tlie exertion of the carpenters of tlie 
anee, Cruiser, and Magieicnne, under the direction of Sir. E. I'ickard, 
th!- ship, who, in effecting the repairs of the guuboats, with the artificers 
of the squadron, had many difficulties t« surmount. 

From what bu preceded, their lordships will be well able to appreciate tin.- 
■ red gallantry displayed by the officers and men on this occasion : and 
although it has not pleased God to crown our efforts in the execution of our 
iityiviili success, 1 yet feci entire confidence that those efforts will obtain 
Otn their lordships that full measure of approbation they have so well de- 
'..— I have, &c, (Signed) J.HOPE. 

Rear Admiral and Conunander-in- Chief. 
T.i the Secretary of the Admiralty. 




302 



KAVAL AKD»MILITA.BT INTKLLIMKO, 



[Oct, 



ABSTRACT OF KILLED AND WOUNDED. 



Ships, &C. 




Plover . 
Cormorant 
Nimrod 
Opossum. 
Haughty , 

Lee 

Banterer 

Forester 

Kestrel. 

Starling 

Janus 

Total 

Chesapeake \ 17 

Highflyer i 10 

Magicienne 

Fury 

Assistance 

Cruizcr 

Hcsper 

Royal Marine Brigado 
Royal Engineers 



Total 
Total 



Grand Total 

French force : 
(Signed) 



6 


9 


32 


49 


3 


13 


5 


18 


28 


... 


13 j 


5 


18 


SO 




6 > 


i 


16 


18 




2 i 


4 


8 


12 




5 


3 


8 


9 




2 ! 




2 


2 


... 


66 ! 


53 


14* 


169 




2 ! 


4 


8 


8 




115 : 


110 


253 


315 


3 


16 ' 


54 


93 


111 


j 


131 


144 


345 


426 


8 



4 men killed, and 2 officers and 8 men wounded. 

WALTER DICKSON, M.D., 

Staff Surgeon, H.M.S Chesapeake 



RETURN OK THE STATU OF THE WoINDKD ON HOARD HeK MaJESTT'» Hl» 

Chesapeake and Assistance, to which ships the moke sebious cub 

were removed, those left on board their own hhipft being priscipaut 

hlightly wounded. 

Off Chiuhie.Jur/H 

James Hope, C.B., Admiral splinter wound of thigh ; very severe, doing *dL 
Mklucl Shea, ordinary, musket hall wound of hip ; convalescent. B. Kiflartrr. 
A.B., splinter wound of leg ; severe, doing well. John Wells, ordinary, wound ^ 
linger ; amputation; convalescent. George Bevan, gunner K.M.A., musket W 
wound of knee ; severe, doing well. John Avery, private R.M., splinter wound rf 
leg ; severe, doing well. John Fraser, A.B., miukct ball wound of leg ; sew* 
doing well. William Dudley, ordinary, musket ball wound of thigh ; very tewit, 
b«ll not extracted. William Moore, late Lee, stoker, wound of eye (left); sewn 
recovery of vision doubtful. William Tookey, late Plover, A.B., musket ball wa*A 
of "hip . gevcrc, doing well. 1'cter Ferris, blacksmith, contusion of elbow j ieWffi 
doing well. Thomas Burgess, ordinary, musket hall wound of arm ; oonrafe***- 
Henry Dunn, ordinary, arrow wound of font ; doing well. John Davis, A-& 
fracture of radius ; convalescent. William Collett, ordinary, musket ball wo*J 
of shoulder ; wry severe, ball still lodged. James James, A. B., musket ball 



1859.] 



TfAYAL AND MILITAJtY INTELLIOENLK. 



303 



uf thigh ; very severe, ball still lodged. William Fainter, A.B. (Forester), mu- 
lt ball wound of back. ; severe, doing wefl. Julia Donald, sergeant, R.M., tuus- 
>t bill wound of shoulder ; severe, doing well, Isaac Barnes, sergeant R.M,, 
usket ball wound of bait re, doing well, John Darling, corporal R.M,, 

u*ket ball wound of shoulder ; severe, going on favourably. W, Briern, private 
.M., inuiket hall wound of thigh ; severe, doing well, ilemy Kent, private R.M, 
el 1*11 wound of juw ; severe, doing well, diaries Wilkins, private. R.M., 
t ball wound of thigh ; severe, doing well. John LitrleeliUd, private R.M., 
t ball wound of arm ; severe, doing well. Thomas Wyke, private R.M., 
musket ball wound of rer*, doing well. John Fatterson, private R.M. , 

iw wouml of thigh ; slight, doing well. John London, private ELM, musket 
ill wound of shoulder ; very severe, ball lodged. Charles Gilliiiu, private R.M,, 
11 wound of arm j severe, doing well. Henry Dyke, private R,M„ Banc- 
:t ball wound of knee ; Kvcre, doing well. Christopher Owen, private R.M., 
tt.-l;Lt ball wound of buttock ; severe, doing we]]. Michael Heritage, pi 

• k« t Uall wound of thtali; severe, doing well. Michicl Donovan, private 
M., musket ball wound of thigh ; severe, doing well. Thomas Perrim, private 
.M., gunshot wound of hand : severe, doing well. Emanuel Weeks, private 
JL, musket ball wound of ami ; severe, doing well. George Morky, private 
t.M , musket hall wound of nnn ; plight, doing well. John St abbs, private R,M., 
nakct ball wound of b»ttock ; severe, doing well, ball still lodged. T. Kifchernma, 
ivAte K.M., musket ball wound of thigh ; severe. W. Rlouiit, private R.M., musket 
ill wound of neck and abdomen ; severe, ball in abdomen still lodged , doing well. 
V. Colt, private R.M.., musket ball wound of perinreura ; severe, doing well, R. 
Gratidwell, private U.M., musket ball wonml of ddgh; severe, doing well. W- 
i ivate li.M,. musket ball wound of arm ; severe, doing well. G. Bowman, 
irivntc R.M., musket ball wound of shoulder ; severe, Itali lodged. John Perty, 
irivats IMI-, musket ball wound of thigh ; severe, doing well. James Martin, 
l!,il., musket hall wouml of groin ; severe, doing well, Michael Carrignn, 
M ,. inLi.-k..-i ball wound ofcihow ; severe; nearly well, James Mitchell, 
cr R.M. A, musket hall wound of buttocks; suvcrc, going on favourably. 
« Buchanan, sfljiwr. wounds of face ; -light, convalescent. 

WALTER DICKSON, M.U., Staff Surgeon, 
Her Majesty's Ship Chesajieake. 
<>> Ii<iAitii the Assist ASt'E. 
is Lemon, Colonel R.M., mtukel hall wound of left ride of head; ball ex- 
I. duiug well. W. G. R, Masters, Captain R.M., musket ball wound of right 
and right side of cheat; almost well, N. Bowden Smith, Lieutenant R.N* . 
_ ure of left arm by gmgal ball; ball extracted, convalescent A. R. Bumiston, 
Mftrr R.N., contusion of left leg by round shot; going on favourably. A. P. Pew- 
ktt, Bxidahipinnn, gingal l«ill through right thigh; wound unfavourable. A. W. D 
•i Lieutenant R.M., intiskct ball wound of left side of head] hullet ex- 
tracted, convalescent. P. T. Collins, Pint Lieutenant R.M., musket ha]] wound of 
thigh; bullet extracted, convalescent. William Ryan, gunner, R.N., musket 
ball wound i if rijrht ami; amputation, convalescent. William Archer, private U-.N,, 
musket ball wound of left arm; ball extracted, progressing favourably, Charles 
_c*iit R.M., musket bull of right lore arm; hall nut extracted, doing well. 

;i,i W Is, private R.M. , musket bull wound of right Jwuildcr; ball not ex- 

iuj; yt] favourably. William Cornfield, private R.M. , compound fr* 

.1 tab; doing well. William Johnson, private li.M., musket 
id through left slmidiler; progressing favourably, Robert T. Morris, 
d of left thigh by round shot; convalescent. George Melhuish, 
iskel ball wound of left shoulder; ball nut extracted, going mi well. 
CTburli R.M. , musket hall through right knee; pfogrcariirg fit- 

George Bttkmore, private B.M , musket hull through both thighs; going 
Johnson, private KM,, mnsket ball wound of left thigh ; ampotA- 
ikm. doing well. Henry Smith, private IT .M., musket hall through left lung, pene- 
trating nlfdiiinen U'il io recover. John Doyle, private KM., muaket ball 
ugh left leg. tibia and fibula l»th broken; progressing favourably. Luke Duf 
ite R _M., musket ball wound oi left mdary amputation expected. 
rgo Lccs, private II. M., musket hull wound of left fore ami; ball not found, 
•eeondarv amputation expected Jobu Bailey, private R.M.. musket ball wound of 

>Ug, Xo. 371, Oct., 1859.' % 



row 

I WO 

w 



left thigh; doing well. Stepcu Anifii, private S.M., mi ( ©f kft 

thigh ; convalescent. Chas, Roberts, private R.M., ran 

progressing favourably . John Mansfield, lanec.eorpor;> t, m 

*rm;«»nTaIeacent. John CtmpheU,prival)e,mu£ket ball wound oi 

ami. Jas. Cooper, private, musket ball wormd through righi 

Tippets, private, musket bull wound of left fore-aim ; 

amputation expected. Alfred Dowectt, private, compound 

■capula by round shot ; doing well Daniel Payno, prival 

right breast ; extensive ploughing and going on unfavoui 

private, mosket ball wound in bai I scent. Jai 

wound ofleft knee, gunshot wound of left foot ; going on well. 

sergeant R.M., musket ball wound through right thigh : cou 

Francis, eolour-eergeant, right tinkle broken by ^ingal 

Fry, private, musket I. nil wound of left arm ;" doin^: 'well. Will 

jeant, musket ball wound of left thigh : impressing favourablj J. Chi 

field, corpora], musket ball wound through both thighs, not coin^ 

John Handey, private, mtisket ball wound of loft knee ; Juna 

llardnciv, private, musket ball wounds through lei" 

James Lmmloy, private, musket ball wound in ri^ht 
thigh ; doinp well. Junes Clift, private, nmskct_ball vround in n 

hiWfwnil 




s 



bull not extrarted, doing unfavourably. George Holmes, 

ball wound of iibdniiifu and pelvia j doing well, Edmund Pa 

nm*ket ball wound of right thigh and ankle ; doing well. ' 

musket hull wound oj rijrlit thigh: wound tsb nith; nsr. not |m>gi 

W, d. Bailey, private, musket boll wound of left thigh ; 

Rukrr, serjeant, muaket ball wound through right arm ; pKQgJ 

John Turner, private, musket ball wound in ri^rlit arn 

Frederick Meant, l&noa-corpoml. musket ball wound in !>ack ; coi 

R. Tilley, Serjeant, mn-l-i 1-11 wound in ri^ht thigh ; 

Charlea Oatter, private, musket halt wound in right I 

Roll ingson, private, mnakct ball wound in fore -arm ; doing well, 

private, iniisket ball wound in alylonion and left knee ; d 

serjeant. musket ball wound of left thigh ; conviuVrcnt. Mm k i 'tniningham, teaatsc 

stoker, musket ball through right heel ; amputation expected, II. Wuirsa, R.l.l- 

mnsket hall through left bide of head ; if lower cnti 

William Fry, carpenter's crew, musket bull through left arm; 

leseent. Samuel Daker, ordinary, musket hall tin 

William Goodwin, bombadicr Royal Marine Artillc '-all 

of abdomen; ball extracted; doing Well. Will 

through right arm; amputation; convalc^c-nt. \V 

fraeturo of right leg by musket kills doing well. V 

splintered wound, right shoulder; doing well, George Wanl. 

teg amputated; doing well. James Ma delay, private, ll\t 

doing well. Richard Power, ordinary, left thigh anipm- 

William Seotf, A.H., loft thigh amputated; going on favour 

ordinary, amputation of right great toe; going on well. Tl 

musket hall wound of thigh; going nil well. James Fuze, 

wound fracture of hnnicnis; atfeurive sloughing, bn 

Pollen, stoker, amputation of right thigh ; gnu n\l,!v. 

AH. miiiiuDiiion of left ley,; doing well. John llaiu- . 

left arm; denng well .To nh (Jbry, private R.M., lift ibi: 

John Welsh, nrditurri , mi -lit ball wound c>l 

1'vne. R.I.C.L., guii-lint wound of ?l Idei : 

'mil wound i'l right -Mi ol !; :i I ■ mini |»aral 
M'L od, ordinary, right leg amjrtilated ; d»in -l tt. cap. ivct 

- ball wound «f abdomen ; doing well. M»tt. Nevio, A i 
4o»i.iii. extensive sloughing; doing well. William Padhtn, pi 
Vaaket hall wound of ri^ht nr\a ; aui|>utation ; oouvalceocnL Job: 
mtaket ball wound of thieh ; ■ xtenaive slooghins; ; doing well. J oho Oak, A3- 
»m<ket ball wound of foot ; convalescent. John Ki ' 
wound ej abdomen; tome sloughing; going on well 
fracture of left ancle from musket ball ; doing wi 
left leg amputated \ cotrraleoceat. Joeh. Tyler, ordinary, ekteftjwn laeansuoo «* 




.] 



NAVAi; A!TD MtUTAET I W TELIIUEXCE. 



305 



foot J going on well. John Davi«, A.B., rush wound of left ana and left Bide 
fiit.it; doing well. Charles Collins, A. It., Inn .;tn re of right leg above ancle; 
I. Francis Smith, boats' mots, musket ball wound of right lag j doing 
Sullivan, captain of maintop, musket ball wound of right thigh, 
fever ; not going on well. George Mnyne, captains' mate, an 
r left thigh ; tom-.ik-scL'itt. Uicliard Mitchell, captain's coxcmnB, musket 
■ 1 ; doing well. John Mni tin, gunner, R.M.A., 
iiuhI from musket Lull ; filing on well Andrew Greig, sergeant, R.E. 
bait wound through left arm ; convalescent. Charles Doige, sapper, musket 
uud through left thigh \ going on woU. John M'Queeu, corporal, HE., 
ball wound through ri|^t:t shoulder ; going on well, John Trigglo, sapper, 
ruket ball i lit arm; going on well. James Rcid, private, EM, 

uskei hull wound of right ami; doing well. James Well, private, K.M., 
uskct bull wound of right leg ; going on welL Thomas Firfc, private, li.M., 
.' t ball wound of left arm: doing well. Thomas Dale, private, li.M,, 
l>all wound of right arm ; d<>ing well. 

JOHN LITTLE, 
Surgeon Royal Marine Brigade, in charge 
of wounded on board Assistance. 

HEIf MAJESTY'S SHIP ASSISTANCE, Jllv 27. 

mi. Bdkekb OF Mrs who have dieu OH board 
this siiir iif WuvMis in:. i:ivko is Action with the Esewt since tu* 

of Jilt. 

July 3.— Henry Juris, private, K.M.. 1st Battalion. 
Jnly 7. — William Hunting, sergeant, R.M., Chesapeake, 
7. — William Churchill, siukcr, Assistance. 
8. — William Welsh, private, 11. M., 1st Battalion. 
July is i Hughes, private, li.M., 1st Battalion. 

William Furmingcr, ordinary, Cruiser. 
Frederick Richardson, ordinary, Highflyer. 
J uly 25, — Thomas Alder, ordinary, Nimroil. 

ii .-• Herbert, private, R.M., 1st Battalion. 
July 37. John Palmer, supper, Royal Engineer*. 

A. (J. HEATH, Commander. 



On f uoilty, September "J7th, (wo of the large mortur vessels, Nos. 31 
intended for operations in China, were removed from 
t portion of the harbour in which they have been lying and tufceii into 
first dock at Chatham for the purpose of being overhauled, and, iu esse 
U may he discovered, 1o be put into a state of thorough repair, 
ley are also to be examined by n board of officers, in order to discover 
murine worm has effected anv lavages in the timbers at the 
during the time they have been lying up. Should this destructive 
tet be found to have taken possession of any of the timbers, these will bo 
uoved and new ones substituted, after which Ihc bottom will bo re- 
efed with the composition which has been introdurcd into the navy. As 
>n as these mortar-boats have been completed they will be undocked, and 
lers take their place to undergo a similar overhauling, 



■ I' 




DISTBIBUTION OF THE BOMBAY ARMY. 



The following is the distribution of the Bombay Army, corrected to 
1st of August lost. 



IIER MAJESTY'S HOME TROOPS. 
3rd (The Prince of Wales') 

Dragoon Guards • • Mhow 
Squadron ..... Alunednuggur 

6th Inniskilling Dragoons - Kirkee 
8th Hussars ..... Nusseralmd 

Left Wing ...... Neeiuuch 

14th Light Dragoons - - Kirkee 
17th Lancers ..... .Jhansi 

RoTAL KKGIUKXT 01' BRITISH AUTILLERT. 

D Troop Hoise Artillery - - Mhow 
3nd Company, 3rd Battalion Poona 
2nd Company, 11th Battalion Aden 
7tli Company, 11th Battalion Sehore 
2nd Company, 13th Battalion Baroda 
5th Company, 14th Battalion Calpee 
8th Company, 14tli Buttallon Dliarwur 
Royal Corps or Excisemen. 
11th Company .... - Poona 
31st Company Uwalior 

BOTAL Rf.GIMKNTS OF BRITISH ISFANTRT. 

4th (Tho King's own RegU Ahmcdahad 
Detachment ..... Surat 

Do. ..... Baroda 

28th (North Gloucestershire) 
Regiment .... - Bombay 

81st Huntingdonshire Regi- 
ment ....... Poona 

33rd (The Duke of Welling- 
ton's Regiment) ... Deesa 
flSth West Essex Regiment - Belganm 
57th Regiment - - - - - Ahmednuggur 

Wing Aden 

C4tli Regiment Koot ... Kurracliee 
72nd Highlanders ... Mhow 
K3rd Itegtmeut Koot - - - Nusserabad 
!>2nd Highlanders- - - - Central India 
Detachment ..... Jndore 
!i5th Regiment Wing - - Ncemuch 
Depot .--.... |>ee.-a 
German Jagcr Batailon Head 

Quarters Poona 

Wing Sholaporc 

Detachment ..... Sattara 

HER MAJESTY'S INDIAN* BRITISH TROOPS 

Regiment of Artillery. 
Horse Brigade, Head quarters I'oona 
1st (or Leslie's) Troop, Head 

Quarters -----. Deesa 
2nd Troop ...... Kurruchce. 

3rd Troop Nusserabad 

4th Troop ...... Poona 

1st Battalion, Head-quarters Ahmednuggur 
1st Company ..... Ahmcdabad 

2nd Company ..... Bclgauin 

3rd Company ..... Hydrabad 

4th Company ..... Bombay 

2nd Battalion, Head-quarters Bombay 
1st Company ..... Neemuch 

2nd Do. ..... Sattara 

3rd Da Sliolapore 

4th Do. Mhow 

Resebvr Artillkky. 

Head Quarters Ahmednuggur 

1st Company Kurrarhcc 

2nd Do Jaulna 

3rd Do. ..... Kolapoor 

4th Da ..... Kurracliee 

Coups of Exgixef.hu. 
Head Quarters - - - - Poona 

Infantry. 
1st European Regiment (Fusl- 
'«^n) Head Quarters - - Kurrachet 
^■ropean Regiment L. I. Bclgaum 
....... Kolapor* 

Vpean Regiment - Mhow 



HER MAJESTY'S NATIVE TROW* 
Artillery. 
3rd Battalion, Head-quarters AhmedaM 
1st Company ..... Ahmedabad sat 
Rajeote 

2nd Do. Ahmedafatf 

3rd Do. ..... Deesa 

4th Company ..... Nnaccrabad 

Oth Do. Ahmedabad 

6th Do. Aden 

4th Battalion, Head Quarters AhmednoffOT 
1st Company - - - - - Ahmednuggur 
Detachment ..... Xeemuch 
2nd Company ..... Ahmednuggsr 
4th Do. ..... Ahmednucjar 

fltli Da Khandeish 

Corps of Sappers ash Mixeis. 
Head Quarters (Bombay) - Poona 
1st Company ..... poona 
2nd Do. ... . Aden 
Detachment ..... Jhansi 
3rd Company ..... Augur 

4th Do Poona 

Oth Do. ..... Poona 

Detachment ..... Jhansi 

Light Cavalry. 
1st Regiment (Lancers) - Nusserabad 
2nd Regiment Light Cavalry Netnrarh 
Detachment ..... Deesa 

3rd Regiment Light Cavalry Jhansi 
Wing Sholapore 

IXTAXTBY. 

1st Regiment N 1. (Grena- 
diers) ....... Kurrachet 

2nd do. do ... Bombay 
3rd Regiment N. 1. - - - Malllgauni 
4th do. do. (Rifle*)- Schore 
Wing ...... ludore 

•»th do. N. L. I. - Kulladgher 
6th do. N. I. . . . Poona 

7th do. do. - - Bombay 

8th do. do. - - .Sattara 
■Jth do. do. - - liehora Ce*li! 

India 
10th do. do • - Seronge CcaJitJ 

India 
11th do. do. - - Ahmedabad 
12th do. da - - Nusseralwd 

13rh da da - - Neemuch 
14th do. do - - Ahmedabad 

15th da do. - - Kolapore 

16h do. do. . Surat 
Detachment ... Broach 
17th da da - Rajkote 
13th do. do. • Belganm 
19th do. da - Mhow 
20th da do. • Dharwar 
22nd do. do. - Ahmednaggar 
23rd da N. LI. - Mhow 
24th Regiment N. I. - Jhansi 
Depot .... Mhow 

2.1th da N. L I. . Poona 

26th da N. I. - Scerpore 

28th da da - ShoUpon 

29th da do. - Aden 

30th da da - DhoUa 

31st da do. - Deesa 

1st Extra Battalion - Kumebee 

2nd Extra Battalion - liaruda 

3rd Extra Battalion - Belgium 

1st Belooch Regiment - Hvdrabad 

2nd Do. Do. - . DheraGhant Da 

Depot .... Shlkarpoor 

■)rd Belooch Regiment . Nuggar Farter 

DUtricn 
^ing Hydrabad 



RREGL'LAR A.VD LOCAL COUP*. 

Military, 
ejcuiar Horse * tewr 
nent Sclnde Irregular 

ment Da - Jacobahad 
nenl Ho, - Jiicotjahad 

nent Southern Mah- 

Irrrjfulir II arte KuliadRhcc 
in ent San Ultra Kab> 

Irre^-nLir Horse KuHadghee 
Item bay 
nent Jacob* Tflfles Jnrobabad 
ment Jaeobi ttifle* Jacatuiluid 




DISTRIBUTION OF THE MADRAS ARMY. 

lowing is (lie Distribution Lfst of the Madras Armv, corrected up to 
October, 18.58. 



CiTiin 
m tbe Governor's llody 

. .» . ..Mudrtta 

t Dragoon Guard* ...Bangalore 
th I!o) Hi twicers Head 

raond lit. WiriR Secunderabad 

fia$r— FWd Sorvlee— Gen. WMtlock'a 
■n 

WHvi- Lljjlu Cavalry, .Trlchlnopoly 
do.. ...... . . Sliolspore 

mderorderMO SeciindeiMtiad. 
y«tlTf Ught IVivnlr; ', 

unrtem. 1,1 fl WinR Ilnngiilun.' 

Wing ..Bellary 

. Native tight Cavalry.. Bun gal Field 
Fotcc 

do..., Hellllry 

do.. ....Bengal IMd 

flan t ee 

<!n.. , ... Kiimiili'i' 

1 Miuadrou SceunCerabad 
Annr.Ltrtf. 
a Hoyal Hot** Artillery, St.Thoa.' Mount 
lartcrs MnJr.u Horse 

. Bangalore 

>. Field Service Gen. WWIewkli 
IJivIalpn 

I Secunderauad 

> ...UanR-ilare 

I — Kampfef- 

Uengnd Field 

Service 

> ....... , — ..field Service 

u MtelocVa DlVlalMl 
mp.lat Bat Itoyal Artll- 

I ii-U liattcrv. .. at, Thoa." Mount 
mp, 3rd Bat. ttoval Artil. 
ad No. 9 Field Baltcrv.„l"eUan 
mp. Htb Dat Royal kt- 
, * So. 8 Held Battery.. Field Service 

(iin Wliiiilor!*'!) bullion 
r.9tli Bat. H*L Artillery.!* .-mink'TabBd 

r Battu.10* Mali a An Aktilliut, 
iirteni ....... Si.Tho*. 'Muuti' 

f Head quartets £ 
hiv J S-thlrda Co. . .Singapore 
*"' 1 Half Company ...I'enftnif 

" hetuehiiu-ut .... Miuullpatsn 

any Mcralmeln 

Bellary 

(Nft. H Home Uattcry)...llangrion 
in Rati alios Madiia^ AtnuiiT, 

arter* Kampteo 

[So 8 Unlltmit Battery} Trlchlnbpoly 
eodquajiara and ) Co. , .Traighoo 

tTilf Company ...Shuaygbeen 
:, Horse Battery) Bangalore 



II. Copy. (No. * RuBock Battery) 
Head quarters and half ...,», ...Kantptec 

Half Company............. .Sectabuldre 

Titum Battalion Mamaa Aimimrrr 

Head quartcra rimi^Don 

A fi.i ip.iny (No. 'i Kowa Bat.) Hen gat Scrrleo 
II. Company (Ho. * Hnrse Bat.) Tenglia 
C. Company f No. S flnllock DuUTInivetmew 
I '. Company i No. j bulluck Hat.) Field Set 

(Jen. \V1iUelock'»l)hl*li-iii 
Fornrn Ratt.u.[o:j Hadhlh Annum; t. 

Iltjirl quarters ■ .Secundorobatl 

*.. Company (Xo. I How Bat ). ..Field Hum lea 

Uen, Whlteloek 
II Coni|uiny [N'o, 10 Hulk. Ii.it.) Hit to 
C Qonrpavn) iN". '■'• flidK. Uat,)..,Sueiindi'Ti\)var( 
... Company Head [guarters and 
twcMlilTdi Ran^non 

Qui ltd ill ,.„„Bai!H'ii> 

Furrit on QaJunEHSHl (Native) Hattilioh 

M.Uifi.ks ASTZLLur. 

Head qaartara. Si,Tlio«.'Moinjt 

A. Company Head ^ nailer* and 

t« - o-t]ilrds Company Tenaaff 

One-ililrd Company Malacca 

J*. Company,.,,... ........... ......singapara 

C. Company (.So. 1 Bulk. Bat.) Bengal Serviee 

D. Company (Si*. t Hulk. liat.)...Cai)nauori> and 

Mnnputore 

I. Cijuipnny (N'o. B Bulk Bat.)...Cutt*ck and 

SumbuJjiuio 

F. Cum pany .Meeaday 

lat SjppleiueTital Company JrTho*. Mount 

M lA da ............ Vlaijuiairrain 

Detail! of «vE'rt.l Cciinpank's ...Lubuan 

MlI'H*a F.RnCTEIAS, 

Head quarter! ,. Fort St. George 

Mioaju Sutkii- kss> MtJtina— JtAirva. 

Read quartern .Dowlalabwerain 

A. Companv .....Ditto 

One Section with (ion. AVbltlock'a Field Sendee 

U. Company „„...,. .....Nertmdda 

(Bombay) FtoM Service 

C. Company ....,...„...„ ......Bengal Service 

U, Company , Rangoon 

K. Company ...Dowlabliweram 

Une Section wltb Gen. Whltelock'a Dlvialon 

F. Company .......Seennderabad 

(Ine Section „,,.-,.. roambant 

(1. Cnmpnny , 1'ndounpnyo 

II. Company ,„.., Thjiyslmew 

I .Company ... . Tonglio 

K. Companv Dowlal Jh»r«r«a 

L. Company Field ntilalon 

Gen-Wliltclock 
M, Company Do*lal»li*er*ni 



808 



DIlTBIBOTTOff Of TM U1DBAJ ABUT. 



tOn, 



IKTA5THT. 
ECBOPKAN. 

H.M. 1st Royal Regt. (1st Bat),.Secmiderabad 

H.M. 43rd Light lniantry Gen.Whltelock's 

Division Field Service 

H.M. 44th Regiment Fort St George 

H.SL 60th Royal Rifles (3d. Bat) Bangalore 

8 Companies Bellary 

I da Mysore 

1 do. Hurryhar 

H.M. 66th Regiment Cannanore 

1 Company Mangalore 

1 da Sircce 

H.M. 68* Regiment Rangoon 

H.M. 69th Regiment Tcnghoo 

EM. 74th Higldanders Bernampore 

1 Company Sholapore 

8 Companies Field Service 

Southern Mahratta Country 

The Madras Fusiliers Bengal on 

Field Service 
2nd European Light Infantry . Trichinopoly 
3rd Madras European Regiment Field Division 
under Oen. Whltlock 
Native Ixfahtkt. 
1st BegimentN.L (Rifle Comp.) Service Gen. 
Whltelock's Division 

3nd Regiment N. I Qullon 

8rd N.I. or Falamcottah Light 

Infantry Cannanore 

4th N.L Thayetmew 

«th N. I. (Rifle Company) Head 

quarters Right Wing Mangalore 

Left Wing Smnbnlpore 

6th N. I. . . • • Rangoon 

7th X. I Secundorabad 

8th X. I Tonghoo 

0th N. I .Secunlerabad 

lOthN. I Secunderabod 

11th X.I Bellary 

12th N. I Rangoon 

13th X.I Maulmcin 

14th N. I Singapore 

16th X. I Thayetmew 

16th X. I. (liliic Company) Mangalore 

17th N.I Bengal Field 

Service 

18th X, I Bellary 

lath N. L Service Ger., 

Whitelock's Division 

80th N. I. Bangalore 

91st N, I .Trichinopoly 

32nd N. L l'enang 

23rd X. L (or Walajahbad Light 

Infantry) Rangoon 

24th N.I. (Rifle Company) Ilenzedah 

24th X. I. „ Madras 

36th N. L .............. Kamptee 



27th N. I „.....B**f«l, on 

Serrtcs 

28th X. L .; Hoeetngatai 

29th X. I. Mumllpsf 

30th X. L Bellary 

81st X. L, or Trichinopoly light 

Infantry VI 

82nd X. L ~ 

83rd X. I. Ka 

34th or (Chlcacale Lt Infantry) TrlefclnosslT 

35th X. I Hnrrjrhw 

3«th (Kiflo Company) Knmool 

37th X. I., (GrenadleraJ Head 

quarters J h aay gtet 

Left Wing .Tongnoa 

38 h X. I. (Rifle Company) .. Vlaagapsbas 

89th X. I .Thayernx* 

40th X. I Cuttack 

41st X. I Barman 

42nd X. L Naicfceor Ml 

Service 

43rdX.I RussekeoU 

44th X, I .Tbayetievw 

45th NI Madras 

4<ith X. I VbagaadN 

47th X. I ...Bellarr 

48th X. I. Mouimeb 

49th X. I. (Rifle Company) .SecnBderatsi 

60th X. I . . . .ferries fle» 

Whltlock-sDhM 

Cist X. I Valamcottsk 

B2nd X. L _..M«rcar» 

Left Wing French Reckt 

1st Extra Regiment N. L JSamnkettsi 

2nd Extra N. I TrirMMO* 

3rd F.xtraX. I. Cnddapak 

Sappers' Militia Madias 

Madras Rifles, tcmporarllv formed tor ier*i 

in Bengal by the Rilie Companies of tbt I*. 

.ith, 16th, 24th, 3flth, 49th, Regiment* & L, 

and 2 Companies S4th X. I.— Service Brajtl 

VKTERAXS' ESTABLISHMENT. 

ErsopsAX Vetruans 

Artillery Company Palareram 

Infantry Company Vliejsrjtr- 

XATIVK VtTKEAXi 

1st or Madras Native Vet Rat. .Madias 
2nd or Amu Native Vet. Bat. .Arcet 
1>ep6t!«. 

For H.M Regiments PoonanaBst 

European Infantry „..Arcnt 

Xative Infantry Palavers* 

Native Ixfaxtkt Kkcielitiso Ddo» 

Xo. 1 Recruiting Depot ...Dindlgsl 

No. 2 da jircot 

Xa8 da ChJeacolt 

No- 4 do JUlert 



•x .*• 



309 



STATIONS OF THE BRITISH ABMY. 
{Certmti up to 27fA September, 185a, indtuive.) 
i two place* ire mentioned, the last-named a that at which the Depot is stationed .] 



»nU— Aldershot 
ftegent** Park, 
larie Qturdi — Hyde I'ark. 
Span Guard* -Madm; C*01 
—Bengal : Canterbury. 

mntwy; Canterbury. 

IjrbtOfl, 

Irtone. 
K Canterburv. 



Canterbury. 
f. Cantcrhury, 
-Kr.li. fnr England: llalil- 
H— Ifimmloiv. 
I— BDrtrTlngti 

■ filling : Ualdl 
[lit Dragoon* — Till Win. 
— Bo:: 
. ■ 

bar jr. 
MdenliDU, 
; but}— Shoi-neliffee. 
m ]ia«M|!0 home. 
»t J-1Y. , 

jb. - Itopnt at Aldershot 
| Woutwloli. J 

i [1st l)af j— Wulllnitton Bar. 
t,J- WlndMr. 
LJ — St, i 

i Goardj [l«i bat.]— Wellington liar, 
t] — Tower. 

iiiiirds [1st Isal.]— PcTUmnulh. 
»t]-Dnblln. 

it.] --Madras: Colchester, 
hut. J— China : Birr, 
lit [\tM.}~ C. of O. Hop*: Wilmer. 
bat]- Corfu: Walmer. 
Hat,]— Bengal; Limerick. 
o. Malta : Limerick, 

! bat] —Bombay : Chlchoater. 

orfti: Chlehcati r. 
bdt.J -Bengal : Colchceler. 
faurltitu , Pembroke, 
cngal: Cokh eater, 
brattar: Cork. 
t]— Bengal: Chatham, 
L] — Gibraltar; Wiilmer. 
; bat] - 1 ira ga 1 : C liathaiu. 
t ]— t.ilbraltar: TemplenHire 
at. liat] -AI.U>r*hiitt : Llmcrli-k. 
b*tj— Corfu : Limerick. 
;iit bat— Plymouth. 
■mi.j -cumift, 

lit bat] — AlrlernTm!; l-'crmoy. 
batl— Alilerah 

lit tint.]- \. H. Wales: Walmor, 
baL]— Aldt-rshot. 

-Ucrxfi]: Pernioy. 
bat.]— Cape of 04 Horn: 1 and Feraoy. 
1st hot- J —OephaionU : Fermoy, 

rote, 
nire. 

Jfh- 
Lbnerkk. 



D* [2nd bat]— Al'Ienbot. 
18111 lift— Homlul.Y: UiltttTnDl, 
Do. [I'nd bnt.]— Cnrracli, 
Uitli do. — fk'ngol i Chutlmmv 
lin. find ba!.] — Aldershott 
SOth 4.;.— Bengal : ChnMmm. 
I>o. find hat.]— Curra^h. 
Slat dn.— Malta: Birr. 
Do. [.'ml baF.]~AlderBlintr. 
".'-Jin! do. — IiuliUm 1'arklnirst. 

[9nd bat}— Malta : farldiurrt 
'JJrd ili i. Bengal . i. '.'i ", 

lad Imt.J -Walnnr: Uulta. 
. leu — Bengal; Ch.itliittn. 
Do. [2ml bat,) — Aldcrahor. 
JiSlhflo. Gibraltar t Athlnne. 
2<ith do,— Ucnnuda: Belfast. 
S7th dO, -Kongal: Ilmrtv.inr. 
28th ilo.— Bnmhay : FerniDY. 
39th d ked for Knejraa ; CUftaan, 

10th do, -•■Hi vi- ii . Parklium. 
;.. —Bombay: Chatham. 
; ,Io. — llevoujiort : Duver. 
d lo.— UonihiTi Fermoy. 
14th do.— Bengal: CoU'Iu-i.t. 
S-ltli do,— Bengal : (Jlialhiiin. 
StH Ii do. — I'lviiionth : AiHIimn. 
SVtti flo, — Bengal; Culi-hlnti-r. 

do.— Bengali Oetehftster. 

:!*Uh dn, — Canada : TetBJlfefQOm. 
Mthflo.— N. & Wales: Birr. 

4l?t do !ftlll.iir:i: DutuUJNA 

4Snd da. — Bengal : Sterling. 
4!tni do- — Madi'ii*: Ctialhiin, 
■1411 fla, — Mii.lr.li : Colchester. 
40th do. — I^tston: l'arklinrrt. 
40th do. — Bengal ; ttuttcmnt. 
itth do.— SliorncilfTe : Cork. 
4srii tin.— Beogilt Cork, 
40th du. — Barboduea: Belfart. 
i do. — ^^Ccylon s ('wktiiiret 
61st do, — Bengal; cliklic«ter, 
i2nd d'). — Uengnh Cliatlium 
Aitrd do. — illttn: iliti i 
C4th du. — Bengal : Colchester 
Mill do. — CiiFi-.i„-h: Ut>»i!upoiL 
fiCth do. — Bombay : Culctioatar 
67th do, — Bombay ; Cork. 
Ssthdo.— Alder*hott: Eirr. 
SMI h do. — CapO : AtlilOllc 
COlh do.— IlBtbat.}— Hengal : Wlncliastar 
Do, [Jnd hat,]— Beiiftal . Wlncheanr 
1)9. [3ril sat.]— Madra*; Winchester 
Do. [4th bat]— Wlnehcstcr. 
but do, — MaoritUis; Pembroke 
liSnd do.— Xova Scotia: Beliaat 
03rd do— lit to: B«UU« 
C4th do. — llombay- Canterboiy 
U.Mli i\».— New KcnUnd : Birr. 
Plitli do.— Madr.ii: Col^lieatrr 
r.Trli.l.i. — Ucngal: Athloua 
frit li do. — Mad ra » : Fe mioy 
65th do.— Madras : Fennoy 
JOrh do. — Beogal; Canterbury 
Tlit do. — Bengals Forth. 
Tiiid da — Bombay ; Aberdeen 
J3rddO. — fienjjal ; Deronport. 
74th uo.— Madras: Abenteen 
75th do. — henirnl: Chatham 
Trill; ,l,i— t i.i'.liri ; llulfut 
7Tth do.— Bengal I Cliatlianr. 
7" t h do, — Fu rt Goorge : Atrerdee u 

— Bengiil : Hltrllng. 
UlltH do— ditto UiitW^iut, 



310 



•TATTOFI OF THX ElfBODTED tfTLTTIA. 



[Oct.. 



•1st do.— Bengal : Chatham 
82nd do.— Bengal: Canterbury 
63rd do.— Bombay : Chichester. 
84th do.— Sheffield: Pembroke 
85th da— Cape : Pembroke 
86th, da— Gosportj Templemore 
87th da— Bengal : Bnttevant 
88th do.— Bengali Colchester 
89th da — Bombay: Fermoy 
80th do. — Bengal : Canterbury 
91st do.— Madras : Chatham. 
92nd da— Bombay j Stirling 
93rd do. — Bengal ; Aberdeen 
94th do.— ditto : Chatham 
96th do. — Bombay : Fermoy 
96th do. — Manchester : l'arkhurst. 
97th do.— Bengal : Colchester 



98th da— Bengal : Canterbury 

99th da— Bengal : Cork 

100th do.— Gibraltar [Parkhust. 

Rifle Brigade [1st bat]— Portsmouth. 

Da [2nd bat]— Bengal: Winchester 

Da {3rd bat]— Bengal: Winchester 

Do. [4th bat.]— Malta, Winchester 

1st West India Regiment — »»<""■■« 

2nd do— Jamaica 

3rd da — Barbadocs 

Ceylon IUfle Regiment — Ceylon 

Cape Mounted Klflea— Cape of Good Hope 

Itoyal Canadian liifle Regiment— Canada 

St. Helena Regiment — St Helena 

Royal Newfoundland Corps— Newfcundlaad 

Royal Malta Fenclbles— Malta 

Gold Coast Corps— Cape Coast Castle 



STATIONS OF THE EMBODIED MILITIA. 



Bedford— Weymouth. 
2nd Cheshire— Shorncllffe 
Durham Artillery— Gosport 

Hampshire Artillery — Pembroke 
East Kent— Portsmouth 
Lancashire Artillery — Kinsale. 

Edinburgh Artillery : Edinburgh 
Forlar Artillery — Sheerness 
Fife Artillery — Pcndennis 

Antrim Rifles — Aldershot 

Antrim Artillery— Curragh. 

North Cork— Aldershot 

Donegal — Yarmouth andDeptford Kerry— Ttnulfonl 



ENGLAND (18). 
Norfolk Artillery — Sheerness. 
North Lincoln— Curragh 
Sth Middlesex— Dublin 
Northumberland Artillery — 

Tynemouth. 
Oxford — Dover. 
1st Stafford— Portsmouth 
2nd Stafford— Curragh. 

SCOTLAND (3). 
2nd Lanark— Dnblin 

IRELAND (12). 
Dublin (city)— Plymouth 



SuffuUt Artillery— PortBOB* 

Sussex— Glasgow 

1st Tower Hamlets-Cork 



2nd Warwick— Newport 
Wilts— DoTer. 

1st York, (W. R.)— Edlnbeql 
3rd York— Newcastle on Trie 

Stirling— Shornollftc 



Limerick (County) Frmesth 
Dublin City Artillery— Colchester Lonth (Rifle*)— Crisis* Barf 



Fermanagh — Chester 



Tlppcrary ArtUL— Gosport 
Wntcrford Artillery— Pitt- 



911 



TTONS OF THE K05TAL NAVY IX COMMISSION. 

(CoTTttted to 27M September). 
IKtlA (Ac Dtor** df Cammitswit of the Officer s in Command. 



1»n, si. Capt, C, F. Scliombcru, 1851, 
H) I iMt. 

, Com IS. B. Pctjrse, 1&56, East Indies. 
8. Com- .1. Ward (b), 185S, E. Indira. 
;, *c troop-slilp, Core. E. Lacy, l&SSi 

indies. 

ion, fl, to, C*pL T. Hnpc, IS-/?. 

nc! Fleet. 

screw. Captain J, MoXcil, Boyd, 18M, 

Baud 

«.. Cum. W, A. R. fearse, 1«*S, Pacific 
it guniKiat, Lieut -Com. V. Arthur. 
i ast Indies, 
il. screw, Capt. Gi \V D. O'CnlUghun., 

. M, Capt. 8. firenfefl, 18-M, Pacific. 
OupL T. Cochran, 1857, 
■H 

3, «.- vessel. Lieut -Com. i. W. Bike, 
Coast of Africa. 

1*. Cum, J. £. MontfTomerie, 1855, 
i America mnd Wait Indies. 

8, screw, Capt J, Sanderson, 1856, 
Of Africa. 

afc-Teasel. Com. II. I'. TV. Ingrain, 
Mediterranean. 

47. screw, Cint, Wi Edmonw 
Portsmouth. 

Capt O.T. Gordon, 1K4iI PcMm 
t, screw tro«P'Pii!p, Com, W. A. .1, 
l, 1SJSS, Cart Indies. 
i, 4, screw, Com- C. it. Ayn&ley, 1B5G, 
emui^nn, 

14, Com. T. M. a Fasley, 1806, North 

I West Indies. 
, Com. E. Wilson, 18*5, Greenock. 

2, urease!. Com. C. A. Campbell, 

pi Uti naisean. 

ic-gnnbt, L Unit. -Com. J. Jenkins. 
East Indies. 

S, ft-vesael, Com. G, A rimyvc, lBfii, 
i America and West Imllen. 

«c., Cntn E. liny, 1858, Portsmouth, 
under to Calcutta, Lust Indies. 
;le, *t.-yacht, HaaC-Com. J. E. Pelley, 

particular service. 

, 60, screw, Capt F. Scott, C.U , 1- 48, 
I Guard. 

I, TO, Bear Admiral the linn. Sir F 
rey. K.C.B., Capt R. A. Powell, CD., 

Cape of Good Hope. 
I, sc.. Capt A. F. R- D'Horsey, 1B57. 

I, Training Skip, Capt. R. HaJTK 

Portamonth. 
,-Tea, LtenL-Cam. E. F. Ludder, 1851, 
! al Afflict, 

k, 80, ac , Captain E. Ommanney, Wl«. 
terranean. 

crew, Mas. -Com. A. Brawn, IBM, pnr- 
u service. 

9. sc -gimbt. Lt-Coin. E. W, Hallowes 
East Indie*, 

«, at.-reasei. Com. F. real, 1855, S.E. 

t of America. 

JI, at, Capt IL S. ttlliysr, C.B., 18H, 

biiTaiiiwiii 

I, screw, Capt T. IL Mason, 1843, Chan- 

leet 

15, Capt F. b, Muiureeor, 1851, Pacific, 
i, 40. Cnptaln J. J. M' Cleverly ,C.B, 

East Indies. 

Be, Gunnery Ship, Capt A W. Jemlng- 
, 1861, DoTonpwL 




Camilla, J G, Com. G. T, Colvflle, 1855, £. Indies. 
Carsnoe, 2, jt.-ves., Lieut-Com. C M. Buckle, 

1817, Mediterranean. 
Centaur, 11, M.-vesbd, Coin, E. D'o. D'a, Aplin, 

Devcnjwrt. 
Centm-lan. Bo, sc, Capt C, O. E, Patcy, IMt), 

Mediterranean. 

Cli&aapcakc, il, mam, Rear-Adminil J. ROM. 

C.B., Capt. G, 0. WLHIa, l*i6, East Indies. 

Clio, *l, sc, Capt F. ilUler, 1855, Portstnouth. 

Clown, ac-irnnbt t Lleut-Gom. IV. F. Lee, ISM, 

1843, Bust Indies. 
Coekenafw, '.', a-. -irunljt, Lleut-Cc-m. IL I, 

Holder, 1854, Devonport. 
Conftict 8. ac., Com. fl. \v. CourtenaT, 185s, 

Coast of Africa. 
Comineror, Ifil, screw. Cnpt W. J, C. Clifford, 

C.B., 1847, Medlterrauean. 
Coquette^, 4, sc. Com. the Hon. F, A. Fotej, 

18S5, Mediterranean. 
Cordelia, 11, ic„ Com. C. E. H. Vernon, 18*9, 

AamttXm, 
Corajonint, 4, «v, Com. A. Wodchoaso, 1856, 

East Indies. 
Cornwall!* go, sc„ Captain Q. G. Randolph,C.B, 

1851, Coast Guard. 
Coromaadel, st-vcssel. Second Master W, H, 

Vino (acting. East Indies 
Cossack, 20, te, Capt It Moorman, 185*, North 

America and West Indira. 
Creasy, 80. screw, Capt the Hon. C. O. J. B, 

Elliot, C.a., 1841, Modlterraneaa. 
Crocodile, 8, rec-shlp, Com W. Greet, 1864, 

off the Tower, 
Cruiser, 17, sc. Com, J. Bytheaea^ 1866, S. E. 

Coast of AmorU-o. 
Ouracoa, 91, screw, Capt A. l'hiltlmere, 1865, 

jmrticular swflc*. 
Cyclops, fl. Bt-v., Capt IV. J. S. Fallen, 1850, 

East ladies. 
Dasher, a, sL-k-mI, Com, E, G, Horc, 1864, 

PnrtsTTLOutli. 
DannUcss, U, at, Capt. L, G. Heatii, C.B 1854, 

Cuilsc Giuinl. 
Dee, 4, troop-ahlp, Mut-Cam. T C, Pollen, 

1844, paitlcnluT serrkc 
DevpiUtlnn, fl.st-Tes, Com. J, B. E. BaL-d, 1957, 

North Am erica, and West Indies. 
Diadem, 32. it, Capt. P. W. Uoorsom, C.B., 

Channel Fleet 
Donegal, 101, tc., Capt,, W. F. Gkaville, 18 id 

LlTerpooL 
Doris, lia, screw, Capt E, Hcalheote, 185S, 

Mediterranean. 
Dove, screw gunbt, Lieut C. J. Bullock, 186.1, 

East ladles, 
Drake, *t gtmbt, Lieut-Com. A. B. Blimc, 

1858, East Indies 
Eagle, au, Capt E, Tdtham, 1854, Coast Guard. 
Edgar, SI, *t, Rear-Adm. J. E- Ersklne, Capt 

J. E. Katon, 18-lii, Gibraltar. 
Edinburgh, 88, screw, Capt E. C, T. D'Eyn- 

court, 1840, Coast Guard, 
Elk, 13, Com. II, Cam plan, 1865, Australia. 
Emerald, 61, sc. Capt. A Cummlng, 1854 

Channel Fleet. 
Encounter, 14, screw, Capt. It Dew, 1858, 

Devon port. 
Esk, SO, se, Slr.il, J. L* M. M'Clnre, K.C.B., 

1850, East indies. 
Eiuyalu*,51.sc,Capt.J, W. Tarleton, C.B.,1863 

Mediterranean. 
Ekeellent, 4fl, gunnery ship, Capt, It, & Hewlett, 
C.B., 1850, ForUmouth. 



312 



BOTAL KAYT tg COMMISSION. 



t 



Exmouth, W), ic, Capt. J. J, ttopftrrd, 1841, 

Mediterranean, 
Fairy, "c yacht, tender to Victoria and Albert 

yacht, Portsmouth. 
Falcon, 17, It, Com. A. 0. FtM Hoy, 1&7, Const 

of Africa. 

Fernet, 8, Com. W. E. Fisher, WW, part terr. 
Firebrand, ij, st.-vo««!, Com. J. Dayman, 1858, 

JlL-iliterriitiean. 
Firm, sc. jrunbt., Ucnr,-Ccnn. W. R. Honltnn, 

1854, L,w( Indira, 
Firefly, * at.-vp.wel, Mast -Com. Taylor, par- 
ticular service. 
Ftsguard, 41, Commodore t ho Hon. J. It. Itnim- 

mond, C.H., Woolwich 
Flying FlJih, B, c,, Coin. C. W. Hope, l-"l, 

Channel Fleet. 
Forester, 3, su. Ruiibt, Lleut-Com. A. J, limes, 

1853, East Indies. 
Fiirmlilablc, 84. J. C. FltKBcrnM, 1940, Slieerness 
Forward, i, - ■ ., I.i 'I'-t'om. 0- II. Itobsoa, 1851, 

Pacific. 
Furious, IB, ct, ■ yen., Oapt, O. J. ,1 one*, C. I • 

East Indie*. 
Fury, 0, st -Tea., Com. J.E, Coramcrc.ll,l8W, E. 

Indie* 

Ganges, 84, flcnr-Adm. R. L, BapJOS, CH , 

Capt. J. Fuiford, 1818, Paelflc 
Gannett, 11, Com. E. il. (i. Lamhcft, 1*54, 

Meditcirnncan. 
Gladiator, 6, st-veMft. Commander H, D„ 

Hldtley (185S), N. America and W. Indies, 
itorgnn, B, at.-ves. Com. B, C. T. Pirn, 1838, North 

Ainerl< d nnd West Indies. 
Growler, 3, sc gtmboat, Lloul.-Coui. II. K 

CrOJtleT, 1854, Mediterranean. 
Urapler, S, *c., Ueut.-Com. A. P. II. Hull)*, 

1849, l'uelnc. 
Hannibal, 91, ee,, Rear- Admiral G. It Muiidy. 

Copt M. Connolly, ISM, Mediterranean. 
Hardy, 9, ac.-gbt. Llwit.-Oom. A.G, Baffle, 
Hastings, GO, screw, Captain W. K- Mcndv, C.B., 

1852, Coast Guard. 
Haughty, 2, sc. giuihOAt, Llent-Csin, (J. P. 

Braid, ]H',I, Kint I in lies. 
Kavinnuli. ly, Cast T. Harrey, 1848, Pi 
llnvixk, it, ic.-piLHbt, Lieut. -Com. C.Fnlrh'>imc. 

1801. 

Hawkc, SO, at, Capt. W. Crispin 1883. Coast O. 
Herald, 8, turv.-vco,, Capt. II. M. Denhain, 164G, 

RfeaJaN hi indA 
Hermes, 6, *t.-v.. Cum. W. E. A. tierdOn, 1854 

lero, 91, screw, Capr. G. H. Sevmonr, CB, 

in el Fleet, 
leeper, ec et.-siiip, Mast— Com. ,1. I.onric, 1840, 

East India*. 
IJIbcrnlo, rce--»hlp, fiear-Adnilml H. J. Cod- 

pinpton, CD., Cnptflln 1". Warden, C.B., 

ISIj, Malta. 
Hlchtlyer, il, se., Capt C. F. A. Sliadwell, C.B., 

I B53, Fust Indies. 
Himalaya, ae. store, idilp, Com. J. Searombe, 

ISM. particular service 
Hoffne, 60, screw, Cept. I;. J. J, Q, Macdotiild, 

ISM, Coo.it Uuard 
Hydra, 6, iI.-vhkI, Cam- 11. V. HamflMm, 1BBT, 

ijKirt. 
lUtwtrlous. 13, Com. H. C. Harston, 19**, 

Portemoiitli. 
liaaum, 74, Commodtite II. I'linloji, Com. 

i .e.-sHIp, Jamaica. 
Imprejraablc. 101, Vlct-Adm. hll' B. Iteytiolda, 

K-C.B.. Capt. IV. U. Stewart, C.I!., 18S4. 

Devmiporl. 
Impetebae, *1, acror, Rear- Adm. U T. Jours, 

CI-., Capt. II. llsunirr, 18*4. I 
Indus (■*. C-.vr-A.linirol -Sir II Swentl, 

QtfLyt H lU.j.i K,1*M, Snrtli Ainsrte, 

and Weit Indtaa. 
IndiiBtry, st ,-vl'v X >t.-shlp. M.i-t -Cow <l. .T, 

Sodge\ F*4I Sn«Hi AiiiCTlC;!. 



Itew-A'! 
Coaal of AflMrVa. 



Indexible. 8, et.-irea, Bent, a, A ft Break* 

Intrepid, fi, eerow, Com, J. B. Uirnai let-, 
M' ■lUerrnriean. 

1 I,-rin*i.r H.AeaeJla 
JiirtiLl,!. it. -Com. A.atMtmf, 

18-1 ii. 
Juniea v, CtM, VBL 

Channel Fleet 
Jajrat, ac, gunboat, LlcatvCML H.F. laTBF, 
Kast Imlles. 

W. Indict. 
• ^. gnnboit UeuL-CoU. O. P leiaa. 
i:«t Indies, 
Lapwiiifr, 4, screw, Cora. IL F. 0, TielBy, pM 

Lee, ec ertnbt., I.leat. -Com. Vf. IL Jeeet, tftt 

l.:i.- 1 i.iAli:-. 
lieoperd, tS, et.-rei., 

wri t ' 
Lci'en, k. pimboat, I 

1.1ft', v. ."il. - W. I*re«4y. CV Mil 

i\ ed j it'iran ean. 
Lncn*' ' ft Flail, W* 

paitlcnlar *• 
l.tmil™,$H 1 acrew,' •*a•^ 

Tinraw. 
l.ym. 4. scrovr, Lieut ..Com. H. Beltally.IH 

CiNtH of Anrlca. 
Lyra, 0, ml Ctjm. R.fl.ttldDelrt. iriiCemf.* 

<'■ I I I ■ ■ I ' i," - 

•\g altlp. C«IH. B I* *»««■ 

llaander, 44 ■. Karfkrafit.eir. 

mntK 
MjicIi -vc<m;1. C*pt. !T. Taeansr; 

C.B.. ix'ji, ). Indira. 
Miirll>i>rouj*li a. Fja>«en, 

C.B, l t>rp»r. >l»> 

ma 

M.irs. 80, »r., Capt J. 5. Hti angr, t»t, ftp* 

port. 
Mcdluo, St.-. r. A. IL Seoaaa ft 

1B&S, ltaikc.'inwaii 

Mcdiiio, 4, ttcanj-reasel, Cem. W. IWweea, UJ4. 

Coast of A frl est 
Melpomene, m, screw, Oapt. C. i. F-Re* 

; Channel lleet 
Mencv, 40, sere* Catdwefi <*. 

1854, Cnennel Fleot. 
Minotaur, Capt. E. 1'. llalatrd 1*«L (fcli TX* 
Slulis^k, 4, screw. Con. P. C C- U*'fts*s\ 

1H59, I'orlsm 
Monkey, steam tuc See. Hu Q. gjl «aj«a*i » 

tjn-tinsX Wixilwlcli. 
Kalad, 42, store-ahlp. Meet -Com. w*. W. IO* 

18411, Callao 
Jfantllu», 6, LlenL-COttb W. B Ora«t H" 

apjirentict" I 
Kcptunc, .'I ■ noett**^ 

ISl- 
>'cr* i M»a*-e«a«. i. C la- 

loV, ISSfl, Vali«r»lao 
Nljjer, 14, si\. Capl. 0. I*. Malik • B 

£aat Iri'liu- 
Nile. SO. »c., I tear- A din. C. Talfcol Car 

i v: 
Klmn. M«ilO, *l*4 

East 1: 
Otieron, 3, sHeaaci UcntCwr»,r.G. f. I*** 

I8e2, South Ooaat nf Araed**. 
Odin, IB, itciun-t-eaeel. C«|iL Le»d J " 

C.B.. 1WI, PeettH" . 

Opossran, 4, se. muiboat. lJent.-4>e> 

Balfour, 18£0, t*»t Untie* 
nrlon, vi, s.-rt#, Ceee, j, n. t rX* >■■ 

Onborne, st.-Tissel, ita* Com i. U t ■a** 1 

I4i, iiftTtkutef si 




. 4, screw, Com. H J. Blomfield, 1BW, 

•ditemracan 

21, screw, ;Capt. J. Borlusc, C.B., IBM. 

rtaranutti, 

J, 31, s&, Capt T. D. P. Soymour, 1951, 

at Indies. 

nltc, «Kt, Cspt E. r. Charlewood, 1S55, 

art Guard. 

crancc, * troop ship, Com. E, R, Power, 

SO. PortHiiou'h. 

l, li, t'.sininunderE. Hardinge IBM, 

.pe of Good Hope, 

r, 8, *c„ OftBL C H. May, 1»54, E, Indies 

. a. M. gunboat, Lieut —— — East 

dies, 

w, 9, screw, C»pt G. R, ItJchafqt, ISM, 

clue 

4, rt-*ta*»A Llent.-Cotn. C. XI. Simpson, 

4s, COM lit Africa 

vt.-ves, Cspt FT. C. Ottot, 1864, 
rtitular ntfnrlet. 
«■ I'liarlotte, 101 Mut-Com. JI. G 

i, ISM, ttomr Kong. 
«a Hoy si. HI, sc., Capt T. Italllle, I«lj, 
BdlteiT&tip*n 

>*, fcTuw, 31, Ci.pL M. de Courcy, 1853, 
HUt 

lunbciAt, Lleat-Com. N. Oabom 
ML Modlu-nanrnn. 

Charlotte, 104, Vltc-Adm. E. Harvey, 
ipt H. flanrcy. taU, Sheemaaa 

11. screw. Colli- the Hon. T. A. l J akculi.un 
5H, North America and West Indies, 
a, 91, screw, Captain J. A, PayiWor, 1854, 
MlitciTsntiui. 
it, A, «t-T„ Com. P. S[H\in, l8o", llistti- 

I ISSDSSBDi 

J, 4, screw, t'uiu. J. G. GfAidetiough, 

->», MieerntM. 

n, 91, se Capt A. Forbes, 1846 Madller. 

utlon, 3**, at-veascL Cuiumuduru II E, 

Igcll, East IrnlMi, 

msuithns, 4. it. ■ **., Mastcr-Com. P. R 

. 14)3, particular service, 
eve, 4, sc.. Com. It. O. fraiklo, 185«, 
irtaraoutn, 

cfc, n. sc.. Com. F,.C. Sytuona, acting, K«st 
sits* 

0, Lieut-Corn. C. G. Nelson, ISM, Ports- 
oat b. 

Adelaide, 104, Rr.-Ad. Sir T. 9. Pasler. 
L; Capt. W. J. Williams, 1441, I'aronport. 

Albert, III, ■«., HeBi.Admlrsl Sir C. H. 
•MOMBtle. K.C.U., C*i>t.l£- it IUcq (IS&W. 
WIlT.Bl I 

L 80, sc, Cspt. G. WodohoiuK, 1334, Const 
unL 

4i CAere, 101. screw, Capt T. P. Tbomp- 
n, 1647, Medlti'nHiisan, 
icfnt, 101. Gear Ailmlrsil G. Grey, Cspt 

Wilson, Ih:,.i, i'orl«mi>utii. 

Ipt G. S. Hand, 1S62, 3.E. 
mu( or America. 

n, 4, Host-Corn. W. Stanton, 18B3. F.. ImL 
to, to., 21, Cspt, J. C. PiflTost, 184<* 
tclfic % 

I, TV, Capt a, Ramsay, CD., 1843, 
imbroke. 

re, 6, *e , Com Prince- of Lsngenlierg 
of, Medlicrrsnemi, 

II, sc-. Cspt J Corbctt, IftflT, K Indies. 

SI, *c, C»pt- It. l.iiiiiiwrt, 13M, Slieer- 

1, so. icunbl., LJ«it.-Coin. W. Clilmuia, 
•Mi. purllt-uLir service. 

itxmter, % w.rirw, Ltent-Cora, C Olobtms, 

. [ of Africa. 
A *t. -re*., Cspt It B. Ciivwlonl, IssstV 

c, t, sc, Com. J. M, Cooke, H-'a, 
Jt1«tn*ut)t. 



StnsL to, Com. O. M. Balfour, 18(>6, south 

East Coast or America. 
Skli>jiu'1<. s*. diitiljl., Lladt.-Coiu. J. MnrTOj, 

IMS, Want indies, 
Sl.incy, 2, sa cmibt, LL-Com. H. It, Lept, 

1953, EMt Indie*. 
Satke, 4, so.. Com. II- IKirvev, 1857. Sbeernets. 
Spsrroirli»wk, 4, »c„ Com. "J. C Uyng, I«S6, 

East Indies. 
Sphinx, 6, it- vet-, Cum. G. F. Dsy.V.C.. 18S5, 

PofttnuwWti 
Spltflre, 5, St. -v., Lieut. -Com. W. C. Clinpmsn, 

IMS. Coast of Africa. 
Spy, 3, Lieut Com. T. B. CollUisoii, Ifc'-fl. South 

East Coast of America. 
Starling. *c -gunboat, LI*nt-Com, J, A. WhLt- 

BliL'd. ie.">4. Fust InOlea- 
St*iincti, 3, sc-jfunlboat, U.-Com. E. J, Pollard, 

1S54, Ea»t Indies. 
8tys, 8, stves,, Com. C. Vetey, IBM N, Arnorlcd 

and W. Indies. 
Supply, st-sts.. Slsst-Com, IV. H. Balliston, 

] si',, Woolwich. 
Surprise. 4, sc, Coin. Lord E. II. Cecil, 1847, C. of 

Africa. 
Tartar, 20, sc.Cnpt. West Indict 

and ??. Anieiif*a. 
Tartarun, I, at., Com. A. I,. MViiimII, 16S5. Heilf- 

tcnanean. 
Termagant, 35, screw. Capt It Hull, l$5i, 

fioutd East Coast of America. 
Terrible, 21, at-Tcasel, Capt. F. II. TI. Olatse, 

C B„ 1816, MedUerroncjin. 
Terror, IS, Ctpt-E, Hntton. IM4, Bermuda. 
Topnso, SI, sr., Capr. the Han. J. W. & Speneer, 

■ ii.mii'.-i Reel 
Tortoise, 13, stow-sntp, Cajit. W. F. Burnett, 

CO., 1854, Ascension. 
TmfnlE»r, Pi, sc., Cspt. E. ft Ffmshaitfc IMJ"., 

ChfltlTii! tleet. 
Tribiinti, 30, screw, Captain O. T. P. Hornby, 

1846\ PavlTle. 
Trident. 6, it-v. Com. K, A. Cloaft 1BS4, Coast 

of Alrlea, 
Triton. 3. at -Tea. Llcnt.-Cnm. II. II. Barton, 

184?, Coast of AfrtHi 
Urgent, se. troop ship, Com. II. W. Hire, Ifta4, 

partlcnlar aerrtce, 
Valorous, H>, st.-tres., Cfl^t W. C. Aldliun, C.B. 

Ifl'jH, West Indies. 
Veiuvlna, fi, stoain-Tessel, Commodore C. Wise, 

Coast of Africa. 
Victor Emanuel, i'i,se-„ Capt J. WiUeoi, C.fL, 

1854, Medlterrsnenti. 
Vlctoriiiand Albert, 1, kt«nm yacht, Captain Ilia 

Hon. J lienman, 1841, Portsmouifi, 
Vletary, 101, Admiral W. Bowlta. C.B.; Cnpt- 

A. FnnpihitT, IMP, Portitnouth. 
VlgDut, 4, at, Com. W. ArmytafS, lssa, jfcai- 

terrancan, 
Viper, 4, screw, Com, W. K W, Hewett, V,C 

Lit, 18ift, Coast or Africa. 
Virago, 6, at-ves.. Com, M. A. Dann, lgfiS 

partlrular service. 
Vlxon, a, Bt-res,, Com. L. Lambert, 1868, 

PSSBBSA 

Vulcan, e. itrrew troop-ship, Cora. A. a Strode 

lSJid, pivrtlf Elsr smii-e. 
Vulture, 6, St. -v., Captain F. A. Campbell, ISOfi, 

Mediterranean. 
Waiuterer, 4, screw, Com. M. R. PeehoJL lnn ( 

ifedlterranean. 
Watchful, 3, ic.-gnnbt. at. East Indict 
Wewal, S, sc ganbt, Llmt-^'om. w. Uowortb, 

IBM 
Welletley, 71, Captain Superintend t'q(<, 

smith, C.H, l»ia, Chaihnm. 
WeUlagtnn, 73, Copt, ft J*. HubinwT 

! port 
Woortcoek, 3, sc., guntst., Lt^Cotn. U «. l.a\. 

•annuel, l>*ji, Eaal \wt\tt. 




LIST OF H. M. INDIAN NAVY IN CO^rMISSION. 

(CorrMled in lltt S8fd Jnn<" ( 1859 . > 
With the dates of Commit fian fth« Officer* in rem.-. 



Acbax, 33, Flag-ship of Coninwdori ft. O. Wd- 
Jealey, C.B.. R.N- Commandi>r-iri-Culcf 
I. VS.; Cftfli. J. W. Young, C-B„ I85i>, 1 
buy; Maa.-Com. H. W. Ground!, 1SS»J, Gun- 
n*ry Officer, 

Auckland, e, paddle, Com, J, Stenlien*, 
IMS) Wed Set. 

Auyrla, 1. paddle, Meater-Coni. E. Di 
River IinlUv 
■ 10, paddle. Commander ,T. Jf, Adn.m«. 
ifiW, Bombay. 

August,!, 6, w.*h, -yacht, tender to Acbur, ISuui- 

Australian, screw troop ship, Master-Corn, — 

Boon. 1848, UunfrnL 
Berenice, 2, pnddle troop uhlji, Lieut -Com 

A. W. Chltty, 1S17, Bomuny. 
llcca*. 6, Bat, Hiwter-Coin. E. Nash, 18.11, 

Rlvci'Imlu*. 
Charlotte, 4, Lieut- Com. W. Colllnfc'wood, 

ixvj, Persian Gulf. 
Cllve, IS, Lieut -Com. J. Scdlcy. 1*W, Trau- 

film"-. 
CanMjviec, ,1. I.i<;ul,-Com. J, B. Dlckaon, 

1MI, lied Se*. 
Comer. S, paddle gunbpjit, Com. W. B. Selby. 

18AJ, liiver Kbibraiea, 
Conqueror, 3, paddle, Master-Commander T 

Linton, 1B49, River Indus. 
Coroeaandel, m-rew troop ship, Licut.-Cora. 

IL A. Fraaer, 184d. Bay of Bengal 
Chenaub, 4, ptdille, Master-Corn. T. Oonrley, 

1HS8, Rit'or liidun. 

CwMtJM, Hot. Master-Corn. . , Indui. 

Clyde, 4, ac. gunboat, Lieut-Com. J, Q. Nixon, 

\MJ, Bombay. 
ntWwiimtl scTew troop slilp, Com. V. W. 

Hopkins law. Bay or Bengal 
Dromedary, FIhI, Mfiater-Cofn. . Hlver 

Indus. 
Elphrnstonc, 1% Uant-Cow. C E. Ilroomun, 

HJ4H, Bombay. 
Euphrates, Kl.it, Matter-Cam. W. Walton, 

1&G8, River Indn*. 
gtherriev. Flat, Maiter-Com. T, Joriea, l&M t 

River Indus. 
KiTnui, 10, paddle, Commander C. J, Crqt- 

U'lidcn, lflM, Bombay. 
Freer*. 3, paddle, Matter Commander. I. McNeil, 

Uvw Indus. 
Falkland, IS, Commodore 0. Jenkins, C.B., 

l"ei <l»n iiulf, 
Goolanair, paddle yacht, MnateT-Cominander 

X. Kcnnrllv, WO, Bombay 



litta, 2, Licul.-CoTii F Wardot HK 
An damans. 

In dii «, '.», paddle, Miikftrr-Commander r 
Scale, l»sa, River Irtdna. 

Jhclum, s, paddle, M*»rer-Com. V. L Lin- 
ton, 1868, River I 

Keddywurree, iru.i I 
1&4T, Tort omreT 

[rfulv Cdnnii ■ am. t ferw. 

Jiahi, S, Lirui.-cora. K. W Whi»t 

Persian Uuir. 
Marlu, :i, Uenl.-t mtJalte l»*l 

Surveying V'eaael, I 
Mcotree, 1, pendant ic • vmtrn 

Kapler, 8. paildl MmraairJn J 

Korster, 1m.11. Hirer Itnlru. 
Kimroil. 3, puddle. Moatei-CorruDeaiat J I 

Butt" ludu*. 

N'itorrtri, Flnt, HactiT-C<rai A- lIllTf 1* 

hivov ■ 

It! v i-v Indup. 
Planet, Sf, pmUlle. Haatn-Coa. ' 

Kletrlier, 1M3, River (ti.lu*. 
runjaub. 10, jioildli,', Commandrr A. 

184T, C&lrutta 
prince An bur, *rrcw trtnip-aliTja CtBl * 

Iroejga. I WW. Itomtwy, 
I'li'lad, % screir, atW.-Cen P. Wl.ic*. II* 

Bombay. 

Ravce, Flat, Maaier-Com. , Klw It** 

Sutli'dne, Hat, Matter-Corn. , KlvarJW 

SateUltc. 3, paddle, Matter-Com. A. *■* 

1*611, lliu-r |B4«a. 
Scimramlt, 10, paddlr, Com. W. Batl*V,i"*> 

Uomliay. 
Snake, paddle, tender to Aebai, BobIm 
Sir H, HaTclock, 3, paddle, Maat«t<a» P- 

MMrrivTi. 1*08, Itlver Indna. 
Sir II. Uwrence. 2. paddle, Kaatel^Oaa. C- 

Ticket, l*«, ; 

acraw tronii ilnj), M«*af*ai 

— , Itnv of uenpil 

Tigris, *, Linit.-CuitL il. T. KMttam 

1'enion linlf. 
Victoria, a, paddle, Llntt-Cem. T. 

'Uvohani, 194.1, Bombay. 
Zrnobia, to, paddle, Com. F, *•■ 

1857, I'enfarj Uttlf. 



- m 

MM 

A__ 1 



BENGAL NATAL BRIGADE, 




Itead Qtwrtera, Calcntta. Capt. U D. Camp- 

beU, 1P67. 
lit Compnny, Fort Wllliatn, Lieut. -Com J. 

nuvLxx, 18fl* . _ _ _ _ 

Snd Company, Mootytuify, LleM-Cotn. J. It B. 

Bavwn, 1BS9. 
3rd Company, Chuprall, Lieut -Com. (.. "■ 

TempW, 1*57. 
ttb Coaipanv, AUipore, Lient-Com. R. Carey, 

1M6. _ _ 

Jtb ICompany. Domdoni, Ueut Com- «- V^ . 

II. Bame*, lMt. 



6th Comjiany, Uacea, L«nl..Com 

ridge. - „ a 

7 th ComiNtny Sa aa u t in , U—t- ft —, a • 

CaTff*, IBM. . . 

ath do. Bamekprnx, Ue¥l.-Ca» * * 

Davis , (w ,^. 

yih Company, Patim, LJ*nl.-Co«n. U a •» 

1W4. 
10th ComoajiT, Jerpore, Urut-Cam- 

Windo».l84L ^£^~ 

llth Company, Anda m an lalaoda, U»»' % " 

11. Jaekion, 1UA 



_ 



L869.] 



INDIAN KAYAL BRIGADE 



815 



rsoMOTioxs axd xrroumuxn. 
Somuwnder to be Captain — John Stephens, 

1648. 
Aoutenant to be Commander — S A. Strnd- 

dlinc, 1844. 
Utw to be Lieutenants- K. B. Leefe, 1854 

H. J. Edwardw, 1836. 

AW-OIKTMKKTS. 

teptain— J. W. Young, ftR, 1886, to Acbar, 
Flag-ship. 

ientenants— L. G. Levis, acting, 1856 ; C. E. 
Beddomc, acting, 18-59; C. Forstcr, 1856; 
A. D. Taylor, 1847; R. Williams, acting, 
1883, to Acbar; J. O. Nison, 1847, to com- 
mand sc gunbr. Clyde; C. E. Brooman, 
1848, to command Elphlnstone ; F. W. 
Sbortowe, 1850, to Semiramls ; J. Brebner, 
acting, 1859, to Semiramls; C. V. D'Arcy, 
acting, 1858, to Elphlnstone ; B. Ch. S. 



Clarke, acting, 1859, to Elphlnstone ; F. L. 
Seaton, acting, 1857, to Ferooz ; J. Clarke, 
1857, to Ankland; J. B. Dickson, 1851, to 
to command Constance; C. E Beddome, 
acting 1859, to be Inspector of the Bom- 
bay Steam Navigation Company; R. B. 
Leefe, to be Superintendent of Pattimars. 

Acting Masters— D. Whit c, 1858, to command 
Pleiad. 

Midshipmen— J. D. Bndd; II. W. Estridge ; 
H. Hewer to Acbar; W. Marshall; J. A. 
Kettley to Elphlnstone ; C. Williams ; R. 
Richmond to Semiramls; A. Cambell to 
Assaye. 

Clerks— F. W. Daniell, to Indus Flotilla; H. 
Barrett to Assaye ; A T. Shuttlewortb, 
1865, to Clyde, in charge ; A. S. Finlinson 
to Semiramls, In charge. 



816 



[Oct, 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



NAVY. 



Admibaltv, Arc 26. 
Corps of Royal Marines — Mr. Robert 
Bedford Hitchcock, gent., to be Secoiid 
Lieutenant. 

Aumiualty, Sept. 20. 
Corps of Royal Marines — Second 
Lieutenant Williain Davis Welch to be 
First Lieutenant, vice Inglis. deceased ; 
Second Lieutenant William Stewart to 
be First Lieutenant, vice II. Wolrige, 
deceased. 

PROMOTIONS. 

Commander to be Captain — Richard 
Jauiea Viscount (iilford, 1S58. 

Lieutenant to (>f Commander — Warren 
II. Anderson, lSlU, from the Royal 
yacht. 

Second Muster tj hr Master — Daniel 
J. May, 1854. 

APPOINTMENTS. 
Hear Admiral — Lewis Tobias Jones, 
CD., to be Second in Command on the 
East India and China Station. 

Captain*. — Lord John Hay, C.R., 
1S54, to (Win ; Roddick Dew, 1858, 
to Enronntcr; R. 1). While, 1856, to 
Madagascar, vice ( 'ommandor Leycester, 
superseded at Lir* own request ; K. S. 
Sotheby, C.B., extra Aide-de-Cump, to 
be Naval Aidodc-Caiiip to the Queen, 
vice Captain Robh, deceased ; II. Dun- 
lop to be Commodore jf the West India 
Station, vice KelUt, service expired. 

Commanders — Sir Malcolm Mac 
Gregor, Bart., 185(5, to Arr.<gant, for 
sen-ice in Maunder; E. D'O. D'A. 
Aplin. 1853, to Centaur; George F. 
Day, V.C., 1855, to Sphinx ; It. G. 
Craigie, 1856. to liingd/tre ; Henry 
Harvey, 1857, to Snake ; .1. (J. (Jooil- 
enough, 1858. to Hcnaiil; Edward Hav, 
1858, to Beagle ; Patrick C. C. McDoii- 
gall, 1856. to M<J,airl-; Richard Stud- 
dert, 1849, to Welhxhy. 

Lieutenants to Cohnmiiid tivnhnuts — 
Charles Fairholmo, 1651, to Ilarork ; 
H. L. Holder, 1854. to C<.,lchaf< r ; A. 
G. Bogle, 1855, to Hardy ; William 
Howorth, 1856, to Weazel. 

Lieutenants — E. F. Weld, 1-S.m, and 
*. W. B. H. M. Heron, 1859, to Ev- 
•to": F. W. Frosser, 1S59, to 'Zen- 
ji. E. F. Boxer, 1855, and K. 
f, 1859> to Odin ; J. F. L. 



P. Maclear, 1859, to 8pk***i C. A 
Watts, 1859, to Henard; H. C. Striata* 
1859, to Bim/doce ; H. P. Demrittoaa, 
1859, and W. A. K. Craven, 1859. tl 
Pearl ; G. W. Carter, 1855, to Md/s- 
mene; Hon. M. K. Wiugfidd, 1859, to 
Xik ; Hon. A. K. II. Legge, 1858, to 
Edgar ; C. II. WUkinsoo, 1855, to 
Odin ; W. R. Hobcou, 1855, acUMoaal 
to Victory : W. H. Royse, 1851, to 
Snake ; Loftus T. Jones, 1857, to fat 
Flag Lieutenant to Rear AdmiralLT. 
Jones; R. J. Tit. Aubv, 1841, (aiti- 
tioual) to Pembroke; W. A. Smyth, 1054, 
to Clio: d. P. Townsend. 18*54 em- 
manding the Barer, to the Royal yacht 
Victoria and Albert, vice Anderson; H. 
L. Holder. 1854, to Ediar ; W. T. W. 
Hamblv. 1S54, to Pearl ; A. W. Ingle*, 
1858, to Mersey; W. H. Annesley, 18*5 
to Jioi/al Aftjcrt ; Louis Gentste, MSt 
to Tapasc. 

Surgeons— W. If. Clarke, 1*56, to 
Tortoise; J. B. Ricards, 1854, to 
Simoom ; W. McK. Saundei*. MJX, 
1850, to Jienourn ; James <>. Risk, 1846, 
to Conqueror : L . C. 1'njuhart. M.D, 
1846, to Renown , 

Annuitant Surge mm — F. I>. (irahuJr 
1S56, additional, to Yi.torn; H. S. 
Smart, M.D., 1857. to P.-.1-. f. I!. 

I Ami), 1856, additional, to IV. .'•<■;.: >. 
Little, M. D. (Acting), to T'»/. ./,■. 

Mailers — .lames O. Ji>iu>. M'j'.*. u> 
Urgent; J. M. Hockly, 18;"i."». t-» ttdis: 
W. II. Fawekner, lf»56. to /,*<■■ <•»[./ ; 
J. 1). Switacr,185!t, to Henard; r'rawi* 
Taylor, 18. r >5, to Sphins ; Ibniel 1- 
May, 1859, to Ringd-re; J. II. Law- 
rence, 185f», to Centaur. 

Mates— II. II. Boys, 183$. to Pful; 
S. R. Huntley, 1$59. acting, to Am- 
'/ant; Hcnrv Nalinond, 1859, to TV* 
faloar; W.I* Martin, 1859, to Cam; 
J. V. D. Butler, lt>59, to lioyal Altmt: 
J. G. F. Iieacoek. to Algiers: H. B. 
Hamerslcv, 1S57, to Mersey. 

Chief Engineer — Charles A. O'Dwyer, 
1 857, to Mersey. 

Paymaster-^G. P. Rickcord. lS4i to 
1«; Secretary to Rear Admiral HlmK : 

II W. Death, 1833, to Odin -. J. & 
Jackson, 1831 to Encounter; Job 
Wotton, 1S59, to Menard ; J. H. & 
Hooper, 1S56 (additional^, to VieUj: 
H. C. Pool 1852, to Pearl; Bkiar< 
Curgcn ven, 1 8C2> to be Secretarj to Bm 



PBOMOTlOWi ASD APPOINTMENTS. 



317 



a) L. T. Jones ; C. W H arris, 

Mm j V. C. Ffenley, ISoO, 

tour ; William TV.in, 1*54, to 

; J. K. 

I, to J i J. B. Kaw- 

IH54, to />', • ' BIftngliter, 

HaMlt&ya ;*G. ¥, Nomuui, 1851, 

i Linker ; ,J, Bright, to Dont- 

-\)\ L. Dodtfa, 
Kdw-anl bolbuzno. 1857, r i 
t; TlioniM rftaol to Coeket 
thijmen — Hon. Victor A. M.>u. 
I \ B. Chwlevoad to 
cval Bright* to i. 

■ Abwkir; P, H. Niuil 

<.■ ; H. H. A'Cuurt to Mvo ; 

Hai-funl in Atwogomt •, A. B. 

« in MtrlborougA ; R. F. ll&m- 

:!on. A. F, Homl 

i*< - V, H. Chovrn, to l» Siectti- 

. i i the Hi! [■tain of tin; C'lian- 

m XaTrafaf'Jiir ; 

d Tiadall to Donegal ; Clarence 

to M<tr.% ; Q. M. O. Higgiiiuon to 

1 .1 Queen Chtuibtte; 
>od to Panlinkt. 

Clerk—R. Olivey to St. 
t. 

■ ■'. — II. P. P. PopLim, A. 
*U'V, ThoulM Suckling, A. W. 
E. 'T, Piper, L\ Rooke, And W, 



T. Morgan (luiaUioQal).to dfarttmi-attgi, 
for disposal; Hon. E, A. T. Parr to 
Arpmetnttm ; C. R. Pelly to 7Vo/ 
F, W. E. Kuperto 7> prfcfe ; B. P. H. 
Hallett and A. de C. Crawford to ifW- 
pjwurw ; P. J. RcndeU, 11, P. Wvlly, and 
E. I. N. Taylor to M tt r* ; \\\ F." Murray 
to 4fltpMo»*; G, T. Burn, E. B. Boyle, 
mnl .1. II. Bambridgeto Impt 
H. Rrotighton to kdyar ; and I J. R. 
(titvii to ,4 ImtJiir, to complete their com- 
plumcnta, 

I fuHrf AitiiUtntt—G, E. G. Jackson 
to Jtarf i J, N. Compton to Arrogant ; 
W, M. Baftage tu Mperjtu*) ; K II. 
Warren r« Agammnttan ; W. J. Strong 
to Trttftilyiir -, W. B, P, Thump i m I i 
Dun eriu? • Albeit Oitea to Topax ; W. 
D. Ruat t> J/^r,'. 

t.'UAST GTARD. 

APPOIWTMSNTs— (/Ai>/ Oflrtn-— Lieut- 
Robert J. St. Aubyu to Shoeburynesj 
Station. 

tmttndcr — George B. Jeffreys, 
]£52, re-appointed to the Leatb Station 
as TnspectiliK < 'i.miiiimd. r for DOB 

Kmiov.u, , — / V(tc/ OfSfl m— Lieuten- 
ant TUos. Coppmger, from CtaadbAVWl 
to Arilmwu. Mr. George Stoviu, from 
WMtegate to Cms..!] lvlu. Mr. .\. 
Sprecklin, Acting Ciiief Utlifur Elmly 
Furry to tho Roculvcra Station, yioe 
Wrnlte, pruviously removed, 



ARMV. 



Wad. Office, Au&. 30. 

Um$ tu beat- date 
Awj»»t J'X) 

jifo (jiiarda — Capt. thu Hon. 11. 

igerakl lie Uos to he Major and 

by purohaw}, vicu Hogg, 

tiree ; Lieut. Lord i'^arl^s \V. 

KCapt. bv v : 
ami Sub Limit. J. H, 
rt tu be Lieut by jiur- 
v'icti Brii»:»; II I B. QmtH 
L-j !r .1 6 .'.•! i vA. hj]f 

1^t<1 Barbforfe, 

..hi l iiuinlr, — l!v v .-+. (>l. 
Benrii'ot, from the Tth Dm 
», to lie Liuul. Col., ri 

Dragnnn fJuards <— Lieut. Ool. 
from the 4 th Drgnoon 



Guards, to be Lieut. Col., vico Brevet 
Col. Benthick, who exchange*. 

lith Light Dragi Mins— Lieut. A. C. 
Ti auwet to bo C&nt. by purohws, vim 
Shells, who retires ; Cornet F. D« Burgh 
to be Lieut, by purchase, vice Temiieit. 

l«th Foot— Capt. A, 0. Bogle, rroni 
th ■ l.'itli Knot, tn ixj C*pi, vice Hobert- 
son, wlin i:s changes. 

1,1th— f 'apt. T, C. Rohertwm, from 
the lflth Foot, to beCapt. vite Bogle, 
who exchangee. 

lBtb— Lieut. W. T. L* Brun haa 
I,, an |Mrtiiittnlrn retire from the Service 
hy the sale oE his C'oinniiiaion. 

20th — B. N. Bird, gent,, to be Enaign 
witheut purchaee, vice Bowlby, pn< 
meted. 

1\ «t— Lieut. A, Holt to be Capt., by 
purthase, vice Lee, who retire* ; Laaign 



318 



PROMOTION'S ANI> ArPOi 






S. H. Haves. U) be Lkul, by purchase, 
viue BleBnerhasiiet, who retires; Ensign 
E. BiuseH, to be Lieut., by purchase, 
vice Holt, promoted. 

i!4th — C.J. Broinhead, gwirt., t» be 
Ensign, without purchase, vie* Bland, 
appointed to the 0*2nd Foot. 

33wl — Lieut. J. Trent to l>« t'Ajit. 
without jjurchsae, vice Brevet Major 
Quaylfl. deceasei ; Eusi!$n II. C. Boyd 
lo be I-ieut., without purchase, vioe 
Trent, May 28, 

■iSth — Lieut. W.Cmnming to be Cant. 
by purchase, vice Welby, who retina ; 
Jansign C. II. Chauncy to be Lieut., by 
purchase, vice Cumming. 

40th — Ensign A, D. Fordyce fed l»; 
Lieut., by purchase, vico Blackmorc, 
who retires. 

56th^J. P. Bum._*tt, gont, to be 
Ensign, hy purchase, vie* M Uowall, 
who retires. 

6l*t— Ensign E. W. Ruresey to be 
Lieut., by purchase, vice Daly, who 
retires. 

60th — A. Irvine, gent., to bo Ensign, 
without purchase, vice M. IniieB, ap- 
pointed to the Rifle Brigade. 

71st — K, G. LillingBton. geat., to be 
Enrign, hy purchase, vice Cune, pro- 
moted, 

OPtb — Lieut, W. J, Kcinpnou to l»e 
Instructor of Muaketry, vice Muliww, 
win i has ictised, Aug. 7. 

Deput Battalion — Captain W. A. 
t iiirnes, -ISth Font, to be Instructor of 
Musketry, Aug, ft. t^uartennaster A.M. 
Gregor, from the 4*2nil Foot, to be 
QiKirtennaster, vice Simpson, appointed 
Pay master, 41st Foot. 

Brevet. — Copt. H. Frnncis, of the 
64th Foot, to be Major in the Atinv, 
March 24, 1858. 

The Commissions of the undermen- 
tioned Officer* i if Her Maj(*ty T H Indian 
l-'nrcea to bear date as follow, vis. : — 
Major Con. C. Wahab, Madras Infantry. 
May 6. Major Lieu , J, M unson, Bengal 
Infantry, May 15. Major Gen. O. 
Twemlow, Bengal Artillery, May 17. 
Major Gen. T. A. Duke, Madras In- 
fantry, May 20. 

The underiiientioneti promotions to 
take place in Her Majesty's Indian 
Forces consequent on thedeuthjof Major 
Gen. L. W. Watson, Madraa Infantry, 
May S. Major Gen, J, Stuart .|i , 
Bengal Infantry, July 19. 

To be Major Generals— Col, \. 
Jonet, Bengal Infantry, May 3i>. Got, 
■1 i. C. Gray, Bengal Infantry. Julv 



The st*uiid fhrntUu atumed Cy 
Temnant, Bengal Engineer*, pnssssa 
to the Bn -. 

London Goa !*rri U» 

is Francis, aM xi> «* FraleritX 
therein star 

Tli ma* 

Fusiliers to i .rch, ftJ 

instead of .. 

viouaty stated. 

The : 
Majesty's Hid 
Full Pay. U> have a «t»-|i of 
rank o& iV>l 

To be Major GeneraW- 
Ul.Hid, Bombay Anil: 
Chalon, Madras i 
Beaton, K.C.B.. I 

To be Col 
aay, Bengal 









Graham, Bombaj 

To be i. 
Burt, Bengal 

• -, M.vl-u I 
Wteuart, H 
HiUyard, Madras 
Hawkins Madras 

To h, M 
tlras Iufaii' 
gal Infantry. 



«. I 



i 




THE Mil. 

Jim! W 

Cavalry — W. F. I. 
Cornet, idee Sit \V" It I 
protaotod, 

knook \ "lunU-tr Ki'l 
M Q. Lindsay, late Rifle 

mock ItoyaJ Rifl 

jjeiit., to lie Lieut 
ieks, resigned. 

Royal Lauea»l 
Lieut. W. i |V- 
rioe T. Gtm i 

Word v ■luivr Rifts* J. 
E»|., to be Capta' 

Kent Aniiln.iv — I * 
Second Lii ■ 

let ( 

R ■■,(! II' A. I mplcf. i 

S. I 

UtIUII 



I.lil-Kl!. I 



In ; IL 
Tiout. : \V. 



Hgpu 

Kort. 
iiient ' 

inulcd . 

Cornet, f 












PIUiMHTinsra AND Ari'OtJfTMEXTS. 



319 






ruestershire— W. P. Howell. Esq., 
to be Capt., vice Hawkins, promoted ; 
Lieut, it. Davies to be Capt., vice J- 
Olrlhiira, resigned. 

Northumberland Artillery- Altera- 
tions io the dates of Commissions— W, 
in to be Second Lieut. ; dated 
Jane 3, 1859, instead of June 7, 1859, 
mm formerly gnzetted. P. C. Stanhope 
to be Capt. ; dated June 7, IS.^i'. in- 
stead of ,fnl y 1, 1&59, as formerly 
gazetted. 

Warwickshire Yeomanry Cavalry — 
B. Wuithrop pint . to bo Cornet, rice 
ManU, promoted ; Sir C. Mordaunt, 
Bart., M.P., to be Cornet, vice Sheldon, 
resigned ; the Hon. H. SomwviUe to be 
Cornet, vice Chsmberlayne, resigned, 

Warwickshire — 1st Regiment — Lieut 
W. A Norton, resigned. 2nd Regiment 
— Ensign J. Franklyn. resigned. 

ItU Company of Lancashire Volun- 
teer Rifles— 8. Aitken, gent, to be 

fitb Company of Lancashire Volun- 
tas* Rifles— F. Ajhton, Esq., to be 
Captain. 

8th Company of Lancashire Volun- 
teer Rifles— J. Hutchinson, Esq., to he 
Captain ; W„ II. Price, gent,, to be 
Lieut. ; (I. 0. Walker the younger, 
gent , , to be Ensign. 

Hampshire Artillery— G. S, Lynch 
to be Second Lieut., vice Hansel, pm- 

ISWlfWl 

North York Rifles— W. Watson, 
g?nt., to be Lit nt. 

2nd Royal Lanarkshire— A. Roger, 
gent., to be Ensign, vice Grier, resigned; 
T. A . Ugle, gi-ut., to he Ensign, vice W. 
H. Bower, promoted. 

pafain — Ensign G, A. Patten to 
be Lieut., vice Powell, resigned, 

WAR-OFFICE, Septembek 9. 

(Tile /iitluicinif fiiMiiihtimt* to bear date 
September 9.) 

lent of Life Guards— The 

■M «if the Cornel and Sub Lieut., 

lied in the fjaxtle of SlUth ult., is 

and not Osborne, as therein 




Ufa Light Dragoon* — Lieut, J, 

to bo Adjutant, vice Clements, 

to the 6th Dragoons. 

lat Regiment of Foot^L. F. Scott, 

cent. , to be Ensign by purchase, vies 

Failiser, promoted ; J. Hammond, gent., 

to be Ensign without purchase, vice 

>r, promoted in the 2 1st Foot, 

Sept. 1ft 



9th— Capt. the Hon, F. Le Poor 
Trench, from Half Pay Unattached, 
to be Captain, vice Daunt, promoted 
without purchase to an Unattached Ma- 
jority, 

12th— Cs.pt. S. H. Harford, from the 
66 th Foot, to be Captain, vice Colt, 
who exchanges. 

16th— L. B. A. Poynter, gent., to be 
Ensign by purchase, vice Freeman, 
promoted. 

22nd— A. G. Richards, gent., to be 
Ensign by purchase, rice French, pro- 
moted. 

36th— L'eut. A. F. Stewart to be 
Captain by purchase., vice Dash wood, 
who retires ; Ensign C. Wilson to be 
Lieut, by purchase, vice Stewart ; E. 
S. Bond, gent,, to be Ensign by pur- 
chase, vice Wilson. 

45th— Ensign K, J. Callwell to be 
Instructor of Musketry, July 26. 

"tilth — Capt, C. U. Colt, from the 
12th Foot, to be Capt., vice Harford, 
who exchanges. 

7t*th — Ensign 11, A. In glen to 1m 
Lkut, by purchase, vice W. W, Young, 
who retires. 

Bad West India Regiment — Assistant 
Staff Surgeon G. H. Harris to bo As- 
sistant Surgeon, vice Fraser, appointed 
to the Stafi. 

LtoiHKad Staff. — Assistant Buy/. 
W, P. Fraaur, from the 2nd V, , , t 
India Regiment, to be Assistant Surg ,, 
vice C ninth, appointed to the Royal 
Artillery. 

Brevet. — Captain and Brevet Ma], 
J. U. J. Coles, of the 9th Light Dra- 
goons, to be Lieut. Col. in the Army ; 
Captain E, N. Molesworth, of the 
27th Foot, to bo Major in the Army, 
Juno 3. 

The following Paymasters, who re- 
tired upon Half Fay prior to tl < 
cl&ration of war with Russia, and who 
hud completed in all a service of thirty 
years, twenty-five of which as Paymas- 
ters, to have the honorary rank of Maj., 
vis. r — L. M. M, Prior, on Half lay of 
daa 12th Light Dragoons ; S. Itofe, 
on Half Pay of the 14th Ijghi Dra- 
g kins ; V. Raymond, on Ilnlf I ay of 
the 27th Foot; G. Moore, OS Jlall Fuy 
of the Siinc! Foot i G. A. Dornford, on 
Half Pay of the 39th Foot; ,L M. 
Pr; Angton, on Half Pay of the 46th 
Foot ; F. Dickson, on Half Pay (f the 
52nd Foot ; G, A. Thompson, on Half 
f the K&th Foot; E, Fusion, on 
Half Pay of a Depot Battalion. 



U. S. Mao., No. 371, Oct., 1859. 



320 



PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. 



[Oct, 



THE MILITIA GAZETTE. 

Shropshire — R. Phillips, gent., to be 
Ensign, vice H. M. Coyno, resigned. 

6th Royal Lancashire — Lieut. W. 
Singleton to be Captain, vice W. Bu- 
chanan, resigned. 

Yorkshire Hussar Yeomanry Cavalry 
(West Riding)— Capt. the Right Hon. 
H. Thynne, Earl of Harewood, to be 
Lieut. Col. Commandant, vice Colonel 
the Earl de Grey, who retires ; Major 
the ltight Hon. B. R. Baron Wenlock, 
to be Lieut. Colonel, vice Sir J. V. B. 
Johnstone, Bart., who retires. 

3rd Surrey Company of Volunteer 
Rifle Corps — Lieut. R. House to be 
Captain. 

1st Surrey Company of Volunteer 
Rifle Corps — A. L. Irvine, Esq., to be 
Ensign. 

Kent Volunteer Rifles, 1st Company 
— E. Scott, Esq., Major Unattached, to 
bo Captain ; W. Moons Esq., to be 
Lieutenant ; L. D. Wigan, gent., to be 
Ensign. 

Royal Wilts— W. B. Pcarse, gent., to 
be Adjutant, from the 8th of July, 1859, 
vice Bellera, resigned. C. C. llurrell, 
gent., late Ensign in Cambridgeshire 
Militia, to be Ensign, vice Ilolmau, pro- 
moted. 

[The foregoing appointment is substi- 
tuted for that which appeared in the 
Ouztttc of the 2:Jrd. Aug. hist. J 

Inverness- shire, \'c., Highland Light 
Infantry— A. H. M'N'ah, Esq., to be 
Lieutenant, vice Cameron, promoted. 

The City of Edinburgh ltifle Volun- 
teer (>>rps — The Lord I'rovost of Ediu- 
Imrgh for the time being to he Honorary 
Colonel ; J. Moncrieii', Esq., M.P., to 
In; Lieut. Colonel : Major I>. Davidson 
to bo Major. To bo Captains — E S. 
Gordon, Esq., J. A. Macrae, Esq., J. 
Anstruther, Esq., A. Dalzell, Esq., J. 
Webster, Esq.,. I.Maitland, Esq., S.Hay, 
Esq., D. McCullum, Esq., J. Gorrie, 
Esq., C. F. Shawl, Esj. To be Lieu- 
tenants—A. T. Boyle, gent., A. W. 
Black, gent., T. G. Murray, gent., D. 
N. Coulson, gent., J. Carment, gent., T. 
G. Dickson, gent., G. M. Tytlei. gent., 
J. Grant, gent., W. Blackwood, gent., 
A. Fullarton, gent. To be Ensigns — F. 
L. M. Hcriot. pent., J. Ballantyne, 
gent., T. Mackenzie, gent., W. Turner, 
gent., D. T. Lees, guilt., .1. Ilowden, 
gent, J. Reid, gent, C. Scott, gent.. It. 
It. Paterson,, gent. To be Surgeon— 
D. Maclagan, M.D. To tic Assistant 
Burgeon— P. H. Watsou, M.D. 



Bedfordshire— John Robert Grayioa, 
Esq., to be Paymaster, May 14, 1858. 

City of Edinburgh Artillery— F. Mur- 
doch, gent, to be Quartermaster mas 
12th July, 1859 ; July 28. 

1 st or Western Norfolk — Adjutant E, 
P. L'Estrange to be Captain. 

2nd or Eastern Norfolk— Major E. 
H. K. Lacon, Bart., to be Lieut Colonel 
vice Mason, resigned ; Captain J. Mar- 
con, to be Major, vice Lacon, promoted, 
Aug. 31. 

Warwickshire— 2nd Regiment— En- 
sign J. S. Rudd, to be Lieutenant, vice 
Miller, resigned Sept. 1. 

2nd King's Own Staffordshire— W. 
B. Powell, gent., to be Ensign, we 
Martin, promoted ,- R. T. Atkins, gait, 
to be Ensign, vice Ripley, resigned, 
Sept. 1. 

Queen's Own Staffordshire Yeomanrj 
Cavalry — G. Lock, Esq., to be Captain, 
vice Alderley, resigned, Aug. 29 ; Corn* 
W. D. Sueyd, to be Lieutenant, nee 
Challinor, resigned ; Earnest A. Wor- 
tlrington,geut.,to be Cornet viceSneyd, 
promoted, Aug. 18 ; F. R. Spry, gent, 
to be Cornet, vice Dickon, resigned, 
Aug. 25. 

2nd Duke of Lancaster's Own— Cap- 
tain E. M. Seel, Lieutenant E. A, 
Lucas, and Ensign E. E. BronuTow, 
having been absent without leave, frcet 
two trainings, to be severally struck of 
the strength of the Regimen- 

VOLUNTEER RIFLE CORPS. 

Ilford— 3rd. W. H Clifton, Esq, •> 
be Lieut. ; P. M. Harvey, to be EaBgn, 
Aug. 27. 

Monmouthshire — 1st Company. — *• 
L. Balwyn, Esq., to lw Captain; J. 
EvaiiB, gent., to be Lieut. ; J. P. Cm* 
rutlxTH. gent., to be Ensign. 

Cheshire— 1st Coni|«ny.— J. CadeB, 
Esq. to l>c Captain ; II. J. Ward, gent 
to Iks Lieut